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1, N° 1

**A Sliding Mode Control for Multivariable
**

Systems

Ahmed Sa¨ıd NOURI and Ridha BEN ABDENNOUR

Unit´e CONPRI - Ecole Nationale d’ Ing´enieurs de Gab`es

Route de Medenine, 6029 Gab`es, Tunisie

ahmedsaid.nouri@enig.rnu.tn ridha@ieee.org

Abstract. In this paper, we propose a methodology relative to the application of a sliding mode control to linear multivariable systems. This

methodology is based on the decomposition of the system in several

subsystems controllable each by only one component of the input. The

application of the proposed strategy in the case of a sliding mode control to the multivariable system led, in addition to the simplicity offered

by the decomposition, to satisfactory simulation results in terms of the

desired performances in closed loop.

**Keywords: State feedback , Sliding Mode, Variable Structure, Decentralized
**

Sliding Mode Control, SISO linear Subsystem, Multivariable.

1

Introduction

**The variable structure control proved itself in regulation and tracking aspects
**

[1, 5, 9, 12]. But this type of control was often criticized because of the chattering

problem caused by the discontinuous control. Some ameliorations are proposed:

the equivalent control [13], the continuous function in a band around the sliding

surface [11], the generalized variable structure control [3, 9] and the higher order sliding mode control [8, 9]. These ameliorations could extend the application

area to the control of hydraulic actuators [9], pneumatic actuators [9, 14],... etc.

For the multivariable systems case and in the most previous work, the application of the variable structure control is carried out by supposing that the

multivariable system is composed in several inter-connected subsystems and the

control law is obtained by considering the interactions as external disturbances

([15] ...).

In this paper, we propose an implementation methodology of the sliding mode

control on multi-input systems by assuming the state feedback control idea [4].

The contribution of the proposed methodology is highlighted by numerical simulation on an academic example.

In this paper, we initially give an overview on the sliding mode control, then we

present the decomposition of a multivariable system in subsystems where each

one is controllable by only one component of the input [4] and finally can lead to

**1737-7749, Ref. 115, June 2007, pp. 29–42
**

© Academic publication center 2007

outside of the surface S (by one of the two vectors fields f + or f − ). If the system is naturally discontinuous. U is a convex set of Rm . any trajectory beginning its movement out of S. 2 Variable Structure and Sliding Mode Control The sliding mode control constitutes the natural framework to deal with the discontinuous systems or with the systems having a variable structure. The system is well defined outside the surface. S divide X in two regions characterized by the points x such as S(x) > 0 and S(x) < 0). the system behavior is to be defined according to a given direction (we note that the classical theory of the differential equations ceases to be valid. Vol. In the two cases of discontinuities (natural or caused by a discontinuous control). the case of a continuous system defined by the differential equation: x˙ = f (x. of the suggested methodology is given in section 3 of this paper. the system is described by a differential equation with discontinuous right hand. But on the surface where the system is not defined exactly.30 IJ-STA. . In the case where the surface is defined as a surface using the system output as a component of the system’s state. will join it [7. Let’s consider now a surface S = 0 defined in Rn . however. the behavior is not defined and can be imposed. It exists a neighborhood X of x0 such as S ∈ X which is a differential manifold (its codimension is one. Let x0 a point such as S(x0 ) = 0 where the rank of ∂S/∂x is one in x0 . through an academic example. the solutions can be obtained from the classical theory of differential equations. the two vectors fields f + and f − point to the surface S. it is defined by a given finite set of vector fields on which the system can commutate according to the position of the state space. It divides the state space into two regions S > 0 and S < 0. In the case of a monovariable system where u can take the values u− or u+ and in the case of a surface S (set of the state space defined by the equation S(x) = 0) having a codimension one. Let’s consider. 9]. since the considered system does not verify the traditional conditions of existence of the Cauchy-Lipschitz theorem because of the discontinuity of the state vector on the commutation surface). the dynamic behavior that we seek to define on the commutation surface sliding can be considered as being the internal dynamics of controlled system corresponding to the behavior of the closed loop system. June 2007 an implementation methodology of the sliding mode control on linear multivariable systems. For a system having a behavior defined by the commutation between two vectors fields f + for S > 0 and f − for S < 0. u) where u ∈ U is the control. We define a control law under a state feedback form and having discontinuities on surfaces defined in the state space. N° 1. The system described above is well defined. In this manner. the state feedback is defined by u = u+ if S > 0 and u = u− if S < 0 with u+ 6= u− . An illustration. on S. first of all. 1.

