2016

WORKBOOK
Detailed Explanations of

Try Yourself Questions
Civil Engineering
RCC & Pre-stressed Concrete

2

Design of Beams

T1 : Solution
(a)

b

0.0035
0.002

Xu

d

3
— Xu
7

0.45 fck

4 X

7 u

c1
c2

T

Section

0.87 fy
+ 0.002
Es
Strain diagram

Stress diagram

In strain diagram

0.0035
Xu =

d − Xu
=
Xu

Given,
and
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0.87 fy

+ 0.002
Es
d − Xu

0.87 fy

+ 0.002
Es
0.0035

f y= 415 MPa
Es = 2 × 105 MPa
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Workbook

d
−1 =
Xu

d
xu

0.87 × 415
+ 0.002
2 × 105
0.0035

= 2.0872

Xu = 0.479 d

Limiting BM, Mu (lim) = C. (lever arm)
C = C1 + C2

(b)

3

...(i)

3
4

⎞ ⎛2

= ⎝⎜ 0.45 fck Xu b⎠⎟ + ⎝⎜ × 0.45fck X u b⎠⎟
7
3
7

= 0.19 fck bXu + 0.17 fck bXu = 0.36 fck b Xu

CX = C1X 1 + C2 X 2
⎛ 3

0.19 fck b Xu ⎜ X u ⎟ + 0.17
⎝ 14 ⎠

⎛ 3 4 3⎞
fck b Xu ⎜ × + ⎟ Xu
⎝ 8 7 7⎠
0.36 fck bX u

X =

= 0.42 Xu

Lever arm = d – 0.42 Xu
So from eq. (i)

(c)




Mu lim =
=
C =
0.36 fck bXu =
0.36 fck b(0.479 d) =
As =

0.36 fck b Xu(d – 0.42 Xu)
0.36 fck b × 0.479 d (d – 0.42 × 0.479 d) = 0.138 fck bd2
T
0.87 fy As
0.87 × 415 As
4.78 × 10–4 fck bd

T2 : Solution
Bf = 2342 mm

Cu
Xu

C

lever arm = d –

380 mm

d = 500 – 30
= 470 mm

Xa
3

NA

Df = 120 mm

T
Bw = 230 mm

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Stress diagram

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Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete

4

Given data:
Spacing of beam = 3 m
Effective span,
l eff = 8.35 m, Bw = 230 mm
Thickness of slab

Df = 120 mm
Area of steel,

Ast = 2 ×

π
(32 )2 = 1608.50 mm2
4

Effective width of flange

Beff =

=

l0
+ 6 Df + Bw
6
8.35 × 1000
+ 6 × 120 + 230
6

= 2341.6 ≈ 2342 mm = Bf
Take an effective cover of 30 mm
∴ Effective depth,

d = 500 – 30 = 470 mm
For M 25 Concrete
Modular ratio,

m =

280
280
= 10.98 ≈ 11
=
3 × 8.5
3 σcbc

Now for actual depth of neutral axis,
Moment of area of tension side should be equal to moment of area of compression side.
Assume neutral axis lies in theflange portion.

Bf X a

Xa
2

2342

X a2
= 11 × 1608.50 × (470 – Xa)
2

= m Ast (d − X a )

1171 Xa2 = 17693.5 (470 – Xa)
1171 Xa 17693.5 Xa – 8315945 = 0
Xa = 77.05 < Df
Critical depth of neutral axis
2+

(hence ok)

mσcbc
11 × 8.5
×d =
× 470
Xc = σ + m σ
230 + (11 × 8.5)
y
cbc

= 135.84 mm

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5

Workbook
∵ Xa < Xc
∴ Beam is underreinforced
∴ Ca < σcbc or C

σcbc = C
Ca

ta
σ
= st
m
m

and

Xc

Xa

∴ Moment of resistance
Xa ⎞

M = σst Ast ⎝⎜ d −

3 ⎠
77.05 ⎞

= 230 × 1608.50 ⎜⎝ 470 −

3 ⎠

ta
m

= 164.38 × 106 Nmm = 164.38 kNm
Maximum bending moment =

σst
m

W l2
8
W (8.35)
8

2

164.38 =


W = 18.86 kN/m
Hence safe load including self weight that beam can carry is 18.86 kN/m.
T3 : Solution

