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WORKBOOK

Detailed Explanations of

**Try Yourself Questions
**

Civil Engineering

Strength of Materials

2

**Simple Stress-Strain &
**

Elastic Constants

T1 : Solution

Initially, due to load ‘W’ each steel bar will carry

∴

Expansion of steel bars =

W

load

4

WL

4 AE

**∴ The temperature ‘t°’ should be raised such that a expansion of δ +
**

⇒

(L – δ) α t = δ +

but

L>> δ

⇒

Lα t = δ+

WL

is observed in the steel rod

4 AE

WL

4 AE

WL

4 AE

.....(i)

Now, the steel rod gets attached at the centre of steel plate, the force in each steel bar gets reduced by

20%.

Therefore, The load caried by each steel bar =

W

5

Remaining load will be carried by steel rod = W −

4W W

=

5

5

After connection the steel rod will not get detached from square plate, so the length of four steel bars and

steel rod will be same in the end

⇒

but

www.madeeasypublications.org

L+

WL

5AE

= L−δ+

W (L − δ)

5aE

L > >δ

© Copyright

3

Workbook

⇒

WL

5 AE

= −δ +

WL

5aE

⇒

WL ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

δ = 5E⎜a − A⎟

⎝

⎠

from (i) and (ii), we get

t =

.....(ii)

W ⎛1

1 ⎞

⎜ +

⎟

5E α ⎝ a 4 A ⎠

T2 : Solution

Due to symmetry, forces in metal wires 1 and 3 will be same, say P1

Let force in metal wire 2 is P2

As the bar is rigid, deflection of these metal wire should be equal.

⇒

⇒

P L/2

P1 L

= 2

AE

AE

P2 = 2P1

∑ Fy

L

L/2

1

2

3

Δ

= 0

⇒

P1 + P2+ P1 = P

a

∴

P2 = P/2 and P1 = P/4

As the load applied P is increased, a smooth downward deflection of rigid bar will observed

Δ =

a

PL

4 AE

Force in middle wire is higher than other two wires so it will yield first and further will not carry any force

(based on given stress-strain curves of wire).

Further increase in load P (say P′) will be equally carried by wire 1 and 3 only,

⇒

P1 + P3 = P′

⇒

2P1 = P′

[∵ P1 = P3]

′

P1 = P / 2

Δ =

Py L P′ L

+

4 AE 2 AE

**where Py is the load at which wire 2 yields and P′ is the increment beyond Py.
**

Then, both wires 1 and 3 will yield when P′ becomes equals to the yielding load of the wires.

© Copyright

www.madeeasypublications.org

25 mm (elongation) Assuming: Tensile force = Positive Tensile elongation = Positive www.4 Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials T3 : Solution Area of cross-section of AB (AAB) = 100 mm2 Area of cross-section of BC (ABC) = 200 mm2 Modulus of elasticity (E) = 200 kN/mm2 Axial tensile load (P) = 50 kN Length of portion AB (LAB) = 1 m Length of portion BC (LBC) = 1 m Let RA be the reaction at fixed end A By drawing the FBD of the given figure we came to know that to maintain equilibrium RA – 50 = 0 RA = 50 kN RA RA 50 kN 50 kN B A B C RA = PAB = 50 kN (Tensile) Portion AB: σAB = PAB 50 × 103 = = 500 N/mm2 (Tensile) 100 AAB ΔAB = PAB LAB 50 × 103 × 1000 = AAB ⋅ E 100 × 200 × 103 = 2.5 mm (elongation) Portion BC: PBC = 50 kN (Tensile) σBC = PBC 50 × 103 = = 250 N/mm2 (Tensile) 200 ABC ΔBC = PBC ⋅ LBC 50 × 103 × 1000 = ABC ⋅ E 200 × 200 × 103 ΔBC = 1.org © Copyright .madeeasypublications.

ΔxA is change in length of cube A in x-direction ΔxB is change in length of cube B in x-direction ΔxC is change in length of cube C in x-direction Δ xA Δ xB Δ xC + + L L L = 0 ∈xA + ∈xB + ∈xC = 0 .madeeasypublications. hence ΔxA + ΔxB + ΔxC = 0 where..75 mm 2.(i) σy = 0 σz = 0.org .5 kN/mm2 σy = 0 σz = 0 σy = 0 σz = 0 σx σx σx σx B σx σx C A 2 σz = 0.5 kN/mm © Copyright www.Workbook 50 kN 5 50 kN + A B C ( i)) Normal force diagram 2 500 N/mm + 250 N/mm2 A B C ( ii)) Normal stress diagram 3..5 mm + A B C ( iii)) Elongation/Displacement diagram T4 : Solution ( i)) Since the cubes are confined in x-direction.

org © Copyright .11 × 10–4 – 2.44 × 10–3 = –1. ∈xA = − σx .041 0.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 6 From above FBD.5 0.5 σ x μB σ z + = 5.084 × 10–3 T5 : Solution For a square section to have its strength maximum its side should be maximum so. we get σz ⎤ ⎡ −σ x ⎤ ⎡ −σ x ⎤ ⎡ −σ x ⎢ E ⎥ + ⎢ E + μB E ⎥ + ⎢ E ⎥ = 0 ⎣ A ⎦ ⎣ B B⎦ ⎣ C ⎦ − 2 σx σx σ − + μB z EA EB EB = 0 1⎤ ⎡ 2 σx ⎢ + ⎥ ⎣ E A EB ⎦ = σx = ( ii)) [∵ EA = EC] μB σ z EB μB σ z 0.11 × 10−4 EB EB EB EB ∈zB = − −0.3 × 0.3 × 0. ∈V = ∈xB + ∈yB + ∈zB = 5.5 = = 0.45 × 10–4 + 8.041 0.041 kN/mm2 EB 200 ⎞ ⎛ + 1 ⎜2 × 2⋅ ⎟ +1 ⎝ EA 150 ⎠ ∈xB = − ∈yB = −0. EB EB ∈xC = − σx EC Putting these values in (i).45 × 10−4 = + EB EB EB EB +μB σ x μB σ z 0.44 × 10−3 = + EB EB EB B ( iii)) Volumetric strain. we have to cut such a square from the triangle such that its side is maximum AD = AE = AD – DE = AE AD ⎡ 3a ⎤ − x⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎡ 3a ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ = A 3 a2 a a − = 2 4 2 GF BC 3 a−x 2 E G F x B H D K C a x = a a 2 ⎡ 3 ⎤ ⎥a x = ⎢ ⎢⎣ 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ www.3 × 0.3 × 0. we have.5 = + + = 8.3 × 0.041 σz μ σ x + = −2. EA ∈xB = − σx σ + μB z .madeeasypublications.

