ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE

WHAT IS E- GOVERNANCE?
E-Governance can be defined as use of ICT (Information Communication
Technologies) to enhance the quality of information and service provided to the
citizen in a cost effective manner.
Another definition of E-Governance: Use of ICT to process the government
functioning and to bring about
S SIMPLE
M MORAL
AACCOUNTABLE

Government

R RESPONSIVE
T TRANSPARENT
It must be noted that there 4 pillars that make e-Government a Smart Government.

SMART GOVERNANCE

If used effectively, will
improve the government
functioning

E-Government

PROCESS

PEOPLE

TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES

In this paper, we are concerned with the
Effective use of Emerging Technologies for
Smart Governance.

Before, we dig deep into use of technologies for Smart Governance, we will study
about some basics of e-Government and e-Governance.
It must be noted that based on market and people, there are four types of eGovernment.

Basic
citizen
needs:
1) Online
Registration
2) Health Care
3) Education
4) Taxes

1) Employee
Information
2) Online
Management
for
Employees
3) Online
training/
Conferences

1) Disseminatio
n
of
Government
policies,
rules,
regulations
and
information
2) Renewing

1) Federal
Government
support
2) Government
Plans
3) Records
of
Government

Smart Governance is the collaboration of all types of e-Governance in an Effective
and Efficient manner, as depicted in the following figure:

G2G
Federal Government
G2BCitizen
G2G
Local Government
G2G

G2E

G2C
Busines
s

Browse r Govt. G2G  G2G G2C  G2G G2E  G2G G2B  G2G The initial phase of the Interaction was Static. as mentioned below: Browse r Browse r Dept. the he goes to 2 different websites to gather the information. the same customer wants to get the information two government departments. thereEmploye are 4 types of interaction that takes place e in a Smart Governance. B . the government created the website and uploaded the static contents on the website. Businesses and other Governments) were only viewing the contents. A Dept. wherein. without any interaction. the contents on the website were not uploaded for years. Sometimes.As mentioned in the Figure above. website Now suppose. leading to misleading information flow. All the stakeholders (Citizens.

proposed a mechanism of Interaction of Government with citizens. B website Web Server Databas e Server We get updated information Although. The report elaborated that e-Strategy includes three parts. businesses and other government departments.Later. businesses and other government departments cannot interact with each other and still depends on traditional modes of communication. the component of interactivity was still missing. as EStrategy=SS+DD SS Static + Supply based DD Dynamic +Demand Driven IIInteractive + Integration Before. information Browse r Dept. . apart from technological involvement and change management. we need shift in the mindset of public administration. This means that citizens. the governments were already in second stage (DD). the information received was updated. The mechanism was named as e-Strategies. United Nations e-Government Survey in 2010. every government departments. started using Dynamic way of We get almost outdated Interactions. the report was released. The study elaborated that in order to successfully build e-Government (and later Smart Government). A website Web Server Browse r Databas e Server Dept.

as mentioned below: Applicati on Servers Browse r Dept. is how inclusion of Application Server increases interactivity? . B website Web Server Databas e Server Interactive information We can easily observe the inclusion of Application Server in the architecture. A website Databas e Server Web Server Applicati on Servers Browse r Dept. The most important question to ask here. which makes the communication interactive.The shift from DD to II (Interactive and Integration) requires the current eGovernment architecture to be changed technically. But the inclusion requires a major drift in the complete e-Government architecture.

Basically. Static Information Dynamic Information Provide forms which may be printed and mailed Submit Information online Complete Financial transaction online Service transformatio ns . many of the stakeholders started asking for online financial transactions online. With two way interaction in place. Application Server is used to generate Business logic and interacts with Database Server more efficiently to answer the queries of Citizen. which is a more challenging job to be conducted. Businesses and other Government Departments. Applicati on Servers Dept. B website Browse r Web Server Databas e Server Interactivity + Payment The above-mentioned types of e-Government development defines the spectrum of e-Governance and information flow. A website Browse r Databas e Server Web Server Applicati on Servers Dept.