Area =

300

π
× 202 × 4 = 1256.63 mm2
4

b
300

xa2

2

xa2

2

650

(i) For BM of 90 kNm
1. Actual depth of NA
= mAst (d − xa )
= 15 × 4 ×

π
(20 )2 (600 − xa )
4

4 - 20φ
50

150 xa2 = 11309670 – 18849.45xa
xa = 218.85 mm
2. From compression side
BM = MR
90 × 106 = b xa

Ca
2

xa ⎞

⎜d − 3 ⎟

Ca ⎛
218.85 ⎞
600 −
90 × 106 = 300 × 218.85 ×

2 ⎝
3 ⎟⎠
Ca = 5.2 N/mm2

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55 mm Depth of rectangular portion of compressive stress = www.org 3 3 xu lim = (215.55 350 NA 100 125 125 T Given.13 N/mm2 90 135.84 N/mm2 For BM of 210 kNm linear interpolation can be done for stress in concrete and steel.9 N/mm2 2nd method for ta t /m Ca = a d − xa xa ta = mCa (d − xa ) xa = 135.64 × ⎜⎛ 600 − ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ta = 135.85 ⎞ 90 × 106 = t a × 1256.2 × 210 = 12.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 6 xa ⎞ ⎛ BM = t a × Ast ⎜ d − ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ From tension side 218. concrete stress = 5.48 d = 0.38 mm 7 7 © Copyright .2 N/mm2 ∴ For 210 kNm moment. For 90 kNm moment.55 ) mm = 92.1 N/mm2 90 T4 : Solution 0. concrete stress = Similarly stress in steel = 5. M 20 concrete ⇒ Fe 415 steel ⇒ T fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2 b = 350 mm D = 500 mm Effective cover = 50 mm ∴ Effective depth (d ) = 500 mm – 50 mm = 450 mm Distance of top edge of duct from top of beam = CK = 75 mm Limiting depth of neutral axis (xu lim) = 0.48 (450) = 215.9 × 210 = 317.madeeasypublications.446 fck A 200 C D J 175 75 K I 500 75 500 C II 175 Duct B E 100 III F G H C 215.

45 fck bh = 0.2 mm2 4 Limiting depth of NA xu lim = 0.49 kN f st = 0.5 kN C3 = Compressive force due to Part III From statical equilibrium.42 × 215.55 N = 193. ∴ ⇒ T = 455.5 + 193.42 xu lim) + C2 (d – 75/2) = 2 × 193.5) Nmm = 167.36 (20)(125) 215.995 + 67.87 fy Ast = 455.madeeasypublications.314 kNm T5 : Solution Case (a) 3-16 mm φ bars 400 D = 650 mm d = 650 – 50 = 600 mm π × 162 = 603.87 fy T = 0.87 ( 415) Moment of resistance at balanced stage (MOR) = (C1 + C3) (d – 0.36 fck b xu lim = 0.5 × 103 (450 – 37.57 mm 2 0.48 × 600 = 288 mm © Copyright 650 Area of steel = 3 × 3-16 φ www.45 (20) (100) 75 N = 67.99 = T ⇒ At balanced stage.org .49 × 10 3 = 1261. This part II is within the rectangular stress block because h = 75 mm depth 3 < xu lim (= 92.48 × d (for Fe 415) = 0.49 × 103 N Ast = 455.Workbook 7 Divide the area above the balanced neutral axis into 3 parts with portion ABFE → Part I portion BCKJ → Part II portion CDHG → Part III and Part I and III are each of width 125 mm and are under the influence of complete compressive stress block over a depth of xu lim (= 215.38 mm) 7 Let.55 mm). C1 + C2 + C3 = T ⇒ 193. C1 = Compressive force due to Part I ∴ C1 = C3 = 0. Part II is of width 100 mm which is under the influence of compressive stress block for a depth of h = 75 mm.55) + 67.995 × 103 (450 – 0.995 kN C2 = Compressive force due to Part II C2 = 0.