a sliding mode exists on S if the system has in x ∈ S ⊂ X a relative degree equal to one [10]. c: Sliding Mode). June 2007 31 We suppose that Lf + S(x0 ) < 0 and Lf − S(x0 ) > 0. According to this approach. the problem is to define the behavior of the state once the surface is reached. the state checks the following inequalities: ½ Lf + S < 0 x ∈ X⇒ Lf − S > 0 then a sliding mode exists on S (locally) [10]. the . We are interested here in the approaches of Filippov [2] and of Utkin [13]. 1. It exists a neighborhood of x0 in X where the inequalities remain valid. The dynamics on surface S is not being determined. Vol. 13]. The theory of the ordinary differential equations ceases to be valid because of the discontinuity of the second member (the theorem assumptions of Cauchy-Lipschitz are not filled). N° 1. In literature. Filippov approach [2]: Let F a family of vector fields. – A sliding mode exists on S if S S˙ < 0 under the action of the commutation law (the variety S is attractive).IJ-STA. The system is defined by a strategy of commutation of F elements. S(x)=0 S(x)=0 F+ F+ F− F− (a) S(x)=0 F+ (b) F− (c) Fig. contains 0 at its interior – In the case of the continuous systems (discontinuity due to the nature of the control). Principle of the sliding mode (a .b: No Sliding Mode. and specifies the corresponding sliding mode on S [6]. Definition If under the action of the vector fields. 1. In literature. so that a variety S becomes attractive and such a strategy of commutation implies a sliding mode on S. Figure 1 shows the various possible configurations. most researchers were interested in this problem of continuity of the differential equations solutions to deduce from it the equation which describes the dynamic behavior of the state on the discontinuous surface [2. the previous definition is presented in several forms : – A sliding mode exists on S if the projection of the segment generated by f + (x) and f − (x) x ∈ S on a line crossing surface (parallel to tangent space) at the point where the sliding mode exists. We suppose that the neighborhood is equal to X (for simplification).

. For x ∈ S. N° 1. u+ (x)) Remarks – As shown in figure 2. Tx ∈ S the tangent space to S on x. . (f − − f + )i where < . within the meaning of Filippov. The sliding dynamics in x ∈ S. > is the scalar product. is given by the vector field pertaining to the intersection of tangent space to the sliding variety with the convex envelope generated by the family F = {fi (X) : i ∈ I}. is given. the dynamics of Filippov and Utkin are generally different.½u) u ∈ U ⊂ R u+ (x) si S(x) > 0 u(x) = u− (x) si S(x) < 0 The system defined above. Moreover. Indeed. presents a sliding behavior. The sliding dynamic is given by : f ∗ = feq (x) = f (x. 1. June 2007 sliding dynamic equation which results from the application of such a family of vector fields. 13]: In this approach. ueq ) where ueq is the equivalent control which makes the surface invariant. f − i h∂S. Utkin approach [6. it is shown that they are equivalent in the case of systems linear in control. Vol.32 IJ-STA. ueq verifies the following inequality : min(u− (x). u) with u(x) discontinuous in x The sliding dynamic is the dynamic which results in replacing u by the value which makes the sliding surface invariant under the action of the field called equivalent. The sliding dynamic is given by [6]: ½ x∈S f ∗ = λ f + + (1 − λ)f − = f − + λ (f + − f − ) and takes the following value : λ= h∂S.. u+ (x)) < ueq < max(u− (x). Let’s consider the system defined by the following equations: x˙ = f (x. each one corresponds to a different situation according to whether we deal with discontinuous system by nature (Filippov). Conv() its closing. The considered system is : x˙ = f (x. by the intersection: Conv(F )x ∩ Tx S where Conv(F )x is the space generated by f + and f − in x. we consider systems where the discontinuity is due to the nature of the control. They cannot even be ”collinear”. or with a system which is made discontinuous by the choice of discontinuous state feedback around S (Utkin).