dM dx = (90 – 10 × 2x) = 0 x = 4.madeeasypublications. d2M < 0 dx 2 Hence. Mx = RA. bending moment is maximum at x = 4.5 – 10 × (4.5 m Mmax = 90 × 4.x M = 110 × 6 = 660 kN-m © Copyright [0 ≤ x ≤ 6] at x = 6 www.5 kN-m Taking x from right of support A. for maxima or minima.3 Shear Force and Bending Moment T1 : Solution RA + RB = 200 ∑ MA x = 0 ⇒ 12RB –120 × 9 – 80 × 6 + 480 = 0 RB = 90 kN RA = 110 kN Taking x from left of support B.org .5 m 2 dM dx2 = – 20.5)2 = 202. Mx 80 A B x RA 480 ⎡ wx2 ⎤ − R x ⎥ = ⎢ B 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 90x – 10x2 RB x [0 ≤ x ≤ 6] Now.

w/unit length A B 4a R w/unit length C 2a D Now the vertical deflection at B and C will be equal ΔB = ΔC w (4a)4 R (4a)3 − 8E I 3E I = w (2a)4 R (2a)3 + 8E I 3E I w ⎡ R 4 4 (8 a3 + 64 a3 ) ⎣256 a − 16 a ⎤⎦ = 8E I 3E I w × 240 a 4 8 ∴ = R × 72 a 3 3 R = 3 240 × wa 72 8 R = 5 wa 4 Bending Moment Diagram (BMD) Portion AB: Mx (x from B) = w 5 wa x − x2 4 2 = 0 Mx = at x = 0.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 8 660 kN-m 202.M.5 kN-m 180 kN-m 4.org © Copyright .5m T2 : Solution Let the reaction at the roller be R. if 5 w x2 wa x − 4 2 [0 ≤ x ≤ 4a] (Parabolic) 5 w (4a)2 wa (4a) − = −3 wa 2 4 2 5 w wa x − x2 = 0 4 2 www. MA = B. MB at x = 4a. will be zero.madeeasypublications.

78wa2 C (–) D 4.25a (–) D C 0. MD = − wa (2a) − 5 4 [0 ≤ x ≤ 2a] (Parabolic) w (2a)2 = –4.25a − 4 2 = 0.madeeasypublications.5 a 2 3 wa BMD © Copyright B 1.78 wa2 2 Portion C D : 5 4 w x2 2 5 4 w x2 2 Mx (x from C) = − wa x − Mx = − wa x − at x = 0.org .Workbook 5 w x2 wa x − 4 2 ∴ 9 = 0 w x⎤ ⎡5 x ⎢ wa − = 0 ⎣4 2 ⎥⎦ X = 0 (Already known) 5 wx wa − = 0 4 2 x = 2.25a 4 w x (1. MB = 0 at x = 2a.5 a Maximum positive BM for Portion AB: and dM x dx = 0 5 wa = wx 4 ⇒ x = ∴ Mmax = 5 a = 1.5 wa2 2 w/unit length A B 5 wa 4 5 wa 4 w/unit length (+) A 2.5 wa 2 www.25a ) 5 × wa × 1.

Taking moment about B from right. 2.5wa + wx – 6wa = 0 3.(i) Since there is an internal hinge at B.5wa + wa – 6wa = –2.5wa x − w x2 2 (Parabola) MD = 0 © Copyright .5wa w/unit of length A C D B Hinge RC RA 2a a 2a Reactions: ΣFy = 0 RA + RC = 5wa + 2.5wa x − w x2 2 [0 ≤ x ≤ a] Mx = – 2.5wa + wa = 3.5wa If Sx = 0. SC (just left of C) = 2.5wa + wx – 6wa [a < x < 5a] at x = a.5wa = wx x = 3.10 Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials T3 : Solution Let RA and RC are the vertical reactions at supports A and C respectively.5wa . SD = 2.5wa Portion CA CA: Sx(x from D) = 2. we get RA = 7.5a from A For BMD: Portion DC DC: at x = 0. SA (at support A) = 2..5wa at x= 5a.5wa For SFD: Portion DC : [0 ≤ x < a] Sx(x from D) = 2.5a) = 0 ⇒ RC = 6 wa Putting value of RC in (i).5wa × 3a) – (w × 3a × 1. then we have (in CA) 2.5wa – 6wa RA = 1.5wa + 5wa – 6wa = + 1.org Mx(x from D) = – 2.. we get ΣMB = 0 RC × 2a – (2.5wa + wx at x = 0. SC (just right of C) = 2.madeeasypublications.5wa at x = a. www.5wa RA + RC = 7.5a from D or 1. Since there is no horizontal load so horizontal reaction at fixed support A will be zero. therefore moment at B either from right or left is zero.

