Information Polity 14 (2009) 91–109

DOI 10.3233/IP-2009-0168
IOS Press

91

Modeling e-government business processes:
New approaches to transparent and efficient
performance
Hafedh Chourabi, Sehl Mellouli and Faouzi Bouslama∗
Management Information Systems Department, Faculty of Business Administration, Universite´ Laval,
Pavillon Palasis-Prince, 2325, rue de la Terrasse, local 2507, Qu e´ bec (Qu´ebec), Canada G1V 0A6
Abstract. Many governments worldwide are restructuring their business practices to improve their performances. To help
describe and understand the process of restructuring, modeling techniques are used at different levels of modeling abstraction.
This paper presents a new approach to the modeling of e-government business processes. It is based on two existing modeling
techniques: Business Process Mapping (BPMapping) and UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology (UMM). The BPMapping
technique provides an overall graphical representation of an organization depicting all different types of business processes,
their inputs, outputs, and the environment in which the organization operates. The UMM methodology with its different business
views gives details on collaborations and interactions of business processes. Combining BPMapping with UMM leads to a very
expressive modeling approach which can provide artifact details at the higher levels of modeling abstraction and which also
shows deployment strategies of the business processes. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, it is applied to
the modeling of the Record Integrated Management business process at Quebec Government.
Keywords: BPMapping, UMM, Business process modeling, e-Government, Record Integrated Management, Business domain
view, Business requirements view, Business transaction view

1. Introduction
In recent years, government organizations in many countries are witnessing major transformations
where business practices are restructured and business processes are re-engineered to achieve more
transparency and to improve performances. Governments are transforming themselves to become a single
entity qualified as an enterprise that will offer a single entry point to all citizens. This transformation
is done at two levels [15]: the front office transformation to achieve a single multi-channel entry point
such as a Portal, and a back-office transformation where all business processes are integrated to achieve
the pooling, sharing, and reusing of information and common components.
To achieve the back-office transformation, governments need to have a global vision that can be
documented and described through a Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) [1,2] and its architecture
framework [9,24,32]. This global vision offers to governments a common framework of reference to all
Ministries and Agencies (M-A) [7]. The framework allows any M-A not only to position its projects with
respect to other projects, but also to anticipate the opportunities of pooling, sharing and re-utilization [21]

Corresponding author: Pavillon Palasis-Prince, 2325, rue de la Terrasse, local 2507, Universit´e Laval, Qu´ebec (Qu´ebec),
Canada G1V 0A6, Tel.: +1 418 266 5872; Fax: +1 418 656 2624; E-mail: faouzi.bouslama@fsa.ulaval.ca.

1570-1255/09/$17.00  2009 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

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H. Chourabi et al. / Modeling e-government business processes

Fig. 1. The four main levels of modeling abstraction.

by developing interoperable and inter-connected systems, and by the reusing of informational entities and
common components securely and in accordance with international norms and standards. The use of the
framework contributes to the transparency and efficiency of the back-office processes [14]. Moreover,
governments adopting an architecture framework are able to close the gap between their current/future
strategy and the ability of their supporting information technology (IT) while improving the effectiveness
of their performances and business processes.
The performance of government organizations can be improved through restructuring and management
of the business processes in governments’ M-As. This restructuring act implies a business process reengineering (BPR) and management [30] while focusing on three main concepts of pooling, sharing, and
reuse of the common components. Prior to re-engineering of government business processes, there is a
need to model the business processes in order to provide an abstract representation [16,18,26,31] which
should facilitate the analysis and the design of solutions that can improve the execution of the business
process.
There are several techniques and methodologies to model business processes: BPMN [8], Petri Nets [3],
UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology (UMM) [28], Business Process Mapping (BPMapping) [4,20], and
UML 2.0 Activity Diagrams [25]. The modeling process usually runs through three main levels of abstraction, a conceptual, a logical and a physical level, respectively [27,29] to organize any architectural
artifacts. However, the modeling process must also take into consideration the reality of the business
domain [31] necessitating adding another level of modeling abstraction. This business context and
requirements dimension is expected to help modelers achieve more comprehensive and realistic models [29]. Figure 1 depicts the different levels of modeling abstraction. At each level, the modeling
process generates artifacts that describe to varying degrees of details how business processes operate and
collaborate in any legal framework and constraints, how these processes are supported by information
and technology, who the artifact targets and which particular issue is addressed.
Though each of the above mentioned modeling techniques and methodologies generates artifacts in
their most appropriate level of abstraction, there is no single approach that describes how to generate
all business re-engineering modeling artifacts through all the levels of abstraction. Moreover, models
created by techniques such as BPMN, Petri Nets and UML 2.0 Activity Diagrams may not fully reflect
the reality on the ground due to sometimes a lack of supporting procedures and guidelines on how to
transfer the business domain expert knowledge to the business process modeler. In fact, presently there
is a big challenge on how to reduce the mismatch in understanding between these two parties.
The UMM on the other hand is a top-down methodology that provides a well-defined set of procedures
for interaction between the business domain expert and the process modeler leading to models closer
to reality. With its Business Domain View (BDV), Business Requirements View (BRV), and Business
Transaction View (BTV), UMM leads to the creation of the needed artifact details. Moreover, it

