El entrenamiento 「Radiodifusión digital terrestre」

∼Varias mediciones de radiodifusión digital terrestre∼

24 de
d febrero
f b
d 2010
NHK Engineering Administration Department
Ritsuko Okabe

Factor de deterioración y síntoma de la obstrucción
sobre la Calidad de Señal
Cause of Degradation
Weak signal strength
CN Ratio degradation
Multipath echo
Adjacent channel interference
CW, booster oscillation
Electrical interference



Snowy picture
Patterns on the

Picture break up
or freezing
No reception

Dots, flashes

■In digital broadcasting …
◆ Symptom
y p
is the same,, regardless
of interference type
◆ Rapid image degradation below threshold(Cliff Effect)


Measurement of Digital Terrestrial TV
■RF Measurement
◆ Measurement by spectrum analyzer
◆ Channel power, electric field strength,
waveform, etc.
CNR, signal

■Demodulated Signal Measurement
◆ Measurement by ISDB-T analyzer
◆ BER, MER, constellation, multipath echo,
carrier BER
BER, per-carrier
per carrier MER
BER vs CNR, equivalent noise degradation,
noise mergin etc.

■TS Analysis
◆ Protocol
P t
l measurementt bby TS analyzer

Measurement of Digital Terrestrial TV ■Signal strength Channel power 〔dBmW〕 ■RF signal quality CNR(C i to N CNR(Carrier Noise i R Ratio) i ) ■Demodulated signal quality BER(Bit Error Ratio) MER(Modulation Error Ratio) 4 5 .

Práctica 5 .

(Referencia)Un diagrama del Sistema MPEG RECORDER & Player Sony Tectronix MTX100 Noise Gen OFDM MOD FADING SIMULATER EIDEN 4401A OFDM MODULATOR EIDEN 3501C MIX SG On-Air DIST Digital TV Signal Analyzer ADVANTEST R3466 OFDM DE-MOD (TS) BER ADVANTESTR2312 MPEG DECORDER TV 6 .

Analizador de Señal Digital TV Keys on the Panel (Hard Key) Software menu bar 7 .

JCSAT. BS. NTSC. Spectrum Analyzer FREQ F Frequency setting tti VHF. BER. MULTI PATH. SUPERBIRD 110°CS 110 CS FUNC Function setting POWER. UHF. FIELD STRENGTH. CATV. ISDB-S. CNR. MER. CATV 64QAM. 10 Key y + Unit (Parameter setting) S Start 8 . CS QPSK. BER vs CNR etc.Base de Operación CONFIG Select standard ISDB-T.

Preparación de la Medición 9 .

SETUP setting ◆ISDB-T ◆MEAS mode settingg Mode setting „ ATT setting i „ Pre Amp setting 10 .Preparación de la Medición „ Initialization „ Calibration „ MEAS.

Pre-amp Off 11 .Inicialización MENU Special Preset All Initialize all parameters [Default mode] ISDB-T Channel Power ATT=10dB.

Menu Overview CONFIG FREQ FUNC 12 .

MEAS. SETUP FUNC ¾ISDB-T mode setting g (Default ( Value:3)) ¾Guard Interval setting (Default Value:1/8) Other parameters are set automatically from TMCC GI DATA 10% 30% Measuring Mode setting 50% 70% FFT Window FFT Window FFT Window FFT Window FFT Window 90% 13 .

Auto Range processing is done during measurement to deal with level fluctuations Field Multi-channel transmission under effect of multipath echo h and d other th iinterference t f which prevent measurement in Normal mode Post-Viterbi BER 2E-4(CR 7/8.64QAM) can be measured under following emvironment. Auto Range processing is not done Normal Multi-channel transmission with little effect of multipath echo and other interference. i t -low electric field (40dBµV) -multipath (D/U 0dB) Auto Range g p processing g is done during g measurement .Measurement Modes ISDB-T measurement mode d Usage Environment Features Transmitter Single channel output for transmitter / repeater (signal quality is high and stable). High MER measurement (MER>50dB) Ranging is done only at the start.