5wax − w x2 + Rc ( x − a ) 2 Mx = −2.5wa x − w x2 + 6wa ( x − a ) 2 at x = a. MC = −2.5wa(5a) − For Mmax.5wa SFD 1.5wa D RC = 6wa 2.5wa 1. w/unit of length Hinge A 2a RA = 1.5wa (3.125wa 2 D B wa C © Copyright 2 3wa www.5a Mmax ( at x = 3.5wa2 − wa2 = – 3wa2 2 at x = 5a.5a) = 2.5 wa – wx + 6wa = 0 x = 3.5a ) − w (3.5wa C a 2a 3.5wa 1.5wa2 – 12.5wa − at x = a.Workbook 2 MC = −2.125 +15) wa2 = 0.75 – 6.madeeasypublications. 11 wa 2 = −3wa 2 2 Portion CA CA: Mx(x from D) = −2.5a A BMD 2 0. [a ≤ x ≤ 5a] (Parabola) w (5a )2 + 6wa ( 5a − a ) 2 = –12.5a )2 + 6wa (3.5a 2.125wa2 There are two points of contraflexure and they are D1 and D2 at a distance ‘a’ and ‘2a’ respectively from fixed end.org .5a − a ) 2 = (– 8.5wa2 + 24wa2 = –wa2 dMx = 0 dx –2. MA = −2.5wa B 2.

Sx = 0 2 ∴ Sx = 0 or 4x – 12 = 0 x = 3m ∴ L = 2x = 6 m dS x dx We also know that.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 12 T4 : Solution 1 EI ⎛ ⎞ x4 3 + 36 x⎟ ⎜⎝ −2 x + ⎠ 6 ... we get M = 2x2 – 12x dM dx we know that.. at x = . and from equation (i).(i) = 1 EI ⎛ ⎞ 4 x3 2 + 36⎟ ⎜⎝ −6 x + ⎠ 6 . for simply supported beam carrying UDL www. ∴ = –Loading rate (w) d (4 x − 12) = w dx ∴ w = 4 kN-m Alternate solution: From equation (ii). = ⎤ 1 ⎡ 4 x3 2 + 36⎥ ⎢ −6 x + EI ⎣ 6 ⎦ y = ⎤ 1 ⎡ x4 3 + 36 x ⎥ ⎢ −2 x + EI ⎣ 6 ⎦ dy dx we know. EI 2 d 2y d x2 d 2y d x2 = 2x2 – 12x ..madeeasypublications... we get dy dx Again differentiating (ii). Differentiating (i). we get d 2y dx Also..(ii) = 1 EI ⎡ 4 × 3 x2 ⎤ 1 (2 x 2 − 12 x) ⎢ −12 x + ⎥= 6 ⎦ EI ⎣ Y = Given that.(iv) = 4x – 12 = Sx Sx = 4x – 12 L . ∴ we also know.. EI we know that.(iii) = M on comparing with (iii).org © Copyright .

Workbook θA = θB = δC = and wL3 24 E I Hence. wL3 24 E I 5 wL4 × 384 E I 1 [0 + 0 + 36] EI [∵ x = 0] wL3 = 36 × 24 = 864 . ∴ .(B) 5 × 864 = –96 L2 + 4 L3 + 6912 4320 = 4 L3 – 96 L2 + 6912 4 L3 – 96 L2 + 2592 = 0 ∴ From equation (A). L = 6m w × (6)3 = 864 ∴ w = 4 kN-m SFD and BMD: x 4 kN-m A B C 6m x 12 kN 12 kN A (+) 12 kN x C SFD B (–) 18 kN-m (+) A © Copyright BMD B www...(A) = 5 wL4 × 384 E I and 13 = 5 wL4 = 1 ⎡ L3 L4 36 × L ⎤ + ⎢ −2 + ⎥ EI ⎣ 8 6 × 16 2 ⎦ L⎤ ⎡ ⎢Q x = 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 384[−24 L3 + L4 + 1728 L] 96 5 wL4 = 4[–24 L3 + L4 + 1728L] 5 wL3 = –96 L2 + 4 L3 + 6912 wL3 = 864 From equation (A)...org .madeeasypublications.

SA = +12 kN at x = 3 m SC = 0 at x = 6 m SB = –12 kN BMD: Mx (x From A) = 12 x − 4 x2 2 [0 ≤ x ≤ 6] Mx = 12 – 2x2 (Parabolic) at x = 0.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 14 Reactions: By symmetry.madeeasypublications. RA = RB = wl 2 ∴ RA = RB = 4×6 = 12 kN 2 [0 ≤ x ≤ 6] Sx (x From A) = +RA – wx SFD: Sx = +12 – 4x (Linear) at x = 0. d Mx dx = 0 12 – 4x = 0 x = 3m Mmax (at x = 3 m) = 12 × 3 – 2 × 32 = 18 kN-m T5 : Solution Assuming p < q q 20 kN p A C B D 12 m 6m 18 m 12 (p + q) = 120 2 p + q = 20 kN/m Total distributed load = ⇒ Distance of centroid of distributed load from support D = ⎛ 2p + q ⎞ 12 ⎛ 2p + q ⎞ =4⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ p + q ⎠⎟ 3 ⎝ p+q ⎠ Assuming RB and RD to be the support reaction at B and D respectively www. MA = 0 at x = 6 m MB = 0 For maximum moment.org © Copyright .

