1.

Ekologi
BANJIR AKIBAT RUSAKNYA DAS
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgmgD5ASoxA
Banjir telah melakukan “kudeta” di ibukota. Akibatnya berbagai aktivitas
Jakarta dan sekitarnya menjadi lumpuh total. Pemerintah tidak berdaya dan hanya bisa
mengharapkan kesabaran dan ketabahan rakyat dalam menghadapi bencana banjir.
Bangsa ini sudah dilanda collective ignorance dan kehilangan kearifan dalam
mengelola DAS. Berbagai undang-undang dan peraturan tentang lingkungan hanya
menjadi macan kertas yang tidak pernah dijalankan secara konsisten. Penegakan
hukum lingkungan yang antara lain mengenai ketentuan tentang sempadan sungai
banyak dilanggar.
Wilayah Jakarta yang dibelah oleh 14 sungai sudah seharusnya membutuhkan
manajemen pengelolaan DAS yang konsisten dan berkelanjutan. Rencana untuk
membangun megaproyek kanalisasi untuk mencegah banjir belum tentu berhasil
membebaskan Jakarta dari sergapan banjir jika masalah sempadan sungai tidak
ditanganai secara tuntas. Begitupun, banjir juga tidak bisa ditangani secara parsial di
wilayah Jakarta saja, tetapi harus menyangkut sepanjang DAS yang melewati propinsi
Jawa Barat dan Banten.
Karena kehancuran ekosistem DAS juga terjadi di daerah hulu. Hampir seluruh DAS
yang ada di propinsi Jawa Barat dan Banten dalam kondisi kritis, terutama DAS
Citarum, Ciliwung. dan Cisadane. Egoisme sektor kedaerahan dan buruknya
koordinasi wilayah menambah parah situasi.
Untuk itulah konsep Megapolitan yang bermaksud memperluas koordinasi teknis dan
integrasi kebijakan pembangunan penyangga ibu kota sebaiknya segera diwujudkan
dengan titik berat kepada aspek lingkungan hidup. Ketidakberdayaan propinsi Jawa
Barat dan Banten untuk menghentikan laju deforestasi di wilayahnya akan berdampak
lebih buruk lagi di waktu mendatang.
Sempadan Sungai
Dibutuhkan tindakan tegas tanpa pandang bulu untuk melindungi dan membenahi
zona sempadan sungai. Sempadan sungai merupakan kawasan sepanjang kiri kanan
sungai, termasuk sungai buatan, kanal, saluran irigasi primer, yang mempunyai
manfaat penting untuk mempertahankan kelestarian fungsi sungai. Perlindungan
terhadap sempadan sungai dilakukan untuk melindungi dari kegiatan yang dapat
mengganggu dan merusak kualitas air sungai, kondisi fisik pinggir dan dasar sungai
serta mengamankan aliran sungai.
Kriteria sempadan sungai terdiri dari: (a) Sekurang-kurangnya 100 meter di kiri-kanan
sungai besar dan 50 meter di kiri- kanan anak sungai yang berada di luar pemukiman.
Sesuai dengan PP No 35 Tahun 1991 tentang Sungai. (b) Untuk sungai di kawasan
pemukiman lebar sempadan sungai seharusnya cukup untuk membangun jalan

Kerusakan DAS selama ini kurang ditangani secara serius. Saat ini pemerintah boleh dibilang telah gagal menyeimbangkan keberadaan lahan basah untuk tetap terjaga dan tidak dialihkan fungsinya guna mengurangi bencana banjir dan tanah longsor. sehingga membahayakan. air sungai. zat atau bahan beracun maupun energi lainnya. Zonasi itu diterapkan berdasarkan kekuatan air sungai dan air pasang. Ekosistem lahan basah sesungguhnya berperan penting dalam mengatur keseimbangan hidup setiap ekosistem darat di hulu dan sekitarnya serta setiap ekosistem kelautan di hilirnya. Zonasi terhadap Kepmeneg Lingkungan Hidup tentang lahan basah seharusnya diterapkan secara konsisten. Secara teori ekologis. secara telanjang rakyat sering disuguhi oleh inkonsistensi pemerintah dalam mengelola lingkungan hidup. Ada beberapa hal penting yang perlu diingat sehubungan dengan ekosistem lahan basah. kerusakan sempadan sungai juga disebabkan oleh aspek land tenure (penguasaan lahan). Untuk itulah kewajiban pemerintah untuk mendefinisikan secara tegas dan tanpa pandang bulu tentang zonasi yang ideal dari lahan basah. baik yang bersifat hara mineral. dan air laut) pada bentang lahan itu. air sungai. banjir di ibu kota yang sudah menjadi tradisi itu mestinya bisa ditanggulangi secara teknis geologis dan reklamasi lingkungan yang disertai dengan gerakan budaya mengelola DAS secara arif. Ekosistem lahan basah sesungguhnya memiliki potensi alami yang sangat peka terhadap setiap sentuhan pembangunan yang merubah pengaruh perilaku air (hujan. Ekosistem lahan basah sesungguhnya memiliki potensi alami yang sangat peka terhadap setiap sentuhan pembangunan yang merubah pengaruh perilaku air (hujan. Selain penegakan hukum yang lemah. kawasan yang harus dijaga dan dipertahankan fungsinya meliputi: Kawasan Resapan Air. Banjir merupakan hukum karma akibat lemahnya penegakan hukum lingkungan. Antara lain. Proyek semacam itu kurang efektif untuk menanggulangi bencana banjir atau kekeringan jika tidak disertai dengan reklamasi total jalur sempadan sungai yang disertai dengan gerakan budaya dan terapi psikososial. Hanya dibenahi ala kadarnya saja. dan air laut) pada bentang lahan itu. seperti dalam bentuk proyek pengerukan yang menelan dana milyaran rupiah. Zonasi Lahan Basah Padahal. yaitu daerah yang mempunyai kemampuan tinggi untuk meresapkan air hujan sehingga merupakan akifer (tempat pengisian air bumi) yang . Ekosistem lahan basah bersifat terbuka untuk menerima dan meneruskan setiap material (slurry ) yang terbawa sebagai kandungan air. Namun. Sesuai dengan PP No 35 Tahun1991. Akibat lemahnya penegakan hukum terjadilah kerusakan fungsi ekologis lahan basah yang berdampak erosi genetik dan penurunan potensi. Aspek tersebut banyak melanggar Amdal untuk kegiatan pembangunan di daerah lahan basah.inspeksi yaitu antara 10 sampai dengan 15 meter.

