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Contenido
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 2
OBJECTIVES........................................................................................................ 2
MUTATIONS......................................................................................................... 2
MUTATIONS: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES....................................................3
TYPES OF MUTATIONS...................................................................................... 3
RESULTS.......................................................................................................... 4
OPINION ABOUT MUTATIONS............................................................................ 5
TRANSGENIC ANIMALS........................................................................................ 6
HOW TRANSGENIC ANIMALS ARE CREATED.....................................................6
RESULTS OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS................................................................6
OPINION ABOUT TRANSGENIC ANIMALS..........................................................7
ROLE OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS TO PEOPLE AND THE WORLD...........................7
TRANSGENIC ANIMAL FOR HUMAN CONSUME..................................................7
BENEFITS FOR PEOPLE.................................................................................... 7
DISEASES THAT TRANSGENIC ANIMALS PRODUCE IN THE ENVIRONMENT.......8
PRINCIPAL EFFECTS IN HEALTH.......................................................................8
INFLUENCE OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS IN THE WORLD........................................9
Advantages of transgenic animals...................................................................10
Disadvantages of transgenic animals...............................................................10
Development of animal models for studying human diseases............................10
The characteristics of an ideal animal model are:..............................................11
Use of genetically modified animals as organ donors for humans
“xenotransplantation”..................................................................................... 12
The main causes giving rise to the existence of immunological barriers in
xenotransplantation include:............................................................................12
CONCLUSION.................................................................................................... 12

Transgenic animals could be serving as a source of tissues and organs for human transplant. It is necessary to mention some objectives about this topic: OBJECTIVES .Identify each characteristic of some important sequences of gens we base - in genetic files. then the copy made in the DNA will be rewrite as a normal sequence.2 INTRODUCTION I am going to talk about transgenic animals. because of some agents to correct these problems in the DNA. The mutation is much higher frequency into DNA. searching a stable mutation during some generations. Mutants alleles exist in a high percentage that don´t have high tendency to the originals alleles to make a mutation again. MUTATIONS One of the most important discovering made by Science about gens was each one of the reactions that this organism suffer and these are known as “mutation” or also denominated change in the nucleotides sequence of DNA. . Transgenic animals are the topic which is coming up these days. Transgenic animals are a high importance for everybody. On the other hand if a DNA sequence hasn´t corrected against any present change in the same. Watch some diseases models that affect the people and create new drugs - and treatments. so in the future it will show us how to fight some diseases.

in the past year. The heredity mutations pass to offspring throws spermatozoon and ovules. Mutations are an important cause in the genetic diversity. for example: 1) Heredity and acquired mutations -it is important to notice that not all mutations have the same effect in the body cells. Sometimes mutations might have places of spontaneous events such mistakes during DNA replication. There are pernicious mutations where two types of mutations are useful to make a correct survey. MUTATIONS: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES A mutation is a change in the DNA sequence of nucleotides. Mutations are great importance for the investigation. As a result. this type of mutations are owned to the Scientifics Beadle and Tatum. . TYPES OF MUTATIONS Mutations obey to very different causes. these Scientifics provided a high advanced. Nowadays Scientifics are jacking a particular mutation of gen using some DNA technologies to separate gen and determine the bases sequences this mutation has. The mutation cause genetic illness. to provide a variation among individuals above evolution forcer acting the most known. so that it also studies the heredity and molecular environment of gens. Mutations might also be harmful. the mutation is present in the genome of all heredity cells. One of the most important information is the vital importance that mutation has in the evolution. For example the species of evolution develop or acquire new characteristics by mutations of time gens.3 While this process exists some not correct mutations are present during the event and these are known as silence mutations.