p + q = 20 ⇒ ..5 kN/m © Copyright www.(i) RB = (given) 120 ⎡ ⎛ p + 20 ⎞ ⎤ 24 − 4 ⎜ ⎢ ⎟⎥ 30 ⎣ ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎦ ..madeeasypublications... we get ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 1 18 ⎡ ⎛ p + 20 ⎞ ⎤ ⎢480 + 480 ⎜ 20 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ = 120 30 ⎡ ⎛ p + 20 ⎞ ⎤ ⎢24 − 4 ⎜ 20 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 480 + 24 (p + 20) = 1728 – 120p + 2400 + 2400 p and. p + q q = = = = 72 (p + 20 ) 5 8640 – 72p – 1440 12. p + q = 20 ⇒ RB = ∑MA ⇒ 1 18 ⎡ ⎛ p + 20 ⎞ ⎤ ⎢480 + 480 ⎜ 20 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ = 0 ⎡ ⎛ 2p + q ⎞ ⎤ RB × 6 + RD × 24 – 120 ⎢24 − 4 ⎜ ⎟⎥ = 0 ⎝ p + q ⎠⎦ ⎣ RB = RD As..5 kN/m 20 7.Workbook 15 120 kN 20 kN A C RB RD 2p + q 4 p+q ∑M D ⇒ = 0 ⎡ 2p + q ⎤ RB × 18 – 20 × 24 – 120 × 4 ⎢ ⎥ = 0 ⎣ p+q ⎦ As.(ii) Equating value of ‘RB’ from (i) and (ii).org ....

..org © Copyright ..madeeasypublications.5× 10–6 ∈2 = –270.. (i) and (ii) ∈1 = +683. ∈y = ∈2 ∈1 + ∈2 ∈1 − ∈2 + cos (2 × 30°) + 0 2 2 3∈1 + ∈2 = 1780 × 10–6 445 × 10–6 = [∵ φxy = 0] .(ii) From eq.(i) We know that ∈1 + ∈2 = ∈x′ + ∈y′ ∈1 + ∈2 = +445 × 10–6 – 32 × 10–6 ∈1 + ∈2 = +413 × 10–6 . θ1 = 30° and ∈x = ∈1. ∈x′ = ∈x + ∈y 2 + ∈x − ∈y 2 cos2θ1 + φxy 2 sin2θ1 Here.5 × 10–6 www.4 Principal Stress-Strain & Theories of Failure T1 : Solution ∈y = ∈2 ∈ y′ φxy = 0 2× =3 –6 10 30° ∈x′ = + 445 × 10 30° –6 ∈x = ∈1 Let normal principal stress in x and y direction are ∈1 and ∈2 respectively.

1× 105 ∈ + μ ∈2 ) = ⎡ −270.17 Workbook Principal stresses may be calculated as σ1 = E 2.3 × −270.5 × 10−6 ⎤⎦ 2 ( 2 2 ⎣ 1− μ 1 − (0.3 ) ⎣ ( ) = 139.5 × 10−6 + 0.62 × 106 D3 σ2 = 16 ⎡ 16 ⎡ M − M 2 + T 2 ⎤⎥ = 20 − 202 + 402 ⎤⎥ × 106 3 ⎣ ⎢ ⎦ ⎦ πD πD 3 ⎣⎢ and = − 125.10 N/mm2 T2 : Solution When a shaft is subjected to combined bending and torsion.90 × 106 D3 (i) According the maximum shear stress theory τmax ≤ σ1 − σ2 2 ∴ ⎡ 329.88 mm © Copyright www. ∴ σ1 = 16 ⎡ M + M 2 + T 2 ⎤⎥ ⎦ πD 3 ⎢⎣ and σ1 = 16 ⎡ 20 + 202 + 402 ⎤ × 106 ⎦ πD 3 ⎣ σ1 = 329.3 ) = –15.88 mm Hence minimum diameter of shaft D = 153.1× 105 ⎡ μ ∈ ∈ + ( ) 683.3 × 683.5 × 10−6 + 0.62 + 125.org .90 ⎤ 6 ⎢ ⎥ × 10 D3 ⎣ ⎦ ≤ (σ y /FOS ) 2 (σ y /FOS ) 2 ⎛ 250 ⎞ ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ D3 ≥ 3644160 ∴ D ≥ 153.5 × 10−6 ⎤ 1 2 = 2 ⎦ 1 − μ2 1 − (0. the magnitude of principal stresses is given by σ1/σ2 = 16 ⎡ M ± M 2 + T 2 ⎤⎥ ⎦ πD 3 ⎢⎣ σ1 = principal stress σ2 = minor principal stress M = bending moment = 20 kNm T = Torque = 40 kNm where.madeeasypublications.00 N/mm2 and σ2 = E 2.

org © Copyright .69 mm..62 × 125.3 × 329.madeeasypublications.65 × 1012 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2E ⎣ D6 ⎦ 1 ⎡149399..18 Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials (ii) According to maximum strain energy theory U ≤ U = (σ /FOS ) 2E 2 y .69 mm Hence minimum diameter of shaft D is 145.90 × 1012 ⎤ ⎢⎜ ⎥ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ + D3 D3 D6 ⎢⎣⎝ ⎥⎦ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 1 2E = 1 ⎡149399.62 × 106 ⎞2 ⎛ −125.65 × 1012 ⎛ 250 ⎞ ≤ ⎜ 6 ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ D D6 ≥ 2 2 149399.90 × 106 ⎞2 2 × 0.65 × 1012 (125 ) 2 D ≥ 145.(i) 1 2 σ1 + σ22 − 2μσ1σ2 2E ( ) ⎡⎛ 329.65 × 1012 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥≤ 2E ⎣ D6 ⎦ 1 ⎛ 250 ⎞ 2E ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 149399. T3 : Solution 12 kN/mm τmax 300 mm 400 mm (–) 100 mm P (+) A B Point under consideration RA = 24 kN 24 kN (+) (Bending stress) (Shear stress) RB = 24 kN SFD 24 kN-m (–) 24 kN (+) 4m BMD www.