berguna sebagai sumber air.youtube. Penulis adalah Pemerhati Psikososial dan Kebijakan Lingkungan Hidup Kesimpulan: Sumber: http://psda. The majority of human uses require fresh water. . industrial. Fresh water is a renewable resource. Uses of water include agricultural. yang mempunyai manfaat penting untuk mempertahankan kelestarian fungsi sungai.com/watch?v=r7aPF29ZJks Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. struktur tanah yang mudah meresapkan air dan bentuk geomorfologi yang mampu mere-sapkan air hujan secara besar-besaran.jatengprov. adalah kawasan tertentu di sekeliling danau atau waduk yang mempunyai manfaat penting untuk mempertahankan kelestarian fungsinya. with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air. yaitu kawasan sepanjang kiri kanan sungai. adalah kawasan tertentu sepanjang pantai yang mempunyai manfaat penting untuk mempertahankan dan melindungi kelestarian fungsi pantai dari gangguan berbagai kegiatan dan proses alam. Sempadan Pantai. yet the world's supply of groundwater is steadily decreasing. slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. Kawasan Pantai Berhutan Bakau. household. termasuk sungai buatan. Perlindungan terhadap kawasan resapan air dilakukan untuk memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi peresapan air hujan pada daerah tertentu untuk keperluan penyediaan kebutuhan kawasan yang bersangkutan. recreational and environmental activities. kondisi fisik pinggir dan dasar sungai serta mengamankan aliran sungai. kanal.html 2. yaitu kawasan pesisir laut yang merupakan habitat alami hutan bakau (mangrove) yang berfungsi memberi perlindungan kepada perikehidupan pantai dan lautan. with depletion occurring most prominently in Asia and North America. saluran irigasi primer.go. Sempadan Sungai. Kriteria kawasan resapan air adalah curah hujan yang tinggi. Perlindungan terhadap sempadan sungai dilakukan untuk melindungi dari kegiatan manusia yang dapat mengganggu dan merusak kualitas air sungai. Kawasan Sekitar Danau atau Waduk. Natural Resources Conservation of Natural Resources: Water Resources http://www.id/berita/2007/februari/060207-03.[1] The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater. 97 percent of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three percent is fresh water.

Other users have a continuous need for water. and no water at all in the winter. over the long term the average rate of precipitation within a watershed is the upper bound for average consumption of natural surface water from that watershed. the total volume of water transported downstream will often be a combination of the visible free water flow together with a . and whether ecosystems are threatened. It can also be artificially augmented from any of the other sources listed here. For example. however in practice the quantities are negligible. The framework for allocating water resources to water users (where such a framework exists) is known as water rights. Brazil is the country estimated to have the largest supply of fresh water in the world. Some human water users have an intermittent need for water. Humans often increase storage capacity by constructing reservoirs and decrease it by draining wetlands. a surface water system may require a large storage capacity to collect water throughout the year and release it in a short period of time. Nevertheless. Although the only natural input to any surface water system is precipitation within its watershed. Sources of fresh water  Surface water Surface water is water in a river. Humans can also cause surface water to be "lost" (i. Humans often increase runoff quantities and velocities by paving areas and channelizing stream flow. wetlands and artificial reservoirs.e. the permeability of the soil beneath these storage bodies. such as a power plant that requires water for cooling. lake or fresh water wetland. evapotranspiration and sub-surface seepage. many farms require large quantities of water in the spring. To supply such a farm with water.  Under river flow Throughout the course of a river. a surface water system only needs enough storage capacity to fill in when average stream flow is below the power plant's need. Natural surface water can be augmented by importing surface water from another watershed through a canal or pipeline. All of these factors also affect the proportions of water loss. These factors include storage capacity in lakes. evaporation. Human activities can have a large and sometimes devastating impact on these factors. the total quantity of water in that system at any given time is also dependent on many other factors. Surface water is naturally replenished by precipitation and naturally lost through discharge to the oceans.although it is still unclear how much natural renewal balances this usage. A. The total quantity of water available at any given time is an important consideration. the runoff characteristics of the land in the watershed. the timing of the precipitation and local evaporation rates. followed by Russia and Canada. To supply such a power plant with water. become unusable) through pollution.

contain some of the most extensive and rough high altitude areas on Earth as well as the greatest area of glaciers and permafrost outside of the poles. If the surface water source is also subject to substantial evaporation.  Ground water Sub-surface water.  Desalination Desalination is an artificial process by which saline water (generally sea water) is converted to fresh water. Ten of Asia’s largest rivers flow from there. It is only economically practical for high-valued uses (such as household and industrial uses) in arid areas. become unusable) through pollution. or artificially under irrigated farmland. This difference makes it easy for humans to use sub-surface water unsustainably for a long time without severe consequences. Desalination is currently expensive compared to most alternative sources of water. In coastal areas.e. Sometimes it is useful to make a distinction between sub-surface water that is closely associated with surface water and deep sub-surface water in an aquifer (sometimes called "fossil water"). is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. Humans can increase the input to a sub-surface water source by building reservoirs or detention ponds. Nevertheless. or groundwater. The Himalayas. a sub-surface water source may become saline. outputs and storage. The most common desalination processes are distillation and reverse osmosis. The natural input to sub-surface water is seepage from surface water. The natural outputs from sub-surface water are springs and seepage to the oceans. and more than a billion people’s livelihoods . however to date this has only been done for novelty purposes. and only a very small fraction of total human use is satisfied by desalination. this unseen component of flow may greatly exceed the visible flow. This is especially significant in karst areas where pot-holes and underground rivers are common. subsurface water storage is generally much larger compared to inputs than it is for surface water. The most extensive use is in the Persian Gulf. The hyporheic zone often forms a dynamic interface between surface water and true ground-water receiving water from the ground water when aquifers are fully charged and contributing water to ground-water when ground waters are depleted. human use of a sub-surface water source may cause the direction of seepage to ocean to reverse which can also cause soil salinization.substantial contribution flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain called the hyporheic zone. The critical difference is that due to its slow rate of turnover. Sub-surface water can be thought of in the same terms as surface water: inputs. This situation can occur naturally under endorheic bodies of water. over the long term the average rate of seepage above a sub-surface water source is the upper bound for average consumption of water from that source.  Frozen water Several schemes have been proposed to make use of icebergs as a water source. It is also water that is flowing within aquifers below the water table. Glacier runoff is considered to be surface water. which are often called "The Roof of the World". Humans can also cause sub-surface water to be "lost" (i. For many rivers in large valleys.