with BPMapping it is possible to show a lot of details including the operational business processes. this methodology has one shortcoming where it is difficult to properly classify the business processes in their respective logical grouping of business areas. it depicts the interrelation of the business processes from a necessity logic perspective [20]. the business processes for management and support. 2. The RIM is a highly complex process that spans many M-As and which includes many sub-processes that are interrelated. UMM does not provide details of the collaboration such as the inputs. It leads to simple graphical global models that encompass the functional complexities of an organization as in the case of governments. the use of both modeling techniques leads to the generation of all needed business modeling artifacts at all the levels of abstraction. Finally. UMM helps view the business collaborations. the interrelation between the business processes. Overview of business process mapping and UMM There are quite a few modeling techniques and methodologies used to model. this paper introduces a new methodology for modeling business processes in government applications. Section 3 presents the details of the combined approach and the steps of modeling business processes. In BPMapping. . dependent on each other and which involves many business partners. the legal framework and constraints of the organization. the mission. and the environment in which these processes interact. The proposed methodology helps in the understanding of this business process by showing its details at various levels of modeling abstractions. describe and document business processes in organizations. / Modeling e-government business processes 93 contributes to the understanding of the whole business collaboration at different levels. The combination of BPMapping and UMM provides an efficient tool that is able to model the many complexities of government business processes at different levels of abstraction. To address the UMM shortcomings and provide a complete global picture. there are three types of business processes: – the operational processes. outputs and the stakeholders of the business processes. To illustrate the effectiveness of the modeling methodology. it was necessary to use a technique such as BPMapping. Therefore. Among these techniques.H. The BPMapping is used at the business context-level to provide a global and a high-level of abstraction model showing the government business processes and their interdependencies. outputs and inter-relationships between the business processes. 2. However. Moreover. the Business Process Mapping technique or BPMapping and the UMM methodology are two modeling approaches that are increasingly adopted by modelers to provide all the needed artifact details of any business process at various levels of modeling abstraction. The detailed description of these processes is achieved through the use of the top-down UMM methodology. Section 4 introduces the RIM project at the Quebec government used as a motivating example. it is implemented to model the Record Integrated Management (RIM) business process used by the government of Quebec. Chourabi et al. The BPMapping modeling technique BPMapping provides a global overview of the business processes of an organization from a contextual perspective. Moreover. the business interactions and the flow of information exchanged between all business partners. as well as the business partners.1. In fact. Based on a combination of BPMapping and UMM. This model helps identify all the inputs. Section 2 gives an overview of the BPMapping modeling technique and the UMM methodology. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 5 is the conclusion and a summary of future work.