6 × 10 mm4 Now we have M = 18 kN.6 × 109 mm4.125 N/mm2 (tensile) 1.6 × 109 I and shear stress τ at a point P (y = 100 mm) below NA may be given as τ = SAy 12 × 103 × 100 × 300 × 150 = = –0. Hence normal and shear stresses at y = 100 below NA can be calculated as Bending stresses may be given as I = 18 × 106 × 100 M y σ = = = 1. S = 12 kN and I = 1.6 × 109 × 300 200 mm 100 mm 300 mm NA y A Note: Positive shear will produce negative shear stress element © Copyright www.125 N/mm2 Ib 1.org .0 m) M = 24 × 1 – 6 × 12 = 18 kNm and MOI about neutral axis is given by bd 3 300 × 4003 = 12 12 9 I = 1.Workbook 19 Shear force in beam AB is given by Sx(x from A) = RA – wx = 24 – 12x Shear force at (x = 1 m) = 24 – 12 × 1 = 12 kN Bending moment in beam AB is given by Mx (x from A) = R A x − = 24 x − w x2 12 12 x 2 = 24x – 6x2 2 Mx at (x = 1.madeeasypublications.

136 N/mm2 = σ1 and www.011 N/mm2 For direction of principal stresses.65° ) + 2 2 −0.011 N/mm2 © Copyright .125 − 0 cos (2 × −5.65° (clockwise) and θP2 = 90° + θP1 = –90° – 5.2 1.65° = –95.org σ2 = –0.5625 + 0.0220 σx′ = 1.136 N/mm2 and σ2 = –0.65°) = 0.125 + 0 2 ⎛ 1.125 N/mm 2 Now point can be considered as stress element shown below.5736 ∴ σ1 = 1.125 N/mm2 σy = 0 τ = –0.5516 + 0. we have tan 2θP = 2 τ xy = σx − σy −2 × 0.1125sin (2 × −5.1125 = −0.125 − 0 θP1 = –5.125 + 0 1.madeeasypublications.5625 ± 0.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 20 1.1125 N/mm2 The principal stresses may be given as σ1/σ2 = 2 σ x + σy ⎛ σ x − σy ⎞ 2 ± ⎜ ⎟ + τxy ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 = 1.65° (clockwise) Check: Principal stress normal to θP1 = –5.65° σx′ = = σ x + σy 2 + σx − σy 2 cos2θP1 + τxy sin2θP1 1.1125 N/mm 2 Here we have σx = 1. τ = 0.125 N/mm2 1.125 − 0 ⎞ ± ⎜ ⎟ + ( −0.1125 ) 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 0.

136 N/mm 2 0.org .65° 2 1.Workbook 21 Hence major principal plane is 5.65° clockwise from the vertical 5.011 N/mm © Copyright www.madeeasypublications.65° clockwise and minor principal plane is 95.

org R(2L) 48 EI 28 W 17 © Copyright . Deflection at B due to load W at C = Deflection at C due to load W at B W (2L ) W (2L ) R (2L ) + ×L − 3EI 2EI 3 EI 3 ∴ Deflection of B in beam ABC =δ 1 = 2 3 3 δ2 = R(2L) 48 EI δ1 = δ2 W (2L ) W (2L ) R (2L ) + ×L − 3EI 2EI 3 EI 3 2 3 3 = R = www.5 Deflection of Beams T1 : Solution B A C 2L L According to Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem.madeeasypublications.

we can obtain the final distance between AA. Taking outer face as reference.org . Total strain energy.madeeasypublications. Hence apply pseudo load Q at ends A.Workbook ( ) 3 23 3 14 WL ⎡ 28 ⎤ 8L δ 2 = δ 1 = δ B = ⎢ W⎥ = 51 EI ⎣ 17 ⎦ 48EI By area-moment method. U = 2 UAC + 2 UBC + UCC a (Qy )2 dy ⎡Q 2 y 3 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ 2E I ⎣ 6 E I ⎦0 UAC = ∫0 UAC = Q 2a3 6E I 2 2a ( −Py ) dy UBC = ∫0 UBC = 4 P 2a3 3E I UCC = © Copyright a 2E I a [−(Qa ∫0 2a ⎡P 2y 3 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 6 E I ⎦0 + 2 Pa)]2 d x (Qa + 2 Pa)2 [ x ]a0 = 2E I 2E I www. considering.hogging bending moment to be negative & sagging bending moment to be positive 2RL EI + A B – 3wL EI wL EI 2L L ⎤ ⎡ 1 2RL ⎤ 1 ⎡ (3 wL + wL ) × 2L ⎥ θB = ⎢ 2 × EI × 2L ⎥ − 2 ⎢ EI ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = 12 wL2 56 wL2 4 wL2 − = − 17EI 17 EI EI – ve sign ⇒ closckwise T2 : Solution Using strain energy method. Since no load is acts at AA.

org dMx dx = Sx = −q0 x + q0 Mx = −q0 x 2 2 + q0 x3 2 + q0L 3 3L 2 x4 2 + q0Lx + C2 2 12L 3 © Copyright . x = L 2 q0 L 3 ⇒ C1 = ⇒ Sx = − q0 x + q0 x3 2 + q0L 3L2 3 Let ‘Mx’ be the moment at a distance ‘x’ from the fixed end ⇒ ⇒ www.madeeasypublications. final distance by which AA moves away from each other is 2 Pa 3 .e. Shear force is 0 ⎛ L2 − x2 = − w = −q0 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎝ L Sx = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ −q0 ⎡ 2 x3 ⎤ − L x ⎢ ⎥ +C 3 ⎦⎥ 1 L2 ⎣⎢ i. EI T3 : Solution Let ‘Sx’ be the shear force at a distance ‘x’ from the fixed end dSx dx ⇒ At free end.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 24 UCC = (Qa + 2 Pa)2 ⋅a 2E I ∴ Total strain energy. U = 2 UAC + 2 UBC + UCC = 2 × Q 2a 3 2 × 4 P 2a 3 (Qa + 2 Pa)2 a + + 6E I 3E I 2E I 2 Q 2a3 16 P 2a 3 3a (Q 2a2 + 4 P 2a2 + 4 PQ a2 ) + + = 6E I 6E I 6E I U = ∂U ∂Q = 28 P 2a 3 + 5Q 2a 3 + 12 PQa 3 6E I 10Qa3 + 12 Pa3 6E I 12 Pa3 2 Pa3 ⎛ ∂U ⎞ = = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ∂Q Q = 0 6E I EI Thus..