In Nepal the temperature has risen by 0. To avoid a global water crisis.[7] This is a considerable amount.depend on them. their consumption of water-thirsty meat and vegetables is rising. The report found that it would be possible to produce the food required in future. so less water was needed to produce their food. farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food. more than 1. People were not as wealthy as today. urbanisation biofuel crops. A further 1. consumed fewer calories and ate less meat. choosing to eat fewer cereals and more meat and vegetables could add an additional five million kilometres to the virtual canal mentioned above. 100 metres wide and 2100 kilometres long.3 billion people. At this time. An assessment of water management in agriculture sector was conducted in 2007 by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population. but that continuation of today's food production and environmental trends would lead to crises in many parts of the world.7 degrees Celsius over the last hundred years.3.[6] It takes around 2. even more water will be needed to produce food because the Earth's population is forecast to rise to 9 billion by 2050. It found that a fifth of the world's people. the competition for water resources is much more intense.[8] An additional 2. Various irrigation methods involve different trade-offs between crop yield. Today. which is more than 2. when compared to that required for drinking. which is between two and five litres. This is because there are now seven billion people on the planet.[9] It assessed the current availability of water for agriculture on a global scale and mapped out locations suffering from water scarcity.000 . while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently. in other areas it permits more profitable crops to be grown or enhances crop yield. and water reliant food items.6 billion people live in areas experiencing economic water scarcity. To complicate matters. One third of the worlds population does not have access to clean drinking water. there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. and there is increasing competition for water from industry. with 15-35% of irrigation withdrawals being unsustainable.2 billion. irrigation is necessary to grow any crop at all. where the lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity make it impossible for authorities to satisfy the demand for water.5 or 3 billion people. live in areas of physical water scarcity. temperatures are rising more rapidly here than the global average. In some areas of the world. the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. whereas globally. Water uses  Agricultural It is estimated that 70% of worldwide water use is for irrigation. where there is not enough water to meet all demands. the Earth has warmed approximately 0.6 degrees Celsius over the last decade. water consumption . They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. To produce food for the now over 7 billion people who inhabit the planet today requires the water that would fill a canal ten metres deep.  Increasing water scarcity Around fifty years ago. In future.000 litres of water to produce enough food to satisfy one person's daily dietary need. B.

It is also used in the cooling of machinery to . Significantly. and as demand for food increases in a world with a fixed water supply. thermoelectric power plants. is relatively safe. and water monitoring. Any system that is improperly managed can be wasteful. because much of the water evaporates. which use water for cooling. renewable energy source. Other irrigation methods considered to be more efficient include drip or trickle irrigation. creating water withdrawal. appropriate irrigation timing and management. all methods have the potential for high efficiencies under suitable conditions. Some issues that are often insufficiently considered are salinization of sub-surface water and contaminant accumulation leading to water quality declines.and capital cost of equipment and structures. which condenses as rain in higher altitudes and flows downhill. while more expensive. Heat from the sun evaporates water. Ultimately. driving a turbine connected to a generator. resulting in much higher water consumption. Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants also exist. Water withdrawal can be very high for certain industries. Hydroelectric power derives energy from the force of water flowing downhill. Irrigation methods such as furrow and overhead sprinkler irrigation are usually less expensive but are also typically less efficient. crop types. very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. but consumption is generally much lower than that of agriculture. runs off or drains below the root zone. through improvements in irrigation[11] methods[12] and technologies. non-polluting. which use water as a solvent. and is not harmful to the environment. Evaporation from this lake is higher than evaporation from a river due to the larger surface area exposed to the elements. Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. and some types of sprinkler systems where the sprinklers are operated near ground level. As global populations grow. there are efforts under way to learn how to produce more food with less water. hydroelectric power can also be used for load following unlike most renewable energy sources which are intermittent. and use the stored water to produce electricity when demand is high. These types of systems. which use water in chemical processes. the energy in a hydroelectric powerplant is supplied by the sun. which use grid electricity to pump water uphill when demand is low. The process of driving water through the turbine and tunnels or pipes also briefly removes this water from the natural environment.[6] Major industrial users include hydroelectric dams. Hydroelectric power plants generally require the creation of a large artificial lake. surge irrigation. Also. and manufacturing plants. The impact of this withdrawal on wildlife varies greatly depending on the design of the powerplant. but have generally been assigned a lower priority than irrigation (see Aral Sea and Pyramid Lake). usually offer greater potential to minimize runoff. Freshwater commercial fisheries may also be considered as agricultural uses of water. This hydroelectricity is a low-cost. agricultural water management. It works very well. drainage and evaporation. ore and oil refineries. Water is used in renewable power generation.  Industrial It is estimated that 22% of worldwide water is used in industry. Aquaculture is a small but growing agricultural use of water.

Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. fertilizer production and other chemical plant use. This is largely due to the unavailability of reliable data. however. the actual statistical effect of this reassignment is close to zero. then the water retained could be categorized as recreational usage. including the Californian Government. as most of the withdrawn water is evaporated as part of the cooling process. bathing. Additionally. Drinking water is water that is of sufficiently high quality so that it can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long term harm. an organized lobby has been established in the form of the Golf Industry Association. Water is also used in many large scale industrial processes. The withdrawal.[6] These include drinking water. In most developed countries. commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. It is. Thermoelectric powerplants using cooling towers have high consumption. and gardening. However. Release of water from a few reservoirs is also timed to enhance whitewater boating. especially in drier regions. . nearly equal to their withdrawal. and natural gas extraction from shale rock. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and increased water temperature (thermal pollution). water skiers. due to laws requiring industrial grey water to be treated and returned to the environment. unclear whether recreational irrigation (which would include private gardens) has a noticeable effect on water resources. either from natural freshwater or from municipal grey water. Golf courses are often targeted as using excessive amounts of water. however. is lower than in once-through cooling systems. the water supplied to households. such as thermoelectric power production.prevent overheating. Basic household water requirements have been estimated by Peter Gleick at around 50 liters per person per day. In Arizona. cooking.  Household It is estimated that 8% of worldwide water use is for household purposes. Recreational water use is mostly tied to reservoirs. excluding water for gardens. Some governments. Other examples are anglers. using the above figures as a basis. many golf courses utilize either primarily or exclusively treated effluent water. Industrial consumption of water is generally much lower than withdrawal. oil refining. Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge. Most of this pure water is generated on site. which also could be considered a recreational usage. or prevent saw blades from overheating. a group focused on educating the public on how golf impacts the environment. nature enthusiasts and swimmers. sanitation.  Recreation Recreational water use is usually a very small but growing percentage of total water use. If a reservoir is kept fuller than it would otherwise be for recreation. have labelled golf course usage as agricultural in order to deflect environmentalists' charges of wasting water. Recreational usage is usually non-consumptive. Such water is commonly called potable water. which has little impact on potable water availability. This is generally a very small source of water consumption relative to other uses.

 Population growth In 2000. In building on the data presented here by the UN. it has been proposed that when annual per capita renewable freshwater availability is less than 1. Nevertheless. industrial or domestic. entailing assumptions about water use and its efficiency. Water stress The concept of water stress is relatively simple: According to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. however. and water releases from reservoirs timed to help fish spawn. This expansion requires increased water services including both supply and sanitation. water release from a reservoir to help fish spawn may not be available to farms upstream. it applies to situations where there is not enough water for all uses. Access to water will need to be balanced with the importance of managing water itself in a sustainable way while taking into account the impact of climate change. the World Bank goes on to explain that access to water for producing food will be one of the main challenges in the decades to come. artificial lakes intended to create wildlife habitat. which can lead to more pressure on water resources and natural ecosystem. and other environmental and social variables.Recreational usage may reduce the availability of water for other users at specific times and places. fish ladders.2 billion. Water released for whitewater rafting may not be available for hydroelectric generation during the time of peak electrical demand.  Environmental Explicit environment water use is also a very small but growing percentage of total water use. whether agricultural. the world population was 6.5 billion people with most of the growth in developing countries that already suffer water stress. For example. water retained in a reservoir to allow boating in the late summer is not available to farmers during the spring planting season. For example. Environmental water usage includes watering of natural or artificial wetlands. water demand will increase unless there are corresponding increases in water conservation and recycling of this vital resource. but more often is water retained in waterways through regulatory limits of abstraction. C. Below 1.700 cubic meters. water scarcity begins to hamper economic development and human health and well-being. The UN estimates that by 2050 there will be an additional 3.000 cubic meters. . and water retained in a river to maintain waterway health would not be available to water abstractors downstream. Thus. countries begin to experience periodic or regular water stress. environmental usage is non-consumptive but may reduce the availability of water for other users at specific times and places. Environmental water may include water stored in impoundments and released for environmental purposes (held environmental water). or to restore more natural flow regimes Like recreational usage.  Expansion of business activity Business activity ranging from industrialization to services such as tourism and entertainment continues to expand rapidly. Defining thresholds for stress in terms of available water per capita is more complex.

Cities that have experienced aquifer drops between 10 to 50 meters include Mexico City. There is now ample evidence that increased hydrologic variability and change in climate has and will continue have a profound impact on the water sector through the hydrologic cycle. India.  Pollution and water protection Water pollution is one of the main concerns of the world today. Even if sewage is treated. this method of sewage disposal is the most common method in underdeveloped countries. basin. This is due both for direct human consumption as well as agricultural irrigation by groundwater.  Depletion of aquifers Due to the expanding human population. and even toxic pollutants are all dumped into the water. Beijing. Treated sewage forms sludge. which may be placed in landfills. and local levels. but also is prevalent in quasi-developed countries such as China. Even if some water remains available. Nepal and India is supplied by groundwater. sludge. water demand. and water allocation at the global.000 people. Bangkok. is the discharge of raw sewage into natural waters.[21] In addition to . Overall. Manila. competition for water is growing such that many of the worlds major aquifers are becoming depleted. water availability. The governments of numerous countries have striven to find solutions to reduce this problem. it costs more and more to capture it. Climate change could also mean an increase in demand for farm irrigation. the global supply of freshwater will increase. Millions of pumps of all sizes are currently extracting groundwater throughout the world. Small private wells and septic tanks that work well in low-density communities are not feasible within high-density urban areas. groundwater is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished. incinerated or dumped at sea. and perhaps even swimming pools. Urbanization requires significant investment in water infrastructure in order to deliver water to individuals and to process the concentrations of wastewater – both from individuals and from business. and is being extracted at an unsustainable rate.  Climate change Climate change could have significant impacts on water resources around the world because of the close connections between the climate and hydrological cycle. spread out on land. problems still arise. but the most widespread. regional. Nepal and Iran. Many pollutants threaten water supplies. Rising temperatures will increase evaporation and lead to increases in precipitation. Possible impacts include increased eutrophication. Sewage. though there will be regional variations in rainfall. Madras and Shanghai. These polluted and contaminated waters must be treated or they pose unacceptable public health risks. Higher temperatures will also affect water quality in ways that are not well understood. Irrigation in dry areas such as northern China. Both droughts and floods may become more frequent in different regions at different times. especially in developing countries. and dramatic changes in snowfall and snow melt are expected in mountainous areas. garbage. In 60% of European cities with more than 100. garden sprinklers. Rapid urbanization The trend towards urbanization is accelerating.