Checking Noise Floor Check the noise floor with and without signal input Incorrect Result ATT set to optimum value LEVEL Min ATT On Off Instrument noise floor Signal noise floor ATT set to low value. P Amp A tturned dO Pre On Set to Off Auto Level ATT set automatically by the total input power measurement so there is no mixer distortion Preamp set to On Correct Result Preamp On Off Instrument noise floor Signal noise floor p Auto Level operation is required after setting Pre Amp On or Off .

Medición de "Fuerza de Señal" Medición de la Potencia de Canales 16 .

6MHz Resolution Band Width 30kHz Video Band Width 300kHz Detection Mode Sample Averaging 30times 17 .Medición de la Potencia de Canales ■Channel Power Mesurement ◆Total power measurement in the band ◆Able to measure accurate power of the signal which has in in-band band amplitude dispersion by multipath echo Parameter of Spectrum Analyzer Parameter Band Width 5.

142856MHz offset) ③ [Span]→10MHz ④ [BW]→RBW→Man→30kHz.dBm) 18 .6MHz ⑨ Under U d S Screen C= C dB dBm(RMS) (RMS) (Unit change :LEVEL→Units→dBu. VBW→Man→300kHz ⑤ [SWEEP]→Man→100ms ⑥ LEVEL→ to Screen Center ⑦ [FUNC]→Channel [FUNC] Cha el Po Power→Window=on e Wi do =o ⑧ Window Width→5.142856MHz [Center]→557 142856MHz (UHF27ch+0.Medición de la Potencia de Canales (13Seg) [Entrenando-1] [E t d 1] Measurement of 13 Segment Channel Power by Spectrum Analyzer Mode ① [CONFIG]→ Spectrum Analyzer ② [Center]→557.

Medición de la Potencia de Canales (13Seg) 19 .

14dB (=10log(1/13)) 20 .6MHz band → flat ・1seg Power=13seg Power – 11.Medición de la Potencia de Canales (1Seg) ■Channel Power measurement ・Spectrum Analyzer mode ・FUNC Channel Power→Window ・FUNC→Channel Power Window Width=429kHz ■Equivalent from 13segment Channel Power value ・characteristics in 5.

142856MHz (UHF27ch+0 142856MHz offset) (UHF27ch+0.142856MHz ③ [Span]→1MHz ④ [BW]→RBW→Man→30kHz.VBW→Man→300kHz [BW]→RBW→Man→30kHz VBW→Man→300kHz ⑤ [SWEEP]→Man→100ms ⑥ [FUNC]→Channel Power → Window=on ⑦ Window Width→429kHz ⑧ Under Screen C= dBm(RMS) 21 .Medición de la Potencia de Canales (1Seg) [Entrenando-1] Measurement of 1Segment Channel Power by Spectrum Analyzer Mode ① [CONFIG]→Spectrum Analyzer ② [Center]→557.

Medición de la Potencia de Canales (1Seg)


Intensidad del campo eléctrico


Indicacion de la Intensidad del campo eléctrico

Channel, Center freq.
St d d Ch P

Bar Graph
read “average” value


Medida de "Calidad de signo" Medición la Tasa de CN 25 .

57MHz) Average Carrier level:Crms[V] Average Noise level :Nrms [V] CN = Crms−N Nrms [dB] 【dB(V)=20log10 (V)】 26 .Definición de CNR ■The Ratio of carrier Power to the Noise power in OFDM band width(5.

Mesurment Frequency =561MHz . Mesurment Frequency =562MHz. Mesurment Frequency =551MHz .RETURN Noise F3= on on. RETURN ④ Average Times = 10→ENTER ⑤ Noise Correction→On ・Tokyo Tokyo ISDB ISDB-T-channel T channel 18ch(MHz)∼28ch(MHz) 27 .RETURN RETURN Noise F4= on. Noise F2= on.Medición la Tasa de CN [Entrenando-2]CNR mesurement ① CONFIG→ISDB-T→CNR ② FREQ→Channel→27 (1/7MHz offset :ISDB-T mode) ③ FUNC→Noise (Out of Band) Noise F1=550MHz .