e. (E I) y = q0 x 6 q0 x 4 q0 L x 3 q0 L2 x 2 − + − 24 9 8 360L2 Deflection at free end. x = 0 ∴ dy dx = Mx.org . Put x = L ⇒ y = − 19 q0 L4 360 EI T4 : Solution The beam will deflect as Vertical deflection at C..e.e.25 Workbook At free end. x = 0 dx ⇒ = q0 x 5 60L2 where y is the deflection of beam with x distance − q0 x 3 q0 L x2 q0L2 x + − + C3 6 3 4 ⇒ C3 = 0 q0 x 6 q0 x 4 q0 Lx 3 q0 L2 x 2 − + − + C4 EI (y) = 24 9 8 360L2 ⇒ C4 = 0 y = 0 at fixed end. i. i. Δ = Δ1 + Δ2 Δ1 = Deflection due to moment in BC Δ1 = ML2 μL2 = 2E I 2E I L B C C′ Δ1 Δ2 C′′ H Δ2 = Deflection due to moment in AB μLH MH ×L = EI EI Δ = Δ1 + Δ2 Δ2 = ⇒ Δ = μL2 μLH + 2E I EI ⇒ Δ = μL ⎛ L ⎞ +H⎟ E I ⎝⎜ 2 ⎠ © Copyright A www.madeeasypublications.. Moment is 0 x = L 2 ⇒ q L C2 = − 0 ⇒ Mx = 4 q0 x 4 12L2 − q0 x 2 2 q L2 + q0Lx − 0 2 3 4 Applying double integration method EI ⇒ d2 y dx2 EI dy = 0 at fixed end. i.

org © Copyright .0469 64 EI EI www. then 8EI is the flexural rigidity of AB (∵ depth of AB is twice that of BC) Using moment-area method Deflection at D = Area of shaded region 1 × centroid of shaded region 1 about point D + Area of shaded region 2 × centroid of shaded region 2 about point D. PL ⎤ ⎡ 16PL + ⎢ L ⎣ 16EI 16EI ⎥⎦ 13L 1 + = = PL 4 2 × 3 3PL 24 + 16EI 16EI Centroid of region (2) from point D PL 2EI 3PL 16EI PL 16EI = 2 1 A D B L/2 L/4 C L/4 M/EI diagram ⎡ 2PL PL ⎤ L ⎢ 2EI + 4EI ⎥ 5L = ⎢ ⎥= 4 × 3 ⎢ PL + PL ⎥ 36 ⎢⎣ 2EI 4EI ⎥⎦ Now deflection at point D is equal moment of area of PL 4EI M diagram between fixed end and D about D. EI L/2 ⎡ 3PL PL ⎤ 13 L ⎡ PL PL ⎤ 5 + × ×L+ + × ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣16EI 16EI ⎦ 24 4 × 2 ⎢⎣ 2EI 4EI ⎥⎦ 36 = 3 PL3 PL3 = 0.madeeasypublications.26 Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials T5 : Solution P MX x is taken from the free end of the stepped cantilever Mx = – Px 0 < x ≤ L 2 x P MX L⎞ ⎛ MX = − ⎜ 2Px − P ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ P L < x ≤ L 2 x If EI is flexural rigidity of BC.

For UDL w/unit length A B wl 2 l Mx = BM will be maximum at x = Mmax = © Copyright wl 2 wl wx2 x– 2 2 l 2 wl l wl 2 wl 2 × − = 2 2 8 8 www.org .6 Bending & Shear Stresses in Beams T1 : Solution The condition given in the above problem is that the beam has same value of maximum bending stress for both UDL and concentrated load.madeeasypublications. ∵ σmax = Mmax × ymax I Now for a particular beam σmax is directly proportional to Mmax Case 1.

For concentrated load P P A B P/2 P/2 l Mx = BM will be maximum at x = ∴ Mmax = P x 2 l 2 P l Pl × = 2 2 4 Now for same bending steress..Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 28 Case 2. Pl wl 2 = 4 8 wl P = 2 ∴ ⇒ . Mmax for both cases should be equal..org w 2 ⎛ l 5 l 5 2l 5 ⎞ + − 8EI ⎜⎝ 3 5 4 ⎟⎠ © Copyright .madeeasypublications. (1) Strain energy for UDL case x w/unit length A B wl 2 wl 2 l U = UAB M2dx ∫ 2EI 2 ⎛ wl wx 2 x − ⎜ = l⎜ 2 2 ⎝ ∫0 2EI UAB = UAB = l ∫0 w2 l x − x2 4 2EI ( ⎞ ⎟⎟ dx ⎠ ) 2 dx w2 l 2 2 l x + x 4 − 2l x3 dx 8EI ∫ 0 ( ) l UAB w 2 ⎛ l 2 x 3 x 5 2l x 4 ⎞ + − = 8EI ⎜⎝ 3 5 4 ⎟⎠ 0 UAB = www.