09 = 352.2 xu = 50.e.36fckbxu = 0.05 = 84.madeeasypublications.42 × 246. i. xu < xu lim Moment of resistance MR = 0.05 kNm ⇒ Unfactored moment/working moment = 126.42xu) = 0.87 × 415 × 603.41 (600 – 0.36 × 30 × 400 × 50.24 xu = 246.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 8 Actual depth of NA C = T 0.36 × 30 × 400 × 246.87fy) 0.15) = 528.41) = 126.42 × 50.04 kNm 1.87 × 415 × 2945.15(600 – 0.87fy Ast (Assuming under reinforced section so that fst = 0.05 = 84.24 mm2 4 6-25 φ Limiting depth of NA = 0.87 × 415 × 60.15 mm < xu lim (= 288 mm) So section is under reinforced section Moment of resistance MR = 0.32 (600 – 0.06 kNm 1.36fckbxu(d – 0..09 kNm Unfactored moment/working moment = www.41 mm < xu lim (= 288 mm) Thus assumption of under-reinforced section is correct.87fy Ast (assuming under reinforced section) 0.5 © Copyright .41) = 126.42 × 50.5 400 650 Case (b) 6-25 mm φ bars Ast = 6 × Given : π × 252 = 2945.42xu) = 0.36 × 30 × 400 × xu = 0.87fy Ast(d – 0.36fck bxu = 0.org 528.5 From tension side MR = 0.48d ⇒ xu lim = 0.03 kNm 1.36fck bxu (d – 0.48(650 –50) mm = 288 mm Actual depth of NA C = T 0.36 × 30 × 400 × xu = 0.06 kNm Unfactored MR = 126.42xu) = 0.

36fck bxu lim (d – 0.48d = 0.61⎜ ⎟ (0.42 × 288) = 3445.06 kNm 1.5 Area of steel for limiting section: Ast lim = ( Mu lim 0. So limit xu to xu lim ∴ Mu = 0.138fck bd2 = 596 kNm (for Fe 415) ∴ Unfactored MR = 596 = 397 kNm 1.42 × 288) = 596 kNm Alternatively Mu = 0.44% d ⎝ 415 ⎠ ⎠ ⎠⎝ 1.09 kNm Unfactored moment = 528.38 × 0.44 × 400 × 600 = 3465.48 ) = 1.org .5 400 Case (c) 8-25 mm φ bars Area of steel = 8 × π × 252 = 3927 mm2 4 650 Given: xu lim = 0.87 × 415 (600 − 0.87fy .42 xu lim) = 0.09 = 352.36 × 30 × 400 × 288 (d – 0. Effective depth of the beam (d) Loads and bending moment Live load Self weight of the beam Given: © Copyright = 380 mm = 700 mm = 6m = 700 – 50 mm = 650 mm = 20 kN/m = 0.7 × 25 kN/m = 6.36fck bxu = 0.6 mm2 100 T6 : Solution Width of beam (b) Overall depth of the beam (D) Span (L) Assuming an effective cover of 50 mm.61⎜ ck ⎜ fy ⎝ Ast lim = ⎞ ⎛ xu lim ⎞ ⎛ 30 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 41.87fy Ast(d – 0.42xu) = 528.48 × 600 = 288 mm Limiting depth of NA Actual depth of NA 8-25 φ xu = 0.madeeasypublications.Workbook 9 Moment of resistance from tension side MR = 0.65 kN/m www.87fy d − 0.42xu lim ) 596 × 106 2 = 0.87 fy Ast xu = 328 mm > xu lim (= 288 mm) Thus section is over reinforced and fst ≠ 0.9 mm Alternatively ∴ ⎛f pt lim = 41.