suppliers and any stakeholder. 2. Figure 3 depicts the results of this business process mapping.2. The operational processes are the activities that transform inputs into outputs in the form of products or services. the map identifies the business process partners including customers. This methodology provides guidelines to analyze and model business processes for orchestrating services [22]. / Modeling e-government business processes Fig. The third step identifies the support and the monitoring processes. The interaction between the different process types [4]. The second step involves the identification of the required resources.94 H. They refer to any routine activities performed by the various business functions in the organization including sales and marketing. 2.20]. UN/CEFACT modeling methodology – UMM UMM is a methodology developed by the United Nations Center for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) to model collaborative business processes performed between different business partners [28]. It allows modeling inter-organizational business processes [33] by developing their global choreography [10]. and finance and accounting [4]. and planning and/or budgeting specifications. human resources or financial support. Here. manufacturing and production. The support processes on the other hand provide the necessary support for the achievement of the operational processes. Figure 2 depicts these process types and their relationships to one another. there are four steps to follow [4. The inputs can be either any physical elements or information provided from within or outside the organization. Chourabi et al. It depicts the collaboration that can take place between different partners involved in a business process. These rules can be in the form of development of strategies. In order to build a business process mapping. Inputs from the environment are provided by suppliers and customers. the fourth step produces the map that shows all the interactions that may occur between all the business processes. and – the monitoring processes. Finally. They supply the required resources which can be in the form of material. the inputs and the outputs of these processes are determined. and the rules and guidelines to which each operational process must conform to. – the support processes. It proposes diagrams based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) . As for the monitoring processes. they provide the rules to which the operational processes must conform for proper execution. The first step identifies the operational processes since they represent the business core of the organization as stated in its mission. In addition.

and finally identifies the business partners and the stakeholders involved in these processes [17]. The BDV is used to gather existing knowledge from stakeholders and business domain experts.H. / Modeling e-government business processes 95 Fig. provides a description of theses processes. It identifies the business processes. manufacture. a business process . The identification of the business processes is achieved through interviews with the domain expert. recruitment/training. actualization and post-actualization [29]. formalism to describe the business collaboration at different levels of abstraction. – the Business Requirements View (BRV). The five categories of process areas are: planning. Then. and health care. Once identified. and – the Business Transaction View (BTV). In the BDV. negotiation. from the conceptual to the physical level [12]. The BPMapping formalism. regulation. financial services. the business processes are classified into categories of process areas which themselves are classified into categories of business areas [29]. design. The eight categories of business areas are: procurement/sales. identification. 3. these processes are described by pre-defined forms that must be fulfilled by the designer. Chourabi et al. UMM proposes eight categories of business areas and five categories of process areas [29]. UMM offers three views of a business process: – the Business Domain View (BDV). logistics. classifies them.

and the different partners of these processes and the moment at which these partners start to participate. in the form use cases. the requirements of an identified collaboration between business partners. by using a state diagram. their states such as when they begin. Each view represents an artifact that helps to capture the requirements of the business collaboration. The BTV is made of three sub-views that are used to describe the overall choreography of information exchanges between processes. 3. their breakpoints. / Modeling e-government business processes Fig. The third sub-view is the business partnership view that describes. may involve either a business partner or a stakeholder.. This activity diagram shows the activities of the processes. These requirements are gathered within three sub-views of the BRV. The first sub-view is the business choreography view that illustrates the collaboration protocol by representing the different existing business transactions between partners. the lifecycle of the entities manipulated when performing the collaborative business process. A stakeholder does not take part in the process but has an interest or a stake in the achievement of the process. when they end. Figure 6 represents the conceptual view of the BTV. A partner participates in the achievement of the process. Figure 5 represents the conceptual view of the BRV. Chourabi et al. The BPMapping-UMM combined approach Combining BPMapping modeling technique with UMM methodology leads to the generation of an efficient modeling tool to capture and describe the many complexities of business processes at different . The BDV conceptual overview [28]. The BRV captures the requirements of each business partner or stakeholder involved in a business process. Figure 4 represents the BDV conceptual overview. etc. 4.96 H. Finally. The second sub-view is the business interaction view that defines the interactions between business partners in detail. The second sub-view is the business entity view that shows. the BTV describes the business information exchange protocol expressed as a data model that formally represents the information exchanged between business partners of the business processes [13]. The first sub-view is the business process view that is represented by an activity diagram. The third sub-view is the business information view that explains the information exchanged in the business interactions.

Consequently. Steps of the combined approach The combined approach has three main ensembles or grouping of steps. The BRV conceptual overview [28]. respectively. This combination provides a single framework for modeling business processes from the business-contextual to the physical level. It serves as a foundation to develop the UMM artifacts. The first ensemble includes the four steps of the BPMapping approach. 3. The challenge is due to the fact that both modeling techniques of BPMapping and UMM do not use the same formalisms and concepts. / Modeling e-government business processes 97 Fig. the second .1. levels of abstraction. Although in both of BPMapping and UMM modelers have enough guidance and information on how to create the global business model and the various UMM artifacts. the first step identifies the operational processes and their inputs and outputs. In this ensemble. In fact. it is not clear how to transit with models from BPMapping to UMM. The combined approach starts by developing the business process map and then continues with the development of the different UMM models.H. 5. Chourabi et al. and physical levels. this combined approach includes a mapping phase between BPMapping concepts and formalisms to UMM concepts and formalisms to guarantee an overall coherence between the different models so that a modeler and therefore a designer can go from one model to another without any ambiguity. BPMapping provides the global view at the business-contextual level whereas UMM describes and documents the details of the collaboration and interaction of the business processes at the conceptual. the major challenge in the proposed combined approach resides with the definition of a mechanism that allows the transition from the business map to UMM models. respectively. logical.