chosen linear. One of these approaches. 13]: ¡ ¢−1 T ˙ C (Ax(t)) S(x) = 0 ⇒ C T x˙ = C T (Ax+Bu) ⇒ ueq (t) = − C T B (C B ) T −1 exists if ¡ T ¢−1 exists C B . Assume that the control is composed of two terms. L ∈ Rpxn : matrix. – – – – – – The sliding surface.IJ-STA. is: S(x) = C T x where C ∈ Rmxn is a parameter matrix. B ∈ Rnxm : matrix. Vol. A ∈ Rnxn : state matrix. u = ueq + ∆u [9. y ∈ Rp : output vector. 13]. u) for u ∈ U where U is the set of admissible controls. The equivalent control ueq expression is given by [9. N° 1. Fig. is the convex one which shows that sliding dynamics belongs to the intersection between tangent space and smallest closed convex space containing the vectors fields f (x. 2. u ∈ Rm : input vector. 3 Variable structure control for the multivariable system Let’s consider a multivariable linear system described by the following equation: ½ x(t) ˙ = Ax(t) + Bu(t) (1) y(t) = Lx(t) where : x ∈ Rn : state vector . June 2007 33 – There are other approaches to define the dynamics on the sliding surface. 1. Filippov’s and Utkin’s fields.

4. the system will be completely governable only with the action of several components of the input. The system having as input u and as output y is completely controllable by the component ui of the input. So.34 IJ-STA. we must ¡ ¢−1 . The control is carried out on the component ui . 1. We give the two possible cases. June 2007 and the control is: ¡ ¢−1 T C (A x(t)) + ∆u u(t) = − C T B where ∆u = −k sign (S(x)) where k is a gain chosen to eliminate the perturbation effect. the sliding surface (presumed linear according to the states of the system) is: S(x) = n X ci xi avec cn = 1 (4) i=1 The control u must verify the sliding condition: ˙ S(x)S(x) <0 (5) . N° 1.1 The case where the system is completely gouvernable by one component of the input ui : In this case. 4 Decomposition of a multivariable system to subsystems controllable each by only one component of the input [4] Let’s consider the multivariable linear system described by equation (1). we have : ¤ £ rank bi Abi · · · An−1 bi = n (3) So. the system is completely controllable by the component ui of the input vector u. Thus the variable structure control can be calculated as follows: For a system of order n. to apply the variable structure control to a multivariable system. have the existence of C T B To overcome this condition. we propose in this paper a methodology based on the decomposition of the multivariable system into subsystems controllable each by one component of the input. The condition of governability of the system with regard to the inputs set is : £ ¤ rank B AB · · · An−1 B = n (2) Generally. This case is equivalent to the monovariable system case. Vol.

A 6 −1 −4 : 0x e = 0 x B 1x Here. the trajectory slides until convergence towards the origin. C= A= 0 2 0 010 12 0 0 −3 We remark here that u1 control all modes (-1. the control vector is : Simulation example: Let’s consider the following system : ½ x(t) ˙ = A x(t) + B u(t) y(t) = C x(t) · ¸ 11 −1 0 0 101 . after a change of variable. we have a third order system and the sliding mode control is: S= 3 P i=1 ci x ei = c1 x e1 + c2 x e2 + x e3 c1 = 10 c2 = 7 u1 =·−M sign(S). The last one shows a relatively perfect tracking. such as S S˙ < 0. 3) the initial condition or the reference trajectory. M = 20. the system is completely controllable by u1 and it can be described. N° 1. . ¸ u2 = 0. So. 1. The simulations results for a sinusoidal reference are given in figure 3. The obtained result are completely coherent with the theoretical affirmation. 2. Vol. by : ex e u(t) x e˙ (t) = A e(t) + B with 0 1 0 e = 0 0 1 . After a certain search time. the surface equation becomes: S= 3 X ci ei = c1 e1 + c2 e2 + e3 i=1 with ei = x ei − x0i and x0i (i = 1. −M sign(S) u= 0 In the error space. June 2007 35 One of the solutions can be chosen as the basic form (component ui ) ui = −M sign(S(x)) (6) £ ¤T u = 0 · · · 0 ui = −M sign(S) 0 · · · 0 (7) Then. The evolution of the trajectory in the phase space is given by figure 4. -3). B= 10 .IJ-STA. 2.

Σ2 . 4. Σ1 .. The trajectory in the phase space. • the sub-system Σr−1 reacts on the sub-systems Σr−2 . Σ1 . 3. . 4. Fig.2 The case where the system is not completely controllable by only one component of the input Decomposition into sub-systems controllable each by one component of the input If the system is controllable.. Evolution of the output and the reference. The diagram block of the decomposition is given by figure 5 [4].Σ2 . 1. Vol. • the sub-system Σ2 reacts on the sub-system Σ1 . it is always possible to decompose it into r subsystems: – each one is controllable by only one component of the input.5 −1 −1..5 y (t): reference r 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 time (s) Fig.. – they are treated on a hierarchical basis so that : • the sub-system Σr reacts on the sub-systems Σr−1 ...36 IJ-STA. • .5 0 y(t): output −0. June 2007 1. N° 1.