Resultado de la Medición de CNR 28 .

Medicion de “Tasa del Error de señal" Medición de BER (BER: Bit Error Rate) 29 .

which is the ratio of error bits to the total bits in the demodulated 0 and 1 digital signal. which is virtually error free. Wh the When th carrier i modulation d l ti scheme h is i 64QAM. the BER is measured before and after inner code (convolution) correction. then it is 1×1011 or less after RS decoding (outer code correction). In digital broadcasting. (Transmitter and receiver parts relevant to signal quality) ( (Transmitter) ) Video&Audio MPEG encoding OFDM signal (UHF signal) Tuner Error corrected outer code inner code Multiplexing (Receiver) A/ D BER is usually measured after Viterbi-decoding 通常は内符号訂正後(RS復号前)のBERを測定する (Required BER is 2x10-4 at -4the point ) ※このとき、所要BERは2×10 となる Digital MOD OFDM Signal transmission OFDM signal (UHF signal) Error correction Viterbi d di decoding RS decoding BER measurement Demodulated Vid &A Video &Audio di output 30 . so image quality is evaluated by the bit error rate (BER) (BER). 64QAM if the th BER iis 1 1×10 10-22 or less before or 2×10-4 or less after inner code correction. it is difficult to do the kind of image quality evaluation done in analog broadcasting. and good reception is possible.Bit Error Rate Measurement Methods ■ In digital broadcasting.

Medición de BER (1) PRBS measurement ( (PRBS:Pseudo Random Binary Sequence)) Measuring with BER counter (2) Sync+PRBS measurement (3) NULL Packet measurement Pre-Viterbi RF input SAW Filter A/D Quadrature demod FFT/ sync Detector DeViterbi interleav decoding e Post-Viterbi Post-RS TS Regenerate RS decoding TSP output t t Pre-RS 31 .

Bits medidos 184 byte Payload (Null) Mostreo de paqute nulo Medicion de la tasa de error comparativo de bit 16 byte Dummy PID FFF PID=1FFF 32 . Bits erroneos No.Método de Mediciõn de Null Paket ■Null Packet measurement MPEG TS OFDM mod Con el ajuste de tasa se introduce el paquete nulo y se dispersan de energia e i t l interleave Null Packet 4 byte Header Via de transmision BER= OFDM TS demod No.

Medición de BER [Entrenando-3] BER mesurement ■[3 ]O ■[3-1]On-Air ssignal g a ① CONFIG→ISDT-T→FREQ→Channel→27 ② FUNC→BER→BER Type→Null ③ Packet → Display =BER ④ Measurement Time=3sec ■[3-2]SG signal (C/N=20.1dB) 33 .

Resultado de la Medición de BER ■Measuring On-Air signal 34 .

1dB) 35 .Resultado de la Medición de BER ■Measuring SG OutPut (C/N=20.

CNR vs BER Curve Post-Viterbi Layer A Layer B 36 .

3 22.5 18.1) 16QAM 11.6 (7.0 37 .9 6.2) 64QAM 16.5 (14.5) (8.5) (9.Tasa de CN necesaria de cada esquema de la transmisión Carrier modulation Convolutional Coding Rate 1/2 2/3 3/4 5/6 単位:[dB] 7/8 QPSK 4.6) (16.6) (15.1 21.5 13.7 20.

Medición de “Tasa del Error de Señal" Medición de MER (MER: Modulation Error Ratio) 38 .