(2) Strain energy for concentrated load case P A x B P/2 P/2 l UAB = UAC + UCB ⇒ UAB = UAC + UAC ⇒ UAB = 2UAC [∵ loading is symmetrical UAC = UCB] 2 ⎛P ⎞ ⎜ x ⎟ dx = l/2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2∫ 0 2EI ⇒ UAB ⇒ UAB = 2 ∫ ⇒ UAB = 2 2 l/ 2 P x 0 8EI dx P2 l / 2 2 x dx 4EI ∫ 0 l/2 P2 ⎡ x3 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ 4EI ⎢⎣ 3 ⎥⎦ 0 ⇒ UAB ⇒ 2 3 UAB = P × l ⇒ UAB = w2l 2 l 3 × 4 × 4EI 24 ⇒ UAB = w2 l 5 384EI [from (1) we have P = wl ] 2 4EI 24 [UAB ]UDL [UAB ]CL = w2 l 5 /240EI 2 5 w l /384EI ...madeeasypublications.6 240 5 ∴Strain energy when beam is loaded with UDL is 1..6 times the strain energy when beam is loaded with concentrated load. (3) = 384 8 = = 1.. © Copyright www.org .Workbook UAB = w2 ⎡ 20l 5 + 12l 5 − 30l 5 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 8EI ⎢⎣ 60 ⎥⎦ UAB = w2 2 5 × l 8EI 60 UAB = w2 l 5 240EI 29 .

B Calculating shear stress at a depth of 60 mm from the top fibre Area above 60 mm depth till top.5) = 0 ⇒ RA = 46.org © Copyright .3) – 72 (1.93 × 106 mm4 ⎦ 12 ⎣ F = ΔM 80 kN-m = = 80 kN 1m Δx The maximum shear stress occurs at the ‘Neutral axis’.27 N/mm2 T3 : Solution ∑MB 72 kN = 0 ⇒ RA (2. So.6 N / mm2 5.93 × 10 6 × ( 2 × 5) × [100 × 10 × 95 + 2 × 90 × 5 × 45] = 47. q max = = F Ay Ib 80 × 10 3 22. shear stress increases as the RB RA section moves closer to centre of gravity of the section. Shear Stress. τ = s ( A.96 kN For a constant width of section. B is the width of cross-section at the point of consideration I. when width changes suddenly.76 × 10 × 90 Calculating shear stress at a depth of 40 mm from the top fibre Area above 40 mm depth till top. A = 30 × 20 + 60 × 20 = 1800 mm2 www.33 ) 6 = 7.33 mm 3600 46.y ) . which will result in a sudden drop. we need to find shear stress at three depths. A = 30 × 20 + 60 × 20 + 90 × 20 = 3600 mm2 Centroid of above area considered from mid-point.96 × 103 (3600 × 23.96 kN ∴ Shear force at section x – x = 46. from extremes the shear stress will increase from 0 to some value till the width increases suddenly. y = τ = 600 × 50 + 1200 × 30 + 1800 × 10 = 23. (Top or bottom of section) So. After that the shear stress will start increasing again and will again witness a sudden drop with sudden increase in width.30 Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials T2 : Solution I = 1 ⎡ 3 3 100 ( 200 ) − 90 × (180 ) ⎤ = 22.madeeasypublications.

madeeasypublications.15 N / mm2 Hence.org . maximum shear stress on beam at section-xx is 8. © Copyright www. A = 30 × 20 = 600 mm2 Centroid of above area considered from mid-point.76 × 106 × 30 = 8. y = τ = 600 × 50 + 1200 × 30 = 36.67 mm 1800 46.97 N/mm2.96 × 103 (600 × 50 ) 5. y = τ = 600 × 50 = 50 mm 600 46.Workbook 31 Centroid of above area considered from mid-point.67 ) 5.97 N / mm2 Calculating shear stress at a depth of 20 mm from the top fibre Area above 20 mm depth till top.96 × 103 (1800 × 36.76 × 106 × 60 = 8.

madeeasypublications.7 Thick & Thin Cylinders and Spheres T1 : Solution Due to temperature changes a pressure difference of ‘P’ N/mm2 is created P P Outer cylinder Inner cylinder hoop stress in outer cylinder. σh inner It is a vessel so no longitudinal stresses will develop Elongation in circumference of outer cylinder = = www. σh outer = pd 2 t outer (tensile) = pd 2 t inner (compressive) hoop stress in innner cylinder.org σouter × Circumference of outer E pd πd π pd2 × = 2 t outer E 2E t outer © Copyright .

madeeasypublications.5 N/mm2 © Copyright www. reduction in radius of inner cylinder ⇒ pd2 pd2 + 2E t outer 2E t inner = Elongation in circumference of inner cylinder π = pd2 2Et inner = initial interference 2 2 ⇒ ⇒ ∴ p (100 ) 2 × 2 × 105 × 2 + p (100 ) 2 × 2 × 105 × 2.1 N/mm2 Hoop stress in outer cylinder = 277.Workbook 33 ∴ Elongation in diameter of outer cylinder = Elongation in circumference of outer cylinder π = pd2 2E t outer Similarly.org .5 = 0.25 p = 11.

8 Torsion in Shafts & Springs T1 : Solution T τ Gθ = = J r L We know that θAB = θAC + θCB TL θ = GJ θCB = θ1 = θ3 T1 + T3 = T.org τ r 1 τmin T1 ⎛ D ⎞ × J1 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ © Copyright .madeeasypublications. T1 L G1 J1 = T1 = T3 L G3 J3 ⇒ T1 = 2T3 2T 3 T3 = T 3 ⎛ 2TL ⎞ θCB = ⎜ 3G J ⎟ ⎝ 1 1⎠ θAC = T (2L ) 2 TL = G2 J2 2G1 J1 ⎛ 2TL ⎞ 2 TL 5TL θAB = ⎜ 3G J ⎟ + 2G J = 3G J ⎝ 1 1⎠ 1 1 1 1 T J = τmin = www.