1. N° 1. System decomposition into sub-systems controllable each by one component of the input. 5. has the following form : Si = ni X ci x ei i=1 The control can be chosen in the classical form : ui = −Mi sign(Si ). Variable structure control synthesis The sub-system Σi is defined by the state equation (9) having the dimension ni and the control ui . Refereing to the last figure. The sliding surface. Vol. June 2007 37 ur Sub-system Σr dimension nr u∗ u2 xgr Sub-system Σ2 dimension n2 xg2 Sub-system Σ1 dimension n1 u1 xg1 Fig.IJ-STA. we can write : £ ¤T u∗ = ur+1 ur+2 · · · um si r < m (8) The state equation of the sub-system Σi has the following form : x e˙i = Aii x ei + [Aii+1 x ei+1 + · · · + Air x er ] + ebi ui + βi u∗ with : n= r X (9) ni i=1 n and ni represent respectively the dimension of the global system and the dimension of the sub-system Σi . the global control is : £ ¤T u = u1 · · · ur u∗ u∗ is a null vector . where Mi and ci verify the sliding condition Si S˙ i < 0. Then. chosen linear.

r} Si S˙ i < 0 So.38 IJ-STA. N° 1. The associated characteristic polynomial is : ϕ2 (p) = p2 The state equation of the sub-system Σ2 is : x e˙ 2 = A·22 x e2 ¸+ eb2 u2 · ¸ 01 0 2 e A22 = b = 00 1 Variable structure control synthesis: Sub-system Σ1 : The sliding surface is chosen linear: S1 = 2 X c1i x e1i = c11 x e11 + c12 x e12 i=1 In the error space. Simulation example Let’s consider the following system : ½ x(t) ˙ = A x(t) + B u(t) y(t) = C x(t) 0100 00 · ¸ 0 0 0 0 0 1 1000 . Vol. The sliding is carried out on the intersection of surfaces Si = 0. 1. June 2007 The sliding mode is carried out if and only if : ∀i ∈ {1. the surface equation becomes: S1 = 2 X i=1 c1i e1i = c11 e11 + c12 e12 . B= 0 0 0 1 0 0 0001 0000 10 The sub-system Σ1 is controllable by u1 and has a dimension equal to 2. · · · . C= A= . The associated characteristic polynomial is : ϕ1 (p) = p2 The state equation of the sub-system Σ1 is : x e˙1 = A·11 x e1 ¸+ eb1 u1 · ¸ 01 eb1 = 0 A11 = 00 1 The sub-system Σ2 is controllable by u2 and has a dimension equal to 2.

The control is taken in the simplest form u1 = −M1 sign(S1 ). N° 1. Vol. 7 and 8. Figure 6 shows the evolution of the two sliding surfaces. the surface equation becomes: S2 = 2 X c2i e2i = c21 e21 + c22 e22 i=1 with e2i = x e2i − x02i and x02i (i = 1. it slides on it one until reaching the origin. The sliding mode is effective at the end of 0. June 2007 39 with e1i = x e1i − x01i and x01i (i = 1.1 s. M2 and c2i must verify the condition S2 S˙ 2 < 0. 2) the initial condition. For this case. Figure 8 gives an idea on the evolution of the various variables for subsystem 1 (the output. the phase plan. we have chosen the following values: c21 = 5. we have chosen the following values : c11 = 2. The simulation results are given in figures 6. c22 = 1. It is noticed that the phase trajectory. The synthesis of the control is. The decomposition in subsystems controllable each by only one component of the input returns the implementation of the multivariable sliding mode control which is much easier because the subsystems obtained are monovariable linear systems. Sub-system Σ2 : The sliding surface is chosen linear: S2 = 2 X c2i x e2i = c21 x e21 + c22 x e22 i=1 In the error space. M1 and c1i must verify the condition S1 S˙ 1 < 0. . c12 = 1.5. 1. For the present case. M2 = 10. M1 = 10. The control is taken in the simplest form u2 = −M2 sign(S2 ). once it reaches the surface. carried out on linear monovariable systems. sliding surface and the control). Figure 7 represents the evolution of the phase trajectory for the two subsystems. 2) the initial condition.IJ-STA. therefore.