89 × 10 6 = 0.42 × 299) = 643.36 × 30 × xu × 380(650 – 0.2697 × 380 × 650 = 666.89 × 10 6 380 × 650 2 = 1.7 mm2 Alternatively R = ∴ ⇒ ⇒ www.42xu) Mu lim = 0.89 × 106 43832.36fck bxu lim (d – 0.133 fck bd2 (for Fe 500) = 640.65 + 20 kN/m = 26.5 kNm Alternatively Mu lim = 0.42 xu ) 0.65 kN/m = 39.42 xu lim) = 0.36 × 30 × 380 × 299 (650 – 0.7) = 666.846 xu Area of tension steel required = = = = Ast = 0.975 kN/m w uL2 39.42 × 70.7 mm Mu 179.87 fy Ast (d – 0.org pt 100 = Mu bd 2 = 179.madeeasypublications.36fckbxu = 0.87 fy Ast and Mu = 0.87 fy Ast (d – 0.89 kNm = 8 8 Limiting depth of neutral axis xu lim = 0.87 × 500 (650 − 0.120461⎤ = ⎢1 − 1 − 4.120461 Ast 30 ⎡ 1.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 10 Total load = = = Factored load (wu) = Factored bending moment (Mu) = Dead load + Live load Self weight of the beam + Live load 6.65 kN/m 1.42xu) 0.42 xu) 650 xu – 0.87f y (d − 0.975 × 62 kNm = 179.46d = 0.2679% Ast = 0.5 × 26.16 mm2 (same as above) 100 © Copyright .42 xu2 70.5 kNm) ∴ Calculation of xu for M u Mu < Mu lim and thus we require an under reinforced section Mu 179.46 × 650 mm = 299 mm (For Fe 500 steel) Actual depth of neutral axis Compression force = Tension force 0.598 × ⎥ bd 2 ( 500 ) ⎣ 30 ⎦ pt = 0.6 kNm (which is very close to 643.

5 . 1 (a) of IS 456 1(a) 456:: 2000. Ast lim bd Let = 0. ∴ xu lim d = 0. Span = 7 m < 10 m l d ∴ ≤ 20 7000 l = = 350 mm 20 20 Adopt d = 350 mm d ≥ ⇒ ∴ ∴ Effective span is ⎫ (i) Clear span + d = 6770 + 350 = 7120 mm ⎬ whichever is less (ii) c/c distance between supports = 7000 mm ⎭ Hence. f s = 0.2.48 = 1. 23.58 (415) ⎝ Area of steel provided ⎠ Assuming area of steel required = Area of steel provided = 240. effective span is taken as : ⎫ (i) Clear span + effective depth ⎬ whichever is less (ii) Centre to centre distance between the two supports ⎭ 230 230 7000 ∴ Clear span = 7000 − 230 230 = 6770 mm − 2 2 Now Cl.7 N/mm2 © Copyright www. L e f f = 7000 mm = Effective span of beam Step: 3 Assume percentage of steel reinforcement for calculation of actual effective depth For Fe 415.203 % ⎝ 415 ⎠ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ = Maximum percentage of tension steel reinforcement Also.9 % < pt lim (OK) Step: 4 Effective Depth (d) : The basic value of span/ depth ratio is multiplied by modification factor (kt) to account for tension reinforcement. d (and thus D).58 fy ⎛⎜ Area of steel required ⎞⎟ = 0. minimum percentage of steel reinforcement is given by.1 of IS : 456 – 2000 gives basic ratios of span to effective depth which is 20 for simply supported beam for beam upto 10 m span.madeeasypublications. 1.2 (a) of IS 456: 2000. Ast Step: 2 Effective Span : As per Cl.61⎜ ⎟ 0. Here.org . as per Cl.Workbook 11 T7 : Solution Step: 1 Unknown Parameters : b. 26. 22.48 ⎛f ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 25 ⎞ pt lim = 41.85 fy pt = 0.61⎜ ck ⎟ ⎜ u lim ⎟ = 41.