/ Modeling e-government business processes Fig. In fact. – Step 2 (BPMapping): For each operational process. the BRV and the BTV. when performing the transition only the concepts and formalisms between those of BPMapping and BDV of UMM are taken into consideration. The second ensemble involves the transition steps from BPMapping to UMM. the modeler focuses only on the concepts and formalisms of BPMapping. The details of all of these phases of modeling of the combined approach are listed hereafter: Ensemble 1: BPMapping development – Step 1 (BPMapping): Identifies the operational processes.98 H. their inputs. The first step is the mapping of the core concepts of BPMapping which are the operational processes. the BDV is the first step in the UMM top-down approach. the resources it requires. Chourabi et al. . and their outputs. the third step determines the support and the monitoring processes. Then. The BTV conceptual overview [28]. However. and finally the fourth produces the overall map. this second ensemble includes two steps. 6. and the support processes into UMM BDV formalism. the guidelines and rules to which it must conform to are determined. These modeling activities involve the development in three steps of the BDV. The second step is the mapping of the representation of a business process with BPMapping into its representation with UMM. Therefore. step involves the identification of the required resources and the rules to which each operational process must conform to. the monitoring processes. The final ensemble of steps relates to the development of the different UMM diagrams. other models corresponding to UMM BRV and UMM BTV are generated. In this first group of modeling steps.

The Identification processes identify the ways to implement the planned strategies. Chourabi et al. 8. Ensemble 2: Mapping BPMapping to UMM – Step 5: The BPMapping identifies business processes and groups them into either monitoring processes. In fact. the Planning processes identify the future strategies that monitor and manage the execution of business processes. Figure 8 shows the mapping of the operational processes of BPMapping to both process categories of Actualization and Post-Actualization of UMM. – Step 4 (BPMapping): Identifies the interactions that may occur between all the business processes. The mapping of the types of processes of BPMapping to UMM process areas categories is operated as follows. In the BDV. The monitoring processes in BPMapping are mapped to the categories “planning” and “identification”. The operational processes are mapped to the process categories “Actualization” and “Postactualization” where the actualization phase performs the agreed upon exchange values. Mapping of the Operational process of BPMapping to Actualization and Post-Actualization of UMM. / Modeling e-government business processes 99 Fig. UMM classifies business processes into categories of process areas. rules and guidelines. – Step 3 (BPMapping): From these resources. and the postactualization phase executes the possible complaints. support processes and monitoring processes are respectively identified. These two categories achieve the global objectives of the organization. Figure 7 shows the mapping of the monitoring processes of BPMapping to both Planning and Identification process categories. operational processes or support processes. Fig. 7. .H. Mapping of the Monitoring process of BPMapping to Planning and Identification.

Ensemble 3: UMM diagrams – Step 7: A business domain view is decomposed into business areas. Mapping a business process in BPMapping to an UMM use case diagram. financial. Mapping of the Support process of BPMapping to process areas of Negotiation of UMM. the business collaboration is identified and described by use case diagrams. process areas and business processes. The support processes in BPMapping are mapped to the negotiation process category. Each business process that has been identified in the BDV is decomposed into activities which are represented by an activity diagram. Figure 9 shows the mapping of the support processes of BPMapping to the negotiation process category of UMM. It describes the choreography of the business transactions that were identified in the . all the diagrams are generated by mapping the BPMapping concepts into UMM artifacts as shown in Ensemble 2. – Step 8: This step identifies and describes the business collaborations where the details of each one are provided by a form. the business transactions are identified. and the business processes are represented by a use case diagram. the negotiation process identifies the human. 9. Figure 10 shows how a business process in BPMapping is mapped to an UMM use case diagram. material and technology support. Chourabi et al. Then. Each artifact is described by a form.100 H. In fact. At this stage. Moreover. 10. the business areas and the process areas are represented by package diagrams. – Step 6: Any business process identified in the BPMapping is represented by a use case diagram in the BDV. Fig. These elements represent the artifacts of the BDV. Then. respectively that allow business processes to achieve the overall objective of the organization. / Modeling e-government business processes Fig. – Step 9: This step identifies the business collaboration protocol that takes place between business processes.