5 2.6 −0. . 5 Conclusion We have proposed a methodology of implementation of the sliding mode control on a multivariable systems by using a decomposition of the system in r subsystems controllable each by only one component of the input. Simulations presented show satisfactory results for the sliding mode control.5 1. Vol.5 0 0 −0.5 −2.5 0.5 −1 −0.2 0.2 0 0.8 (a) Sub-system Σ1 −0. In the case of non linear systems.4 −0. N° 1. June 2007 0. This decomposition is valid in the case of linear systems.5 S (t) −1 −1 2 1 S (t) 40 −1.5 S =0 1 e12=f(e11 ) 2 1.6 −0.5 3 3. we can use the above methodology by linearizing the system around a functional point and consider the interactions as external disturbances.5 0 0 −0.5 −0.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 −1. 1.5 1 1 0.4 (b) Sub-system Σ2 Fig. 7. Phase Plane.4 −0.5 1 1.5 4 0 0.8 −0.5 0. Regulation case.5 3 3.5 −2 −2 −2.5 1 1.2 0 0.5 time (s) 2 2.4 S =0 2 e22=f(e21 ) 2 −0. 6.5 2 2.IJ-STA.2 0.5 4 time (s) (a) Evolution of S1 (t) (b) Evolution of S2 (t) Fig. 2.

4 0. Institute of Control Sciences. 1993. 1990. 12. Hassan. a la commande des syst`emes discontinus”. ”Systems of Variable Structure”. pages 271–289.IJ-STA. International Journal of Control. PhD thesis. ”Dynamic output feedback variable structure control for systems stabilization”. I. France. Utkin. U. J. ”Sliding order and sliding accurcy in sliding mode control”. A. 1978. Dunod.6 0. N 4:736–747. 1991.5 −1 −1. ”Applied Non-linear Control”. 11. 1972. J. Ed. ”Discontinuous control systems: State of art in theory and application”. 1.. A. 4. ”Dynamical feedback control of robotic manipulators with joint flexibility”. Levant.Ouvrage coordonn par Rachid A. V.5 0 e11 0. MIR. 1996. Mathmatiques et applications 55. P. IEEE transactions on systems man and cybernetics. 7. USA.2 1 0.. AC. Springer . Kluwer Academic Publishers. Fossard. International Journal of Control.5 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 time (s) 2 3 4 3 4 time (s) 10 2. 10. Moscow. B. SMAI. 8. Fossard. 56:pp. Zribi. Li. Masson.V. 1978. A. Sira-Ramirez.5 −1 −10 −0. 58 (6):1247 – 1263. Paris.Commande ` a structure variable”. Diong and J.8 0. 1993. N° 1. A. J. 607 – 630. S. Itkis. ”Differential equations with discontinuous Right Hand Sides”. Technical report. e12 = f (e11 ). 5. 22. June 2007 41 1. . 1992. ”Syst`eme de r´egulation . IEEE Trans.5 2 5 Control u e 12 1. ”Commande des syst`emes multidimensionnels”. 3. New-York. Medanic. 35:994–1001. S1 (t) and u1 (t) (Regulation case). Nouri. J. Lopez and A. A.5 0. 8. Vol. Evolution of y1 (t). Ahmad. ”Generalised controller canonical forms for linear and non-linear dynamics”. 2006.5 0 −5 0 −0. and M. USSR. Slotine and W. References 1. 6. H.4 0 −0. E. ”Th´eorie ´el´ementaire et pratique de la commande par les r´egimes glissants”. 9. M. ”Contribution ` INPG Grenoble. 1992.5 1 0.5 1 Sliding surface S Output y 1. Willey. Fliess. Prentice-Hall international.2 −2 0 −2. Paris. 2.S. Filippov. M. 1988. Inc.5 0 1 2 time (s) Fig. chapter .Verlag.

Berlin. June 2007 13. ”Continuous sliding mode control of a pneumatic actuator”. K. Young. 119:578 – 581. K. ”Variable Structure Control for Robotics and Aerospace Applications”. 1992. 1993. N.W. 1. Springer-Verlag. N° 1. ”Sliding Mode in Control Optimisation”.42 IJ-STA. Utkin. D. Tokyo. Surgenor. Transactions of ASME. V. Vaughan and B. 1997. Vol. I. New-York. London. D. . 14. Elsevier. Journal of dynamic systems measurements and control. 15.

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