As population and development increase. in the downstream areas of distressed river basins. obstructing economic development. food production. for example. and military threats by Egypt against any country building dams in the upstream waters of the Nile. Tensions arise most often within national borders. Water stress has most often led to conflicts at local and regional levels. nonpoint source pollution such as agricultural runoff is a significant source of pollution in some parts of the world. who in 2001 said. in the rest of the world’s approximately 300 shared basins the .  Shared water resources can promote collaboration Water resources that span international boundaries. “Fierce competition for fresh water may well become a source of conflict and wars in the future. while others have such low precipitations that human life is almost impossible. Several areas of the world are flooded. as it happens with others outside the region. Their findings show that. Approximately 10% of the worldwide annual runoff is used for human necessities.  Water and conflicts Competition for water has widely increased. Water administration is frequently involved in contradictory and complex problems. raising water demand.” and the former Vice President of the World Bank. academics and journalists have frequently predicted that disputes over water would be a source of future wars. are more likely to be a source of collaboration and cooperation. The only known example of an actual inter-state conflict over water took place between 2500 and 2350 BC between the Sumerian states of Lagash and Umma. while some links made between conflict and water were valid. not politics”. who forecast. his successor at the UN. Commonly cited quotes include: that of former Egyptian Foreign Minister and former SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations Boutrous Ghali. These particular rivers became the focus because they had experienced water-related disputes. along with urban stormwater runoff and chemical wastes dumped by industries and governments. Kofi Annan. than war. they did not necessarily represent the norm. while it is true there has been conflict related to water in a handful of international basins. and it has become more difficult to conciliate the necessities for water supply for human consumption. have been investigating the evidence behind water war predictions. who said the wars of the next century will be over water unless significant changes in governance occurred. have already been experiencing water stress for several years.sewage. the possibility of problems inside a certain country or region increases. in partnership with Aaron Wolf at Oregon State University. The water wars hypothesis had its roots in earlier research carried out on a small number of transboundary rivers such as the Indus. Specific events cited as evidence include Israel’s bombing of Syria’s attempts to divert the Jordan’s headwaters. “The next war in the Middle East will be fought over water. However. Areas such as the lower regions of China's Yellow River or the Chao Phraya River in Thailand. Over the past 25 years. and exacerbating larger conflicts. Scientists working at the International Water Management Institute. Gradual reductions over time in the quality and/or quantity of fresh water can add to the instability of a region by depleting the health of a population. Jordan and Nile. politicians. ecosystems and other uses. Water stress can also exacerbate conflicts and political tensions which are not directly caused by water. Ismail Serageldin.

4 out of every 10 people live without improved sanitation. such as the Middle East.[6] At Earth Summit 2002 governments approved a Plan of Action to:  Halve by 2015 the proportion of people unable to reach or afford safe drinking water. such as a protected well or public standpipe. By 2025. plot or yard). It also covers how the effectiveness of such institutions can be monitored. One chapter covers the functions of transboundary institutions and how they can be designed to promote cooperation. water shortages will be more prevalent among poorer countries where resources are limited and population growth is rapid. overcome initial disputes and find ways of coping with the uncertainty created by climate change. but more importantly their populations will be better aligned with available water resources. be one of the most important factors in ensuring cooperation rather than conflict. The Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report (GWSSAR) defines "Reasonable access" to water as at least 20 liters per person per day from a source within one kilometer of the user’s home. South Africa and northern China will face very severe water shortages due to physical scarcity and a condition of overpopulation relative to their carrying capacity with respect to water .record has been largely positive. However. and parts of Asia. World water supply and distribution Food and water are two basic human needs.  In addition. The GWSSR defines "Basic sanitation" as private or shared but not public disposal systems that separate waste from human contact. This suggests growing conflicts with agricultural water users. the Middle East. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) published the book Share: Managing water across boundaries. This is exemplified by the hundreds of treaties in place guiding equitable water use between nations sharing water resources. Generally speaking the more developed countries of North America. In 2025. of every 10 people:  roughly 5 have a connection to a piped water supply at home (in their dwelling.  Halve the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation. global coverage figures from 2002 indicate that. D. Europe and Russia will not see a serious threat to water supply by the year 2025. North Africa.  2 are unserved. large urban and peri-urban areas will require new infrastructure to provide safe water and adequate sanitation. Africa.  3 make use of some other sort of improved water supply. who currently consume the majority of the water used by humans. The institutions created by these agreements can. in fact. not only because of their relative wealth.

Akibatnya berbagai aktivitas Jakarta dan sekitarnya menjadi lumpuh total. The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30 percent in 1970 to 71 percent in 1990. Economic considerations Water supply and sanitation require a huge amount of capital investment in infrastructure such as pipe networks. It is estimated that Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations need to invest at least USD 200 billion per year to replace aging water infrastructure to guarantee supply. International attention has focused upon the needs of the developing countries. current annual investment on the order of USD 10 to USD 15 billion would need to be roughly doubled. operating water supply and sanitation systems entails significant ongoing costs to cover personnel. bermaksud untuk memodifikasikan atau mentransformasikan distribusi kemungkinan aliran air ini ke dalam pohyang lebih bermanfaat bagi kebutuhan manusia.wikipedia. karena mereka mempengaruhi peresapan dan penguapan air. Sumberdaya air bervariasi secara luas dari daerah ke daerah. reduce leakage rates and protect water quality. E. as well as excessive population growth. didasarkan atas distribusi kemungkinan. energy. 79 percent in 2000 and 84 percent in 2004. Sub-Saharan Africa. adalah suatu studi tentang proses bagaimana manusia mengambil keputusan. Pemasokan air tergantung pada topografi dan kondisi meteorologi. Ekonomi sumberdaya air. sehingga sumberdaya air yang langka dapat . Southern China and India will face water supply shortages by 2025. artinya ia diatur oleh proses fisik yang berdistribusi kemungkinan (ranttom). maintenance and other expenses.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990. Once infrastructure is in place. pumping stations and water treatment works. Salah satu sifat penting air ialah stokastik. public funds or some combination of the two. Air sebagai sumberdaya alam dapat berupa persediaan dan sekaligus sebagai aliran.org/wiki/Water_resources Banjir telah melakukan "kudeta" di ibukota. Sumber: http://en. This trend is projected to continue. Bencana banjir selain diakibatkan oleh faktor cuaca yang ekstrem juga disebabkan oleh rusaknya ekosistem DAS (Daerah Aliran Sungai). 1. Pemerintah tidak berdaya dan hanya bisa mengharapkan kesabaran dan ketabahan rakyat dalam menghadapi bencana banjir. Proyek pengembangan air. Most of South America. This does not include investments required for the maintenance of existing infrastructure. yang biasanya memerlukan aliran dan pengisian kembali oleh air hujan. for these latter regions the causes of scarcity will be economic constraints to developing safe drinking water.supply. maka pengambilan keputusan dalam mengembangkan sumberdaya air. The sources of money to meet these capital and operational costs are essentially either user fees. Oleh karena sifat stokastik air ini. To meet the Millennium Development Goals targets of halving the proportion of the population lacking access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Air tanah misalnya merupakan persediaan. chemicals.