This means we need to have multiple applications interactions.Although. citizen. the benefits of Service transformations looks quite good and includes benefits to citizens. which needs complex technologies interaction. as given below: High Transaction (mature) Complexity of eGovernment 2-way interaction Startup Low 1-way interaction Benefit High As mentioned in the graph above. Such an architecture is called n-tier e-Government architecture. when we achieve high transaction (referred as mature transaction). . it results in greater complexity in e-Government architecture. businesses and other government department gets maximum benefits. businesses and other government departments.

These applications were used for different purposes. there was no integration between departments. A website Browse r Databas e Server Web Server Dept. This means that the A 3 . as online payments. However. and up-to-date information amongst others.A 1 A 2 A 3 A 1 Applicati on Server 1 …………………… A 2 A 3 Applicati on Server n Dept. B website Browse r Web Server Databas e Server Applicati on Server 1 Applicati on Server n Mature Transaction A 1 A 2 A 3 A A 2 1 Almost every government department installed multiple Application servers with loads of Applications on the Servers. Each of these departments followed their own structure and own set of applications. business registrations.

as by the time government understood the need to integrate departments. the interlinking of process between them was still missing. most of the departments complete the IT development and implementation phase. Some people still proposed the integrated architecture framework for e-Government adoption that can be helpful in integration. so the use of technologies can be used in full swing. The task was difficult to obtain.citizens and businesses were able to transaction of a particular department. The complete architecture is given below: One of the early adoption of the proposed e-Government Integration Framework is given below: . Zakareya Ibrahim and Zahir Irani proposed the e-Government Integration framework. which included four layers:  Access Layer  E-Government Layer  E-Business Layer  Infrastructure Layer Each of these layers had its own requirements in the e-Government Integration framework.

e-Business Layer User Interface Layer eGovernment Layer Issues in e-Government and e-Business Layer Network Layer .

who initiated the use ICT for e-Governance late. and includes 10 circles. the framework did not added much results. The framework was termed as EA (Enterprise Architecture) Framework. . 2) Define scope of work and prepare plan for rollout: We need to define the complete scope of the tasks for integration process. What are the technologies used for integration.E-Business Layer adopted different tools E-Government Layer adopted different programming Though. The most adopted EA Framework for e-Government Integration Framework is TOGAF-The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF). Thus. This phase is called Preliminary phase. there was the need for Integration Framework that could help the departments in post implementation phase. 4) Manage post-implementation change: Any major change will trigger off another cycle of ADM. But for the departments whose ICT implementation was completed. The core element of TOGAF is ADM (Architecture Development Method). 1) We need to tailor TOGAF to suit the need of departments: This is one time activity and needs to be carried before adopting TOGAF for a departments. This phase is called Implementation Governance. Architecture Vision +Business Architecture +IS Architecture+ Technology Architecture+ Opportunities and Solutions+ Migration Planning 3) Oversee development and implementation: How the overall integration should take place. and how to manage the rollout. The major issues was in E-Business and E-Government Layer. the proposed e-Government Integration framework was suitable for languages departments. ADM is a 4step process. It must be noted that all these phases are combined together by Requirements Management.

Manage postimplementation change Tailor TOGAF to suit your need Define scope of work and prepare plan for rollout Oversee development and implementation .

Integration was the major issue for Mature Transaction. What is a Web Service? A 3 . The2 solution that came to rescue is called Web Services. B website Web Server Databas e Server Applicati on Server 1 Applicati on Server n Mature Transaction A A A A A 3 2 1 1 As mentioned earlier.One of the biggest challenges is the integration process of different departments. A website Databas e Server Web Server Integra tion Browse r Dept. A 1 A 2 A 3 A 1 Applicati on Server 1 …………………… Browse r A 2 A 3 Applicati on Server n Dept.

CA) Web Services Activity Group Formed (January 2002) . Let us consider the same example as mentioned above for explanation: XML XML But use of XML in the Server integration was mere a solution. xml-dist-app@w3. the work had already started in 1999.Web Service is a piece of software. an official standard Web Services Protocol was launched in 2003.org list created for XML protocol discussions (December 1999) SOAP 1. that can be used over internet for communication between different Servers using XML messaging System. which can be exchanged between servers and is both human-readable and machine-readable. We need a protocol (a set of patterns which is of universal standard) which will be followed for easy integration. What is XML? eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents.1 gets its acknowledged (May 2000) XML Protocol Working Group Formed (September 2000) Workshop on Web Services (April 2001. Although.

type checking.After 2003. Web Services using XML become popular. Web Services using XML SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) SOA + REST JSON (Representational State Transfer) (Java Script Object Notation) EGovernment Infrastructure The main advantages of REST web services are:  Lightweight . and three versions were launched.sometimes  Rigid .not a lot of extra xml markup  Human Readable Results  Easy to build . adheres to a contract  Development tools = SOE .no toolkits required SOAP also has some advantages:  Easy to consume .