digital. . it has been implemented in the modeling of a complex government business process at the Quebec government. the Archives of Quebec sets the rules and regulations that govern the process of recording documents and each M-A is expected to apply these guidelines in its RIM process. etc. Finally. CD. Chourabi et al. This process is designed to provide service to all government businesses and programs. The records retention schedule is then submitted for internal approval by the M-A. The project is dubbed the CRGGID (in French: Cadre de R´ef´erence Gouvernemental en Gestion Int e´ gr´ee des Documents) for Government Reference Framework in Integrated Management of Documents. 4. The business collaboration is detailed by a specific form and represented by an activity diagram. consulted.H. The objective of the CRGGID is to fulfill the business requirements of record management including the legal proof. archived or deleted after a certain number of years have elapsed as stated in the records retention schedule.). a business process defines how to coordinate the interactions with a business partner. “updating”. this translates to a BPEL process definition that coordinates activities representing the execution of Web Service. the personnel protection and confidential information. The CRGGID is based on a government business process called the Records Integrated Management (RIM). The records retention schedule includes a recording plan and a set of rules and regulations of the Archives of Quebec. The RIM process follows a specific execution cycle. – the Metadata Profiles. Then. each business transaction is described by a use case diagram in which a business transaction is an exchange of business information. Based on the UMM diagrams. If a records retention schedule has been approved by the Archives of Quebec. Once a document is registered. To emphasize the usefulness of combined approach. This is the “Records Retention Schedule Approval” phase. At this stage. The CRGGID which is developed under the ISO 15489 international standard on Records Management provides generic models aimed at the following aspects of the records’ management: – the Recording Act. / Modeling e-government business processes 101 business collaboration. it is then submitted to the Archives of Quebec for another approval. a class diagram that represents the final business information model is developed. a BPEL code can be generated in order to deploy processes as web services [11]. and “consulting” documents. RIM is a complex process which includes many sub-processes that are interrelated and dependent on each other. In a Web Service environment. This business process is called the Record Integrated Management (RIM). and the integration management of both digital and paper documents. It involves inter as well as intra M-A business partners where the Archives of Quebec plays a major role as an external business partner. the tracking records. Case study: The record integrated management project at the quebec government The Government of Quebec has initiated a new project for the management of documents in their different formats (paper. The following section presents the modeling artifacts for the RIM at all levels of abstraction. In fact. Once the schedule is approved by an M-A. In fact. the process is operational which means that users can perform the actions of “registering”. and – the Classification Schemes. it can be updated. It starts with the “Records Retention Schedule Development” phase within a particular M-A. the M-A then prepares the application of the RIM that consists of functional interfaces for document management.