rekreasi. maka limpahan efektif yang tersedia sekitar 55 persen dari itu yakni sekitar 1. maka aliran mantap (stable run-off) adalah sekitar 25 – 35 persen dari rerata aliran setahun. Oleh karena itu pengembangan dan manajemennya meliputi beberapa tujuan nasional yakni: efsiensi ekonomi. Keseimbangan perdagangan misalnya. Sebagaimana diketahui penanganan sumberdaya air biasanya dilakukan oleh pemerintah. Untuk pulau Jawa dengan memperhatikan luas dataran sekitar 132. naik menjadi 26. ikut dipengaruhi oleh sumber daya air terutama untuk ekspor hasil-hasil pertanian. dan untuk konservasi binatang di hutan. perikanan. Pengembangan sumberdaya air meliputi pengawasan aliran air.879.223). maka potensi air per jiwa per tahun tersedia adalah 1. curah hujan efektif 1. irigasi. distribusi pendapatan antar daerah. Karena aliran sungai berfluktuasi sepanjang tahun. maka dibutuhkan air bersih dari 17.620 mm setahun.U. sehingga pola pemasokan air memenuhi pola permintaan di seluruh ruang dan waktu. Dengan demikian setelah 20 tahun terdapat penurunan aliran mantap sekitar 26. pengawasan kualitas lingkungan.963. sedangkan dalam tahun 1990 jumlah penduduk sekitar 107. Perubahan tersebut merupakan suatu penurunan yang cukup drastis.194.180 m3per hari dalam tahun 1990 Ini berarti selama 20 tahun ini kebutuhan akan air bersih naik sekitar 50 persen.200 mm setahun.410 km’ memiliki curah hujan rata-rata sebesar 2. Aliran mantap air tersedia sekitar 368.200 km2. Sebagai contoh dalam tahun 1970 apabila diasumsikan kebutuhan orang akan air bersih di kota sebanyak 150 liter/hari/orang (Ditjen Cipta Karya.410 km’ x 1. maka pertimbangan untuk penggunaan ganda harus dilakukan. Ancaman Krisis Air di Indonesia Indonesia dengan luas daratan sekitar 1. Persediaan dan biaya-biaya untuk mengeksploitasi sumberdaya air akan mempengaruhi ekonomi makro suatu negara. Atau apakah ia termasuk ilmu “ekonomi normatif” yakni bagaimana sesuatu itu seharusnya terjadi to design how thing should be. Tahun 1970 potensi air per jiwa per tahun di Jawa sekitar 200 m (Doelhamid. 1980).475 m3.75 m3 per jiwa per tahun.4 persen. Suatu pertanyaan dapat diajukan. Dengan demikian untuk Indonesia aliran mantapnya tersedia sebesar 3.dimanfaatkan secara optimal.918.880 m3 per jiwa per tahun.450 mm.517. maka dalam tahun 1970 tersedia sekitar 500 m3 air per jiwa per tahun. meskipun dengan proyek yang sekecil munglkin. P. Kebutuhan akan air bersih terutama di kota-kota terus meningkat.450 mm/179.223 maka potensi air per jiwa per tahun ada sekitar 15. Peningkatan kebutuhan ini akan tampak lebih .523 m3 (angka ini didapat dari perhitungan sebagai berikut: 1. Pemanfaatan sumberdaya air terutama ditujukan untuk memasok keperluan kota. pembangkit tenaga listrik pengawasan banjir. Dengan memperhitungkan aliran mantapnya. pelayaran. 1972).194. pengawasan pencemaran. Mengingat pentingnya pemanfaatan sumberdaya air ini secara optimal. Setelah memperhatikan kehilangan dan penguapan.884500 m3 per hari pada tahun 1970. dan mungkin juga untuk tujuan-tujuan khusus seperti. L Dep.918. menyelamatkan sekelompok masyarakat tertentu yang bermukim di suatu daerah. Atas dasar data ini dan dikaitkan dengan jumlah penduduk Indonesia dalam tahun 1990 sebanyak 179. apakah ekonomi sumberdaya alam (khususnya air) termasuk di dalam “ekonomi positif” yakni ilmu ekonomi yang menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu itu terjadi how thing actually happen.