Private Cloud: The more relevant cloud model used for Smart Governance is Private Cloud. . These services in Smart Government context can be: 1) Services provided to citizens (such as registration card. PAAS and SAAS. These cloud services allow various departments to share the documents and is designed to deliver IAAS. Community Cloud model is used by many Government to provide services to citizens. Visa. which can be used anytime. Amazon etc. Considered to be less secure due to its openness. Public cloud=used for non-sensitive resources Private cloud=used for sensitive information Community Cloud: For delivering citizen services. Community Cloud is the best suited model. where organizations can procure their own standardized cloud. Hybrid Cloud: Private Cloud + Public cloud where.Cloud Computing and Smart Government Infrastructure Cloud Computing provides the services through Internet. based on requirements. anywhere and on any device (especially Mobile Apps). when the service hosting system is located at a remote location. such as offerings by Google (Gmail). others) (G2C) 2) Services provided to businesses (G2B) 3) Data transfer between different departments (G2E/G2G) Types of Cloud Computing for Smart Governance Public Cloud Private Cloud Hybrid Cloud Community Cloud Public Cloud: Public cloud enables applications and storage available to general public over the Internet. These departments can also include their own security features as well.

Summary of Cloud Usage for Smart Governance Public Cloud Private Cloud Hybrid Cloud Non-Sensitive Citizen Requirements G2C Sensitive Information G2G G2B G2c G2E G2G G2B G2C G2E Cloud Service Models Community Cloud G2C .

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However. which are strategically and geographically located. CDN is one of the most efficient mechanism.Content Delivery Networks (CDN) As e-Government Infrastructure started using Cloud Computing. as Cisco predicted on May 29. speed of data transfer from remotely located Data Center was the major concern. that every individual will be using 5 devices connected to Internet. platform and even software was solved. 2013. The Solution to the above mentioned problem is called CDN (Content Delivery Network). CDN is a network constructed from the group of “Caching Servers”. Content Download Time CDN helps in Reduction of Network Traffic CDN Architecture . the problem of maintaining the infrastructure. by which data from various departments in an e-Government Infrastructure would be serving a large number of devices.

User requests a content to its nearest Caching Server. If the content does not reside in the Caching Server. these are department websites/applications in e-Government Infrastructure). CP includes all the contents (usually. or 5) The content does not exist in any of the Caching Server. the most popular contents are loaded in the distributed set of caching servers. increasing HIT RATIO and reducing MISS RATIO. Both of these conditions are called MISS RATIO. may be redirected from other Caching Server to the user. Amongst these. This is done using CONTENT AGING PROCEDURE. thus. it becomes very difficult for the web and application server to handle all the request fast and hence CDN architecture was introduced. which gets delivered to the user. Thus the biggest challenge for Caching Servers is to maintain the balance of contents.Caching Server Store popular contents in advance (in Millions) Store popular contents in advance Caching Server Caching Server Store popular contents in advance (in Millions) (in Millions) As the numbers of electronic devices are increasing (in billions). there are two possibilities: 4) The content may be in another Caching Server. and needs to be redirected from remotely located (in Cloud) CP. . thereby. Such a condition is called HIT RATIO. Content Aging Procedure is focused on delivering the most popular contents to users in the most effective way. CDN Structure CDN includes Content Providers (CP) and Caching Servers (as mentioned in the Figure above).

CDN Market and Providers In 2014. by 2019. CDN Market was about $3.16 billion.3% to $12.Content Aging Procedure is dependent on three main factors: 1) Number of Caching Servers in the region 2) Location of Caching Servers 3) Memory Size of each of Caching Servers The Content Aging Procedure works effectively by deleting the outdated contents from Caching Servers (works on the concept of Time to Live [TTL]) and gets an updated content from CP. the market is expected to grow by 26. .71 billion.