The resources required in the RIM are in the form of software packages to support the operational processes. The objective of RIM project is to ensure better management of information. citizens (individuals or groups such as local firms). the following monitoring processes and support processes are identified: ∗ The monitoring processes are “records retention schedule development” and “records retention schedule approval” processes. ∗ The support processes are only one processes the “management of rules and application” process. The output of this process is an application used to achieve the operational processes. However. the challenge resides with the issue related on how to classify processes in their respective process and business areas. Some of these challenges were related to the methodology itself and some were related to the software packages that have to support UMM. its modeling can be very challenging. The complexity of the RIM process made it difficult for the business process modeler and the domain expert to classify the business processes in their respective process areas. A lot of efforts have been spent on introducing UMM to novice users in the modeling team and a consensus had to be reached on adopting it as the modeling technique for the project. the modeling results of the previous three design steps. the RIM is a complex business process that consists of several business processes that are related and interdependent. The modeling of the RIM process initiated as a pilot project to test and validate the introduction of UMM at the Quebec government. A document can be saved by a person but it affects everyone including the Archives Quebec. – RIM Step 2: The rules of the operational processes are the record retention schedule. Despite the fact that UMM proposes these forms to avoid problems of misunderstanding between the two parties due to communication problems. Due to the complexity of the RIM business process. / Modeling e-government business processes The complexity of the RIM process is due to the fact that it involves a large number of users within the government sector including individuals and M-A. the complexities present in the many interrelationships of the business processes can be described and documented. by following the guidelines of the proposed BPMapping-UMM modeling approach. In fact. management of conserved asset and consult. the M-As. Throughout the lifecycle of a document.1 as follows: Ensemble 1: – RIM Step 1: The operational processes are the processes that add a value to inputs to product outputs. This project followed the UMM modeling steps as stated in the methodology where the business process modeler and the domain expert meet together for interview in order to fulfill the UMM stereotypes forms. Figure 11 depicts all the identified business processes of the RIM and their respective inputs and outputs. – RIM Step 3: From the rules and resources identified in step 2. there was the major challenge related to the understanding of the RIM itself and its business requirements. The Enterprise Architect software package was the only available tool that supports UMM models and artifacts. the model of the RIM can be developed by applying the nine design steps of Section 3. Along with these challenges. – RIM Step 4: This step summarizes. There were some major challenges with the RIM project which required more attention from the modeling team. update. in a graphical map. Chourabi et al. Here also a lot of training was required to acquire skills.102 H. there are specific users of the RIM who can be both suppliers and customers. In fact. Table 1 shows the results of applying the first three design steps of the combined approach. their output is the records retention schedule which states the rules and the guidelines to be followed by the other processes. Indeed. . The operational processes identified in the complex process RIM are: register.

Chourabi et al. Ensemble 2: – RIM Step 5: In the case of RIM. In the case of the process area “Negotiation”.H. guides. 11. compendium Outputs Records retention schedule Records retention schedule Approved records retention schedule Records Legal proof − Files/documents − Rules and guidelines of the records retention schedule Records Records Records Software Generic components Rules and guidelines of the records retention schedule Records Legal proof Ordered records Statistical and textual analysis Secure and reliable information IFGD Fig. the “planning” process area includes the “records retention schedule development” business process and the “identification” process category includes the “records retention schedule approval” business process. the . / Modeling e-government business processes 103 Table 1 Modeling results of the first three design steps of the RIM Type of processes Monitoring process Operational process Business processes Records retention schedule development Records retention schedule approval Register Update Consult Management of records Support process Rules and applications management Inputs Laws. Business process map of the RIM.

whereas the “post-actualization” process area includes the “records management” business process. .104 H. The “actualization” and “post-actualization” process areas also represent the core of the business collaboration between partners. – RIM Step 8: This step defines the BRV work procedure. Package diagram of the RIM process areas. Figure 13 shows the use case diagram of the business processes of the actualization process category. Chourabi et al. the “negotiation” process category includes the “rules and applications management” business process. in the case of the process areas “actualization” and “post-actualization”. The operational processes provide the outputs needed by the clients. Each business collaboration is defined by a use case diagram. In the case of RIM. This diagram helps the identification of the business collaboration. – RIM Step 6: This step maps the business processes of the RIM identified in the BPMapping to the artifacts of business process of UMM. 12. Therefore. Figure 12 represents the package diagram of the decomposition of the RIM into the five process categories: planning. the business collaboration is performed between the business partners according to rules and guidelines provided by the monitoring processes of the two process areas “Planning” and “Identification” and based on the output of the support processes of the “Negotiation” process area. “update” and “consult” business processes. Consequently. the operational processes of the BPMapping are mapped into the “actualization” and “post-actualization” process areas. business collaboration partners negotiate all the actions that should be taken to facilitate the business collaboration. They are the core of the business collaboration. The business processes are regrouped in the same use case diagram according to their process areas. identification. The “actualization” process area of the RIM includes the “register”. negotiation. actualization and post-actualization. Finally. The use case diagram shows the business partners of the business process and the nature of their relations. / Modeling e-government business processes Fig. Ensemble 3: – RIM Step 7: Here the BDV work procedure is defined. The output of these processes will support the realization of the business collaboration between the business partners. the support processes of the BPMapping are mapped into the process category “negotiation”. Each business process identified in the BDV is described in more details through an activity diagram. Figure 14 shows the activity diagram of the “register document” business process. Each business process is represented by a use case diagram.