7 D b = 250 mm Let b D ∴ = 250 = 0.138 fck bd 2 ⇒ 87.5 kN/m ∴ Factored load (wu) = 1.28 kNm 8 8 Step: 6 Effective depth of beam required from design moment consideration For Fe 415.25 kN/m (Partial safety factor for dead and live loads is 1. 4 of IS 456: 2000.7 N/mm2 and pt = 0.7) (OK) Step: 5 Design loads and design bending moment Cl. Mu lim = 0.28 × 106 = (0.11 mm which is less than adopted effective depth (= 350 mm). pt 100 Where www.2.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 12 From Fig.5 for limit state of collapse) ∴ Factored bending moment (Mu) = w u l 2 eff. kc = 1 for pc = 0 % = 20 (1) = 20 ∴ d = 7000 span = = 350 mm 20 20 Which is same as assumed earlier Let Effective cover = 50 mm ∴ Overall depth (D ) = 350 + 50 = 400 mm Width of Beam (b): The ratio b should preferably lie between 0.25 × 0.4 × 25 kN/m = 2.madeeasypublications. 1 for fs = 240. 19.5 × 9. k t .25 × = 87.9 % (assumed) ∴ ⎛l ⎞ Actual span/depth ratio = ⎜ ⎟ kt × kc ⎝ d ⎠basic Where.625 400 (between 0.1 of IS 456: 2000 specifies unit weight of reinforced concrete as 25 kN/m3 ∴ Self weight of beam = 0.598 ⎥ bd 2f y ⎣ fck ⎦ 87.5 and 0.138) (25) (250)d 2 ⇒ d = 318.11 mm < 350 mm as calculated above (OK) Step: 7 Area of steel required Since d = 350 mm and effective depth required from design moment consideration is 318.org = R = Ast f ⎡ R ⎤ = ck ⎢1 − 1 − 4.5 + 7 = 9.5 and 0.28 × 106 Mu = = 2.85 N/mm2 250 × 3502 bd 2 © Copyright . ∴ Design moment is on conservative side and need not to be revised. 72 = 14.5 kN/m Live load = 7 kN/m ∴ Total load = 2.5 kN/m = 14.

343 × 10–3 pt = 0. pt assumed (=0.madeeasypublications.83 mm < xu lim (= 220.87 fy Ast = 0.002 = 0.51 = 2. 3 nos.002404795 ⎝ 127.2 xu + 141590.87 × 415 – 0.75 mm 2 4 xu lim = 0.598 × ⎥ 2 ( 415 ) ⎢⎣ 25 ⎥⎦ bd = 9.447 × 20) 402.87 fy is correct.13 Workbook pt 100 ∴ = 25 ⎡ 2.87 × 415 2 × 10 5 + 0.6 .34 mm) Assumption of fst = 0.479 (460) = 220.51 mm2 100 817.00380525 >∈s www.47 N Tu = 0.12 = 141590.9343 × 250 × 350 = 817.9343 % .47 = 354460. π (20 )2 4 Provide 3-20 φ bars at bottom and 2-10 φ bars at top for holding the stirrups as hanger bars.87 (415) 981.12 mm 2 4 2-25φ Ast = 2 × π × 25 2 = 981.0035 ⎜ 1 − = 0.34 mm Let ∴ f st = fsc = 0.479 d = 0.84 xu = 127.87 fy Cuc = 0.org . number of bars reqd. = 0.84 N Cuc + Cus = Tu ⇒ ∴ ∴ 1665.362 fck b xu = 0.362 (20) 230 (xu) = 1665.75 = 354460.9 %) ∴ ∴ Ast = Using 20 mm φ bars. 40 ⎞ ⎛ Strain in compression steel (∈sc) = 0.87fy – 0. T8 : Solution b = 230 mm Effective cover = 40 mm (for both tension and compression) M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel 2-16φ Asc = 2 × D = 500 mm Effective depth (d) = 50 – 40 = 460 mm π × 16 2 = 402.447 fck) Asc = (0.83 ⎟⎠ Yield strain (∈y) = © Copyright 0.85 ⎤ Ast = ⎢1 − 1 − 4.2 xu Cus = (0.