gawat lagi apabila dilihat kemampuan produksi PAM (Perusahaan Air Minum) dalam melayani kebutuhan air bersih amat terbatas. Mengingat kecenderungan penggunaan air sungai sebagai bahan baku air PAM tampak naik dengan tajam setelah tahun 1984. maka air sungai menunjukkan kenaikan yang lebih tajam dari pada kecenderungan pemakaian air tanah (mata air) sebagai bahan baku PAM. dibatasi oleh kendala alam dan dana. Sungai sebagai sumber air untuk memenuhi kebutuhan minum. Untuk DKI Jakarta kapasitas produksi air bersih di tahun 1987 hanya sekitar 17. Dengan demikian sering terjadi di suatu lokasi terdapat kelebihan air. industri. perkantoran. Selain itu pengggunaan sumur yang berlebihan akan mengganggu stabilitas tanah. rumah sakit. Apabila dimasukkan juga kebutuhan air bersih bagi hotel. terlebihlebih untuk keperluan kota. Air sumur mudah tercemar dan pemilikan tanah yang sempit di kota menyebabkan jarak ideal antara sumur dan sumur peresap minimal 15 m sulit dipenuhi. sungai Garang di Semarang dan sungai Brantas di Surabaya ). Antara tahun 1978-1984 penggunaan air tanah sekitar 52 persen sebagai bahan baku air PAM. Kasus Ciliwung dan Cisadane di DKI Jakarta. Sementara itu penduduk yang menggunakan sumur didapat dari air tanah menghadapi beberapa aspek negatif. Bahan baku produksi air minum/air bersih berasal dari air tanah termasuk air sumber dan air permukaan (sungai. terutama di kota-kota besar sebagai akibat laju urbanisasi dan aktivitas ekonomi yang meningkat. Meskipun demikian masib belum cukup untuk memasok kebutuhan penduduk kota. Konflik kepentingan antara para pemakai sungai akan muncul dimana-mana. dan mudah menjadi isu politik (ingat kasus fungsi hidrologis kawasan Puncak. dan danau). Hasil analisis statistik air minum yang dikeluarkan oleh Biro Pusat Statistik 1987 menunjukkan bahwa kuantitas penyediaan air bersih terus meningkat dari tahun ketahun. Angka ini jauh di atas pemakaian sungai yang hanya 23 persen digunakan sebagai sumber bahan baku. maka ancaman akan defisit air di dalam kota betul-betul meresahkan. maka pemerintah harus mengambil langkah pengamanan terhadap sungai sebagai sumber air PAM agar tidak tercemar. Dalam jangka pendek pencemaran membawa dampak negatif terhadap biaya produksi . Erat kaitannya dengan itu masalah yang sering muncul ialah distribusi kuantitas. Sejak tahun 1984 pemakaian air sungai oleh PAM sebagai bahan baku air bersih mengalami kenaikan tajam dari 28 unit pada tahun 1978 menjadi 100 unit pada tahun 1984.285 1/detik. sedang di tempat lain menderita kekurangan air. Apabila dilihat kecenderungan pemakaian. kualitas dan modus pemakaian yang sangat bervariasi dari suatu lokasi ke lokasi lainnya. Masalah yang muncul banyak terletak pada bagaimana manajemen sumberdaya air harus dioptimalkan dengan terbatasnya segala sumberdaya yang ada. rumah-rumah ibadat dan sebagainya. mandi/cuci juga mempunyai masalah yang berkaitan dengan sungai sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah industri. Bahan Baku Produksi Air Bersih Penanganan air minum/air bersih di kota-kota di Indonesia dilakukan oleh pemerintah (PAM). Dengan produksi itu DKI Jakarta paling banyak hanya mampu melayani sekitar 30-40 persen penduduk Jakarta yang ada sekarang yakni sekitar delapan juta jiwa lebih. pertamanan. dan terus meningkat sampai tahun 1990. Kemampuan untuk menyediakan kebutuhan air bersih yang cukup.

Akan tetapi apabila pertimbangan untuk mendapatkan strategi biaya yang efsien dilakukan. tetapi juga pembangunan regional. sungai Brantas di Surabaya dan beberapa sungai tertentu di luar Jawa. Langkah-langkah tersebut sebaiknya dilakukan melalui berbagai pendekatan dan analisis. ditambah lagi dengan berkembangnya penduduk kota. distribusi manfaat dan biaya. karena terjadinya erosi di daerah hulu sungai. (b)Sistem pembuangan air limbah industri di sepanjang sungai sehingga terjadi pencemaran. sungai Garang di Semarang. Langkah-langkah untuk mempertahankan kualitas air. Kualitas air merupakan salah satu aspek yang makin banyak mendapat perhatian dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. tanpa mengganggu pertumbuhan ekonomi. yang harus dicapai oleh pengambil keputusan. kualitas lingkungan. Tidak saja efisiensi ekonomi yang harus diperhatikan. misalnya sampai seberapa besar biaya untuk mencapai standar tersebut. karena sektor pertanian telah jenuh. biasanya memakan biaya yang besar. tentu akan menjadi lebih baik. Usaha mencegah pencemaran air sebagai baian dari penyediaan air bersih secara efisien perlu dilakukan. Ini disebabkan karena penduduk masih relatif sedikit dan kuantitas air berlimpah. Untuk itu adalah logis penelitian/pemantauan mengenai strategi tersebut perlu dilakukan. Dengan . migrasi dari daerah pedesaan terus bertambah dan ini akan merangsang terus pertumbuhan industri. akan memberi pengaruh buruk kepada tingkat pencemaran air. Cukup banyak bukti menunjukkan adanya pencemaran sungai di kota-kota besar di Indonesia sehingga perlu ditanggulangi segera seperti kasus sungai Ciliwung di Jakarta. Keadaan berubah dengan cepat setelah adanya perkembangan industri. termasuk analisis ekonomi. Dengan demikian migrasi dari daerah pedesaan ke daerah perkotaan mulai terjadi dan kecenderungan ini terus meningkat dari waktu ke waktu. serta lain-lain dimensi kesejahteraan manusia dijadikan tujuan yang eksplisit. Pengendalian sumberdaya air meliputi kuantitas dan kualitas. dan dalam jangka panjang akan mengakibatkan penurunan produktivitas kerja penduduk akibat terkontaminasi dengan air yang tercemar. Pendekatan Antar Disiplin untuk Perencanaan dan Manajemen Sumberdaya Air Pada mulanya masalah manajemen sumberdaya air dan lingkungan tidaklah terlalu kompleks. Dari sekarang perlu diambil langkah-langkah untuk menyelamatkan air baik untuk generasi sekarang maupun bagi generasi di masa depan. Para pekerja dari sektor pertanian tertarik untuk berpindah ke sektor industri. tetapi juga kualitas yang sesuai dengan keperluan mereka. (d) Akibat negatif intensifikasi pertanian (pestisida). Pertumbuhan industri yang semakin meningkat dan peningkatan intensifikasi pertanian dengan pemakaian lebih banyak pestisida. Langkah-langkah untuk mempertahankan kualitas air bukan saja untuk mencapai standar kualitas air yang dikehendaki dari sudut ekologi. Dengan berkembangnya industri di daerah kota. (c) Limbah rumah tangga yang ikut mempengaruhi kualitas air. Timbulnya masalah kualitas air di cekungan (basin) sungai antara lain disebabkan oleh: (a) Meningkatnya kandungan sedimen dalam air sungai.air bersih. tetapi juga harus memperhatikan pertimbangan ekonomi. Ini disebabkan karena para konsumen air tidak hanya menginginkan jumlah yang cukup. Oleh karena itu informasi yang lengkap dengan analisis yang tajam dan terpadu perlu disampaikan kepada para pengambil keputusan. Pengembangan sumberdaya air memainkan peranan yang kompleks dalam proses pengambilan keputusan.