MER is defined as p shown below.Definición de MER ■Modulation error ratio (MER) MER is the power ratio of the vectors extending from the ideal symbol positions of a constellation (ideal ( constellation points)) to the received symbol positions (symbol error vectors) converted to power values to the ideal constellation. received symbol 理想コンスタレーション 受信シンボル Ideal constellation point ポイント symbol error vector ベクトル誤差 δQ Q δI I Ideal constellation vector 理想シンボルベクトル N MER[dB] = 10 × log10 ∑ (I k =1 2 k + Qk2 ) N 2 2 ( δ I + δ Q ∑ k k ) k =1 39 .

this graph can be used for direct MER−CN conversion 40 . MER[dB] 40 Non-linearity due to d demodulation d l ti error Linear region 30 20 20 Non-linearity due to the measurement system noise floor 30 40 50 CN[dB] In the linear region.Gráfica de Correlación MER−CN (Example) ■The constant correlation between MER and and CN ratio means that knowing the relationship of MER and CN ratio allows estimation of the CN ratio and BER from the MER.

TMCC.A.Medición de MER [Entrenando-4] MER measurement ■[4-1]On-Air signal ① CONFIG→ISDT-T→FREQ→Channel→27 ② FUNC→More2/2→MER CONSTELLATION ③ Layer→All.AC ■[4-2]add SG Noise (Reference) ① FUNC→More2/2→MER vs SEGMENT ② FUNC→More2/2→MER vs CARRIER 41 .B.

Resultado de la Medición de MER ■On Air signal Layer A Layer B 42 .

Resultado de la Medición de MER ■add SG Noise Layer A Layer B 43 .

Medición de “Tasa del Error de Señal" Medición de multipass 44 .

Principio de multipass Undesired echo Desired wave Transmitter (On-Air) Scattered Pilot synthesized signal Delay Profile Corelation Operating Receiver Delay time DU ratio ti 45 .

5μs ΔL (dB) ⎛ ∆20L ⎞ ⎜ 10 + 1 ⎟ DU [[dB]] = 20 log g10 ⎜ ∆L ⎜ 20 ⎝ 10 − 1 ⎠ D− −U U 1MHz 5dB Frequency (MHz) 周波数(MHz) 46 .Effect of multipath propagation on terrestrial digital broadcast ■ Multipath and ripple The signal delay introduced by a multipath environment in terrestrial digital broadcasting creates in-band deviation (ripple) in the amplitude frequency characteristic waveform and BER is i degraded. d d d The multipath DU ratio and and the amplitude frequency characteristic wave form ripple are related as follows. ■Relation of delay time τ and ripple amplitude ∆L 1 τ D+ +U U level (dB) レベル D/U=3dB τ=0.

142856MHz (UHF 27ch+0. VBW→Man→300kHz ⑤ SWEEP → Man → 100ms ⑥ LEVEL → to Screen Center ⑦ TRACE → Max Hold ⑧ MKR → PEAK → Delta Marker → Next PEAK → Read MKR∆ ⑨ Delay D l Time Ti = 1/[MKR∆] = ( )MHz )MH = ( ) µs ⑩ Read D/U on screen ( dB) 47 .142856MHz offset) ④ Span→10MHz. S 0MH BW BW→RBW→Man→30kHz RBW M 30kH .Medición de multipass [Entrenando 5-1] Multipath measuring by Spectrum Analyzer mode ① Shift + PRESET ② CONFIG → Spectrum Analyzer ③ Center→557.

Resultado de la Medición de multipass ■La medida de multipass por modo de analizador de Espectro ⎛ ∆20L ⎞ ⎜ 10 + 1 DU [dB] = 20 log10 ⎜ ∆L ⎟ ⎜ 10 20 − 1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 1 τ D +U ΔL D −U 48 .

– IFFT: Inverse FFT h(t)=IFFT(H(ω)) . ω: angular frequency – H(ω)=R(ω) / S(ω) • By applying the inverse Fourier transform to H(ω). and pphase are known in advance are embedded in the OFDM signal g – CP: Continuous pilot – SP: Scattered pilot • The received Th i d CP and d SP are di divided id d bby th the ttransmitted itt d CP andd SP (known) (k ) for each carrier and the transmission path frequency characteristic can be estimated by interpolation.Delay Profile Measurement Principle • The CP and SP of the signal whose amplitude and frequency (carrier number). bt i d – H(ω): Estimated transmission path frequency characteristic • The signal that has maximum amplitude in the delay profile is taken as the desired signal. ). the delay profile is obtained.