added values of the processes. were combined to generate guidelines of how to model complexities in business processes at different levels of details and abstraction. and a class diagram to describe the information model of the RIM. It provided not only details of the business domain. outputs. 5. Elements such as inputs. / Modeling e-government business processes 105 Fig. 15 depicts the business collaboration protocol diagram. The BPMapping technique was used to create an overall graphical representation of the business process in its environment. but it also should help business domain experts capture the justification and environment in which these business processes are used without having to use the technical language of systems analysts and application developers. a use case diagram to identify each business transaction. “Update” and “Consult” of “actualization”. Conclusions and future work This paper presented a methodology for modeling complex business processes such as those encountered in government organizations. Chourabi et al.H. The Fig. The details of the processes at lower levels of abstraction were modeled using the UMM methodology which provided an effective tool to model the business process collaboration between the different partners in an organization. By applying the BPMapping-UMM approach to the modeling of the RIM business process. the BPMapping and UMM. It provides three diagrams: An activity diagram to describe the business collaboration protocol. legal framework and constraints. The transition from the model’s high level of abstraction to its low level is guaranteed by the combined approach. it is possible not only to view all the elements that make this complex business process but also to gain un understanding of how this process work. The . Two business process modeling techniques. 13. Use case diagram of the processes “Register”. – RIM Step 9: This step defines the BTV work procedure. and the processes interdependencies can be illustrated.

.106 H.. / Modeling e-government business processes act RegisterDocument Responsible Document Management (M-O) Authenticate user InitialState «SharedBusinessEntit.. Activity diagram of the business process “register document”...... and how to move from one level to the other. Register Metadata in the register «InternalBus.. :Registration «InternalBus... SubmitRegitration «BusinessProcessA. :Metadata form «BusinessProcessActivity» PrepareRegistration [provided] «InternalBus...... :Registration «BusinessProcessA. To demonstrate the usefulness of the methodology.. :Registration [notApproved] [approved] «BusinessProcessActiv. AcceptRegistration «SharedBusi... :Registration [rejected] «BusinessProcessA. ConfirmRegistration Failure «BusinessProcessActiv.. Request document metadata form «BusinessProcessActivity» Provide metadata form [requested] «SharedBusinessEntit.. it was applied to the modeling of the RIM process at the Quebec Government......... Chourabi et al.. CheckRegistration [submitted] «InternalBus. :Registration [prepared] «SharedBusinessEntit... :Registration [revised] «BusinessProcessA. 14.. :Registration [confirmed] Success Fig. The results showed that the RIM business process can be well modeled and documented by a set of appropriate artifacts showing the overall business view as well as the detailed . :Metadata form «BusinessProcessActi. :Registration «BusinessPro.. Recieve Confirmation «SharedBusi.. combination of the two modeling techniques resulted in a methodology that shows how to generate modeling artifacts at varying levels of details and in different levels of abstraction.. RefuseRegistration «BusinessProcessActiv. Classify document in the repository «InternalBus.... AbandonRegistration «BusinessProcessA... ReviseRegistration [refused] «BusinessProcessA..

6. the approach can be extended to include details of business processes at the implementation level. a modeling technique such as BPMN can be used. Therefore. / Modeling e-government business processes 107 Fig. In this case. 15. Acknowledgments This work has been financially supported by the Government of Quebec. there is a need to identify data that interconnect the business processes. Though this modeling approach focused on the first three levels of modeling abstractions reflecting the business process re-engineering in its analysis and design. Business collaboration protocol of the business process “register document”. However. in large-scale organizations the number of business processes that need to be modeled is extremely large. The artifacts for this complex business process can be used to provide a common communication background between all of the business process’ stakeholders including the business managers. Daniel Pascot. Chourabi et al.H. the interconnection of the business processes can be very challenging. Before attempting to create a comprehensive model. . The authors would also like to thank Prof. operational views of the process. This should help reduce any ambiguity in the re-engineering process and will contribute to the enhancement of work and productivity. Canada. The business processes integration approach can follow the methodology of Information System Urbanization [5. the information systems analysts as well as the applications’ developers. for his valuable comments. Without this identification. The authors would like to thank the Government of Quebec and all the government employees who have been involved in this project. the proposed methodology can be further enhanced by putting more focus on the reality on the ground and by therefore preceding it with a data-driven information architecture [23]. Director of the Management Information Systems Department at Universit´e Laval. These ideas are presently investigated by the authors.19].

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