4) Substitution mutation bases.these mutations are known as transitions. 3) Silent or similar mutation. . since the nucleotide sequence in one nucleotide is lost while in the chain this gives us a disadvantage is foreshortening a single unit. metabolic disorders and other diseases. an example of this mutation would accomplish when you want to change a couple of AT by TA or CG . acquired mutations cause anomalies in the growth in cell that leads the cancer tumors formation. Even though these are not heredity..Here there are two types differ as the one developed in sequence and another chain but the difference is simple. 7) Bleed mutations. . 5) Transitional mutations .. For example if you add or base pairs that is not a multiple number three this would tend to have serious problems because from that point all the information that is being altered are removed.. this mutation is to replace one base pair by having same features or similarities.These mutation is done to replace a base by another base but other as a pair of AT by TA or CG.These mutations occur by changing the location of a pair of nitrogenous bases..This mutation does not perform or does not produce any change in amino acid or organic molecule. . 6) Transversional Mutations. For example. 8) Deletion of lost nucleotides mutation. the long exposition in the ultraviolet light might cause acquired mutations in the skin cell which cause skin cancer.4 2) Acquired mutations.These mutations is to add or withdraw nucleotide pairs but this process has a consequence since this tends to alter the length of the string. .are produced in the sexual genome cell and are not transmitted to the heredity.

this weird genetic mutation produces the death between twelve and thirteen years old. even though in some cases individual live until twenty years old. The most evident symptoms are: an extreme facial hair. knowing just fifty cases register since the Middle Age until today. this mutation can be caused by some changes that happen with the messenger RNA splicing. The beginning and end of each intron in a gene are limited by a conserved sequence of DNA. shoulder and the body zones. Progeria The Progeria is basically the premature aging in children between one and two years. . RESULTS Hypertrichosis The Hypertrichosis is a genetic disease much more strange and less frequent than the last.This mutation develops in order to add additional nucleotides but these should be brought and thus reach the corresponding chain lengthening. One of the disadvantages that arise in this mutation.5 9) Insertion of new nucleotides mutation. which develops fast. sharply and accelerating the organism aging. . Syndrome of Proteus . Also known as Hutchison-Gilford Progeria. ears. with the consequences that will happen in the future for the mature RNA and translated protein. is whether the nucleotide changes or mutates into a highly conserved places this site or place will not work anymore. affecting only a one of each one thousand millions of people. 10) Mutations in the cleavage sites and union. because of diseases related with old ages.this mutation is known by the scientific name of splicing or shift mutations.

but I also think that we must not abuse the sense of unnecessary things. a genetic disease that the body becomes totally vulnerable. leading to numerous tumors in the body. One of the known cases is the cruelly named “elephant man”. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) This disease is commonly known as "bubble boy syndrome". We include that gen in an embryo . that is to say. which was inspired by a true story: the life of David Vetter who was the best known of the strange SCID case lived for thirteen years in a large plastic bubble that its air filtered and eliminated any pathogen as suffering from this condition. OPINION ABOUT MUTATIONS My opinion about this work is: it seems to me fascinating all wonderful things that might be made and full utilities which we should give to all of this. TRANSGENIC ANIMALS Transgenic animals are those that possess a gen which doesn’t belong to them. The disease is related after the film The boy in the plastic of 1976. her immune system was completely ineffective. unable even to breathe without taking deadly risks. The easiest way to produce transgenic animals involves the isolation of the gen which requires introducing. skin and other tissues of body. else only the ones provide with benefits. it is cloning and manipulating can be expressed by the white organism and it’s insertion in the organism. causing excessive increase in the skin and bone structure abnormal development.6 It is a genetic condition in bones. who suffers from a condition considered in conjunction with neurofibromatosis type one that affects the development of neural tissues.

Individuals that are produced carry the gene only in a percentage of their cells.7 in the zygote cover. Modified cells are injected in the embryos in blastocyst phase. With this technique is obtained that the transgene is present in all individual cells. the problem of this is that the transgene is inserted random.000 genes. It is the least suitable technique and it is used when it is important to lead the genetic sequences to specific places. The second technique is the retrovirus as vector. that is why only a five percent of ovules produce alive animals. RESULTS OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS  Mouse with ears on the back  Phosphorescent rabbit  Pig with human gens  Chimpanzee whit bat gens . This technique is easily applied to several species. HOW TRANSGENIC ANIMALS ARE CREATED There are three ways to modified genetically an animal. the gen also inserted random. Finally is the use of embryonic stem cells. as in the microinjection case. it has versions of knockout mice of about 10. The first is the microinjection. At present. the transgene we implant the embryo in a receptive animal and acts like a mother. but. Once we are sure the embryo was incorporated. One of the clearest examples of transgenic animals include knockout mice are more experimental animals used in biomedical for easy handling and fast playback. of which about 500 are animal models of human diseases.