Window Width=10µs MKR → Marker 2 =On → Read MKR(2) ※MKR(1):Desired wave 50 .Measurement of Delay Profile [Entrenando 5-2] Multipath measuring by Delay Profile mode ① CONFIG→ISDT-T→FREQ→Channel→27 ② FUNC→MULTI PATH →Desired Wave Position=25% ③ Smoothing=on ④ Zoom=on.

Resultado de la Medición de multipass 51 .

N i Equivalent Noise Degradation. Degradation Noise Mergin 52 .Medición de “Tasa del Error de Señal" Equivalent E i l t Carrier C i to t Noise.

using the amount of equivalent CN ratio degradation obtained from th diff the difference off th the CN ratio ti ffor which hi h produces d Gaussian noise (ideal characteristic) that corresponds to the required BER and the CN ratio of the transmission path characteristics. ECN & Noise Margin ■ Equivalent E i l t CN ratio ti (ECN) is the value of the degradation of various transmission equipment and transmission path characteristics converted to Gaussian noise. 53 . ■Can be obtained with the following equation.END.

ECN & Noise Margin 64QAM encoding rate=3/4 Noise Margin END Required BER 2×10-4 Transmission path characteristic Ideal characteristic 20.1/10 − 10 − CN a /10 ) Measured CNR CNR[dB] 54 .BE ER END.1 No Noise addition CNa ECN = −10 × log10 (10 −20.

END vs ECN 8 7 END D (dB) 6 5 4 3 Measurement limit approx. 37dB 2 1 0 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 ECN (dB) 55 .

Noise F4=562MHz ⑦ Noise Correction→On ⑧ Layer = B ⑨ Noise Add Mode = Exc 56 . Noise F3=561MHz . N Noise i F2 F2= 55 551MHz MH .Medición de END、 Proporción de CN equivalente 、 Margen del ruido [ Entrenando -6]Equivalent CN analysys ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ CONFIG→ISDT-T→FREQ→Channel→27 FUNC→More2/2→BER vs CNR CURVE Step CNR=0.5dB Measuerment Time=1sec Reference BER=2E-4 CNR Step→Noise (out-band) Noise N i F1=550MHz F 550MH .

Equivalent C/N、END、NM measurement END BER vs C/N Measure automatically Required C/N(20.1dB) C/N(20 1dB) Reference Curve 57 .

84)-END(3.D/U=6dB 58 .1dB (例)NM(NM=2.50)-20.τ=0.35)=20.τ=0.Resultado de la Medición(1) (例)C/N(25.44)-END(1.1 C/N=25dB.D/U=10dB C/N=35dB.5µsec.24)=C/N(25.89)-NM(4.5µsec.

5µsec.D/U=10dB C/N=35dB.5µsec.D/U=10dB 59 .τ=0.τ=0.Resultado de la Medición(2) C/N=25dB.

Referencia 60 .

Bandwidth 〔kHz〕 Spacing between carrier i frequencies f i 〔kHz〕 〔 〕 Number of carriers Carrier modulation scheme Guard interval 〔µs〕 IFFT sampling freq〔MHz〕 Mode-3 250 / 63 = 3.12693… 61 .875(1/32) 126(1/4) 63(1/8) 31.Ondas de OFDM y parámetro de la transmisión 13 segment Continual Pilot carrier at the uppermost freq.809 5.5(1/32) 512 / 63 = 8.143MHz) SHIFT 14 segment モード Mode-1 Mode-2 6MHz / 14 = 428..617 16QAM、64QAM、QPSK、DQPSK 63(1/4) 31.57.5(1/16) 15.75(1/32) 252(1/4) 126(1/8) 63(1/16) 31.5(1/8) 15.9841… 125 / 126 = 0.99206… 0 99206 1..405 2. 1/7MHz (≒0.968… 3 968 125 / 63 98 = 1.75(1/16) 7.

14 Outline of a receiving block diagram 62 .6 p.Block Diagram of ISDB-T tuner unit (example) ARIB STD-B21 4.