Berikut ini disajikan teknik-teknik yang berhubungan dengan pendekatan antar disiplin. umumnya dilakukan tahap-tahap sebagai berikut:      Identifikasi dan pernyataan secara eksplisit tujuan yang ingin dicapai. sehingga menambah beban polusi pada air di aliran sungai. sehingga dapat digunakan untuk menilai sampai berapa jauh tujuan itu dapat dicapai. Menerapkan analisis sistem pada manajemen sumberdaya air. Kesimpulan 1. demikian juga dengan meningkatnya pemakaian air per kapita. Sangat disayangkan industri-industri ini kebanyakan didirikan berdekatan dengan daerah aliran sungai. tujuan. Perbandingan penilaian alternatif konsekwensi yang ada dengan kriteria yang telah ditetapkan. Ia merupakan pendekatan yang logik dan sistematik dimana asumsi. Dengan memperhatikan semua jenis sikap masyarakat ini. Ia dapat membantu pengambil keputusan sampai pada keputusan yang terbaik dengan cara memperluas dasar informasinya.demikian antara migrasi dan pertumbuhan industri di kota merupakan lingkaran setan. Oleh karena bertambahnya penduduk. Analisis Sistem Analisis sistem dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu studi analitik untuk membantu pengambil keputusan memilih tindakan yang lebih disukai diantara beberapa alternatif yang ada. maka pengembangan sumberdaya air dan proses manajemennya menjadi lebih kompleks dari pada sebelumnya. sebagai suatu alat untuk memecahkan masalah dengan pendekatan antar disiplin. Ini berarti dibuat suatu model sistem sumberdaya air yang akan menguji dan menilai alternatif yang ada. Disamping itu limbah rumah tangga ikut juga dibuang ke sungai tanpa adanya pengolahan terlebih dahulu. Pengembangan dan manajemen sumberdaya air meliputi beberapa tujuan nasional yakni: efisiensi ekonomi. serta untuk memenuhi tujuan-tujuan khusus lainnya . pengendalian kualitas lingkungan. secara jelas didefinisikan. serta perkembangan teknologi dan industri. Identifikasi beberapa alternatif cara yang akan memenuhi kriteria dimaksud. Bersamaan dengan itu masyarakat juga memuntut adanya kualitas hidup dan lingkungan yang baik. Penerjemahan tujuan itu ke dalam kriteria yang dapat diukur. Penentuan konsekwensi yang timbul dari masing-masing alternatif yang ada. oleh karena itu para perencana dan pengambil keputusan harus melengkapi diri dengan beberapa konsep dan alat analisis baru yang muncul beberapa dekade terakhir. Proses perencanaan sumberdaya air menjadi sangat kompleks sekarang ini dan akan bertambah lagi dimasa depan. distribusi pendapatan antar daerah. Salah satu dari alat baru itu ialah analisis sistem. dengan tujuan untuk memudahkan membuang limbah produksi tanpa biaya ekonomi. dan kriteria. maka sisa produk atau limbah ikut bertambah tekanannya terhadap lingkungan.

. Salah satu alat baru itu ialah analisis sistem yang dapat dipakai untuk memecahkan masalah dengan. limbah rumah tangga yang ikut mempengaruhi kualitas air. 3. Pengoperasian model ini untuk kasus sungai Garang dan sungai-sungai lain yang kondisinya sama. sistem pembuangan limbah industri di sepanjang sungai sehingga terjadi pencemaran. 4. akibat negatif intensifikasi pertanian yakni pemakaian obat anti hama (pestisida).4 persen. Proses perencanaan sumberdaya air menjadi sangat kompleks sekarang ini.termasuk menyelamatkan sekelompok masyarakat tertentu yang bermukim di suatu daerah. 5. Selama duapuluh tahun terakhir ini. Pengendalian sumberdaya air meliputi kuantitas dan kualitas. oleh karena itu para perencana dan pengambil keputusan harus melengkapi diri dengan beberapa konsep dan alat analisis yang baru muncul beberapa dekade terakhir. 2. Indonesia telah mengalami penurunan aliran mantap air sebanyak 26. suatu penurunan yang cukup drastis. dan akan bertambah lagi dimasa depan. Timbulnya masalah kualitas air di basin sungai bagi beberapa sungai Indonesia antara lain disebabkan karena: terjadinya erosi di daerah hulu sungai. Oleh karena itu pengendalian air permukaan menjadi semakin penting. sangat mungkin dilakukan. dalam kurun waktu yang sama kebutuhan akan air bersih naik sekitar 50 persen. pendekatan antar disiplin. Dilain pihak. Penerapan analisis sistem berupa pembentukan model programasi linier untuk menangani masalah pencemaran air di basin kali Garang di Jawa Tengah telah berhasil dilakukan (1983).