8  Rat dog humanoid of New York  Rodent with monkey and beaver gens  Mutant turtle whale  Super mouse  Chupacabra ( is the mix of wolf. carp. rabbit. OPINION ABOUT TRANSGENIC ANIMALS This topic is very interesting because it is a big advance in this issues even I don´t think they shouldn´t make useless things because we don´t know how this changes can react. This transgenic salmon. there isn’t any transgenic animal which consuming is authorized. dog and goat) All these animals are the result of the mix of the next animals: Mouse. The Canadian government has authorized the production and export of not fertile eggs from this transgenic fish. called “Aqua Advantage”. Despite of its production and selling for human consume is not authorized. pig. Scientific of the AquaBanty Technologies North American factory have produced specie of transgenic salmon that grows the double that a normal salmon and higher speed. goat. cow. contains the hormone growing of Chinook salmon. BENEFITS FOR PEOPLE . that they can harmful for us and the specie. ROLE OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS TO PEOPLE AND THE WORLD TRANSGENIC ANIMAL FOR HUMAN CONSUME Nowadays. cat fish. rat. salmon. quail. Medaka. chicken. sheep. is a step closer. trout. tilapia. rodent. golden fish and others.

First. Harm to wild life and lands: Pesticides of transgenic crops kill insects and bacteria that are useful and life in the ground. 3. Likewise. Loss of natural pests control: Some transgenic crops are made with the pesticides that are inside them. allowing the obtaining of more growing with less energy consume. bats and other animal that help in the plant pollinations and pests control. pest might be resilient to them. so that the trans-genesis makes the animal models developing easily for the study of human or animal diseases. 2. Also they might be harmful for birds. and it helps in the understanding of so important mechanism like the proliferation and the cells different. they get better the basic searching. DISEASES THAT TRANSGENIC ANIMALS PRODUCE IN THE ENVIRONMENT 1. Effects in nearby plants: The pollen of transgenic crops flies with the wind and it spreads to other similar plants. making them more suitable for human consume or more easily transformable for the industry. Their application reaches also the sanity toppy.9 The real and potential applications that transgenic animals contributed are multiples. . How transgenic plants are new. When pesticides are using without careful control. they benefit the animal production. that makes it easy a higher understanding about mechanisms working and control of gens. nobody knows the possible effect that this situation will have in long term. as milk. they allow to modified specifically some characteristics of food product. Second.

as resistant cows to the mastitis. these were only served as laboratory tools. which means animals that have been added one or some genes in their genetic material. In USA. in the known case of Corn Starlink in the year 2000 was found in the food chain traces of transgenic corn not allowed for human consume which made serious problems of allergic reactions. It is very interesting the production of medicines like insulin and the growth hormone in the milk of cows and goats. generating animals that grow faster. as for example. with a less offspring which mouses fed with conventional corn. About a survey made public by the Austrian government. It`s to say some transgenic might be transfer to the bacteria and resistance to determined antibiotics which are used for fight against diseases with humans and animals. or animals that resist diseases. cows which give milk with some important proteins to health and the nutrition of the baby. Gens are able to add in animals to offer more useful products like better quality or more health. these animals give a lot of milk and a big .10 PRINCIPAL EFFECTS IN HEALTH There are many affects that we need to consider to talk about health specially: 1 The new allergies by introduction of new proteins in food. One opinion by the BRITANIC MEDICAL ASOCIATION recommends forbidding the use of these gens. like salmons and catfishes. But later it was able to incorporate the technology to animals of economic importance with different objectives. If the first transgenic animals were mice. INFLUENCE OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS IN THE WORLD Techniques had allowed developing transgenic animals more recently. 3 The new toxics in the food 4 The Increasing of the pollution in the food by a higher use of chemical products in the farming 5 The Decreasing in the capacity of fertility. the fertility of mice fed with corn genetically modified was seen seriously damaged. These techniques are able to use also to the improvement. 2 The antibiotics resistance in pathogenic for people.