SBT is position of S after considering bending and torsion both.Workbook 35 2T D TD = 3J × 2 = 3J 1 1 Alternative: τmin = = TD T3 ⎛ D ⎞ G1 × = 6 J G × G1 ⎜ ⎟ J3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ G3 3 3 ⎛ TD ⎞ TD × G1 = ⎜ ⎟ 3 J1 ⎠ ⎛ G1J1 ⎞ ⎝ 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ T2 : Solution At point D.66 kN in z-direction + deflection due to moment of 8.66 kNm A moment of 8.66 kN about y-axis ⇒ Δ z ( ←) = = y z 8.66 kN PL3 ML2 + 3EIy 2EIy ( 8. leftward deflection in z-direction = deflection due to point load of 8. There will be no moment about x-axis a torsion of 5 kN-m will be present about x-axis A moment of 5 kN-m will be present about z-axis due to 5 kN load in negative y-axis. OB is position of O after bending only.46 − ( −1. θ = TL 5 × 106 × 3 × 103 = 0.66 kN load will be applied in negative 5 kNm 5 kN y-axis and negative z-direction.66 × 106 × 3 × 103 ) 2 2 × 2 × 105 × 4 × 108 = 1.46 mm.org .46) −100 − 0 OB α θ SBT SB www.46 mm Coordinate of point S without consider torsion is (– 301. tan α = tan α = © Copyright y-cordinate of SB − y-cordinate of OB z-cordinate of SB − x-cordinate of OB −301.66 kN-m will be present about y-axis due to 8. 8. so there is no use of downward load 5 kN in y-direction and 5 8 kNm kN moment about z-axis. Deflection due to bending in y-direction is neglected.66 × 103 × 3 × 103 ) 3 × 2 × 105 × 4 × 108 3 + ( 8. 5kN and 8. – 100 mm) Rotation due to torsion.madeeasypublications.66 kN load in negative z-axis.000047 radians = GJ 8 × 104 × ( 4 + 36 ) × 108 SB is position of S after considering bending only. OBT is position of O after bending and torsion both.

which is N accompanied by an axial force P in each bar.23 cos (α – θ).23 sin (α – θ) – 1.000047 radians ⇒ θ = 0. (torque applied) – Angular rotation due to TC (couple induced) = rotation of horizontal diameter NQ ⇒ ⇒ TL AB TCL AC − GJ GJ = θ TL AB TCL AC − GJ GJ = PLMN PLPQ Δ = or 40 AEMN (40) AEMN (40) – ( TC / 80 )(1500 ) TC (1500) = π π 80 × 103 × × 804 (16 )2 × 2 × 105 × 40 32 4 6000 × 103 × 750 π 80 × 103 × × 804 32 ⇒ 6000 × 103 × 750 – (1500) TC = ⇒ 6000 × 103 × 750 – (1500) TC = ⇒ TC = ∴ θ = T C × 1500 × 80 × 103 × 80 × P Q π × 804 32 π 2 16) × 2 × 105 × 40 ( 4 1500 × 10 TC 4 6000 × 103 = 857. θ Δ Δ = 40 θ 80 mm due to the axial forces in each bar.46 301.madeeasypublications. lets say by an angle θ. due to the Torque applied at B. – 100. a couple is produced P TC = P (80) N/mm The elastic vertical bars tend to restrain angular rotation of C. so this couple will act in opposite direction of Torque of 6000 N/m. Angular rotation due to 6000 N-m.org © Copyright . Extension in length of bars will be observed.01 radians GJ GJ www.0027° Distance of between OB & SBT = Distance between OB and SBT Because location of OB will not change after torsion and cross-sectional dimensions remain unchanged = 3002 + 1002 = 316.23 mm y-coordinate of SBT = = z-coordinate SBT = = – 316.02 mm – 316.565° and θ = 0.143 N / m 7 T (750) TC (1500) − = 0.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 36 ⇒ α = 71.457 mm T3 : Solution The horizontal diameter NQ of ABC will rotate by some extent.

37 mm2 4 Z = π ⎛ D4 − d4 ⎞ 3 2 ⎟ = 67.madeeasypublications. ∑ MA = 0 ⇒ Hc × 4a – Fs × 3a = 0 ⇒ Hc × 4a – ka (Δθ) × 3a = 0 ∴ Hc = A Hc aΔθ 3 ka(Δθ) 4 Fs Hc B Δθ C Pcr © Copyright www.07 × 10 3 ∴ Maximum stress intensity = 74. ( ) A = π 100 2 − 752 = 3434.55 + 14.07 × 10 mm 32 ⎝⎜ D ⎠ P 50 × 10 3 = 14.10 N/mm2 T2 : Solution Pcr A free body diagram of the entire system of two rigid bars is shown below Take.9 Theory of Columns T1 : Solution Section modulus.55N / mm2 = A 3434.37 Direct stress = Bending stress = ± M 50 × 10 3 × 100 = ±74.55 = 89.org .55 N/ mm 2 = ± Z 67.

25 m 2 Effective length. for the calculation of critical load.097 cm2 4 π (204 − 164 ) = 4637 cm2 64 I = 41 cm A l = 2. ⇒ σc A ⎛l 2 1+ α ⎜ e2 ⎜ ⎝k = 8497666 = 2. I = Moment of Inertia.252 ⎞ 1 ×⎜ 1+ ⎟ 1600 ⎝ 41× 10−4 ⎠ π2 × 94 × 109 × 4637 × 10−8 π 2E I = 2.Civil Engineering • Strength of Materials 38 Now.42 3510896 www.org © Copyright . le = Rankine’s Critical load P = ⇒ P = 3510896 N Pe = ⇒ Pe Pe P ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ = 550 × 106 × 113. k = π (202 − 162 ) = 113.madeeasypublications.097 × 10−4 ⎛ 2.252 l2 = 8497666 N Euler’s critical load. shown below Take. consider the free body diagram of lower bar BC. ∑ MB = 0 Hc × 2a – Pcr × 2a (Δθ) – ka (Δθ) × a = 0 ⇒ ⇒ Pcr ka = 4 FB 2aΔθ B Ka(Δθ) Hc T3 : Solution HB Δθ C Pcr A = Area. Radius of Gyration.

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