Advantages of transgenic animals • Know the details of how disease genes are the key to find better treatments. Although transgenic animals don’t exist in supermarkets. in lakes and rivers that deplete the oxygen creating wide lands without fish or aquatic organism. Disadvantages of transgenic animals • New proteins expressed when genes are inserted from other species can trigger allergic or hypersensitivity reactions in some people • Few fetuses survive • Multiple integration (tandem or not) • Place indefinite integration (position effect) • Methylation and lack of expression . Other case corresponds to the development of pigs more ecological genetically modified. this product is the first medicine produce in transgenic animals and it is approved by regulatory agencies of Europe and USA. The phosphorous excreted by animals produce new changes in seaweed. the result of obtaining large quantities of a biological product • Testing of vaccine safety and chemicals • They allow studying the development of diseases in longer periods of time and therefore more realistic.11 quantity of medicine that we can obtain from these animals. that is. therapies and diagnostic procedures. These animals show benefits for the environment in the feces and urine less levels of phosphorous. there are transgenic goats that generate an anticoagulant protein in udders. • Resistance to diseases • Use as bioreactors.

Much of human diseases have a hereditary basis and are caused by mutations in genes. There transgenic animal models for the study of a wide variety of human diseases. They often appear in the news media that collect new discoveries in which involved transgenic animals are. • High number of conserved genes compared to humans. • Numerous offspring. there is a close agreement between the genomes of different species of mammals. has 20. • Short reproduction. the transgenic animal models are helpful in understanding the role of genes in the development of a disease or to reproduce human diseases in animals . it is well known that the development of animal models has been instrumental in advancing the understanding of oncogenes and oncogenic viruses. but others many examples of scientific advances in transgenic mice are also important tools. Therefore. The application of transgenic technology has been particularly useful to examine the importance in the expression of certain genes in the pathogenesis of many diseases.000 to 25. sequenced in 2004. • Availability of methods of genetic and experimental manipulation. . Moreover.000 genes responsible for the formation and maintenance of the human body.12 • Mosaicism (germinal and somatic) • Specific Expression / ectopic • Variable Expression • Variable expression within lines is known as variegation Development of animal models for studying human diseases The human genome. The characteristics of an ideal animal model are: • Ease of breeding. in order to investigate new treatments.

13 For some diseases. because we don`t know the effects that these animals produce in the future. such as the requirement for longer periods in the study of many human diseases observation. I can say that these new technologies scared me. and even if our country continues to lead the world ranking donation of organs. CONCLUSION As a conclusion. physiology and lifestyle. 2) Acute vascular rejection. This balance will be unbridgeable in the medium term if we apply innovative techniques to increase the number of transplantable organs. one of the challenges is the balance between supply and demand: Unfortunately. occurring nowadays. Farm animals such as pigs. the possibility of using animal species as organ donors was raised many years ago. which occurs in seconds or minutes after transplantation. 3) And. Knockout mice are good models. The main causes giving rise to the existence of immunological barriers in xenotransplantation include: 1) The response of hyper acute rejection. Therefore. so using the mouse as a genetic model has shown some limitations to the study of many human characters. potentially chronic cellular rejection. Use of genetically modified animals as organ donors for humans “xenotransplantation” However. may be more appropriate models to avoid some problems. problems in the world as people who want to use techniques in their . Transgenic pigs were used as experimental study model of retinitis pigments. growing trend in the reduction of deaths from traffic accidents and increased life expectancy. there will have be. sheep and cattle. as much in the case of modified animals which we can eat as in the case of cloning animals. many patients die before accessing the desired transplant. occurring weeks after transplantation. but mice and humans differ significantly in their anatomy.

but I have controversies about conclusions that genetic engineering has. . In summary. the techniques which are being applied in healing diseases.14 benefice or there is a control in the market by multinationals which have biotechnological laboratories and has a production much higher than the rest. as cows that use to produce antibodies for people in a lot of quantities. On the other hand. if can have a secondary effect in the future. it seems we can get magnificent things from all of this. and I don`t believe that there is something bad in it. seem to me a good idea. although of all ways we might not know. Also the creation of new organs in laboratories is something very good and useful.