34) (460 – 0.34) + (353.524 – 0.524 N/mm2 Mu lim = 0.447 fck) Asc (d – d′) = 0.42 × 220.org © Copyright .12 (460 – 40) = 193 kNm „„„„ www.madeeasypublications.87 fy Thus.0869 = d 460 ∴ For ∴ xu = xu lim.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 14 ∴ Compression steel has not yielded.362 fck b xu lim (d – 0.83 mm d′ 40 = 0.42 xu lim)+ (fsc – 0.447 × 20) 402.362 (20) 230 (220. xu ≠ 127. fsc = 353. ⇒ fsc ≠ 0.

6 nos.3 Shear.87fy Ast ⎜ d − f b ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ck 12 mm φ. © Copyright www.6 ⎞ ⎛ × M = 0.6 ⎜⎝ 419 − ⎟ 15 250 ⎠ = 55. L0 = 0 V 55.16 Ld < 200 55.madeeasypublications.87 × 250 Ld = 4τ = = 54.375 φ bd 4 ×1 M1 + L0 .org . Area of steel Ast = 6 × Also. effective depth π 2 × (12 ) = 678.87 × 250 × 678.6 mm2 4 12 = 419mm 2 250 678. Bond and Torsion 250 mm T1 : Solution f y = 250 N/mm2 fck = 15 N/mm2 Cover = 25 mm 450 mm Given Bending moment fy Ast ⎞ ⎛ M = 0.16 1 × φ < 200 54. beam is not safe in bond.16 kNm d = 450 − 25 − ∴ Then development length Also development length φσs φ × 0.375 φ < 5 Ld < or or Since Hence.

90 N/mm2 T3 : Solution Since the beam is reinforced with 4-20 mm diameter bars and thus area of tension steel provided (Ast) is 1256.48 m l eff = 10.48 = 10. Reinforcement of 32 mm φ bar Effective span.90 N/mm2 b.625 kN 2 2 w/m wl 2 + _ Shear Force Diagram Assume effective cover = 25 mm Now.5 × 200 kN = 300 kN So shear stress (τv) = (i) 300 × 1000 = 1.818 N/mm2 (300 × 550 ) M 20 concrete and Fe 250 steel For pt = 0.45 = 10.45 m Vmax = wL 25 × 10.7616% (300 × 550 ) Now shear reinforcement is designed for factored shear force. shear strength of concrete (τc) = 0.d 250 × 575 = 0.56 N/mm2 (Table 19 of IS 456: 2000) www. leff = Minimum of and ∴ Maximum shear force. = = = = = = 10.625 × 1000 = = 0. Assuming an effective cover of 50 mm.63 mm2. Factored shear force (Vu) = 1.0 m 450 mm 120 mm 250 mm 480 mm 25.org © Copyright .45 = = 130.63 × 100 = 0. effective depth ∴ Nominal shear stress in the beam ∴ Design shear stress for concrete wl 2 = (D1 + D2 – 25) = (120 + 480 – 25) = 575 mm τv = V 130.45 m l0 + d = 10 + 0.7616% and M 20 concrete.madeeasypublications. effective beam depth = 600 mm – 50 mm = 550 mm Percentage tension steel (pt) = 1256. Total load. Width of the beam Depth of the beam below slab.16 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete T2 : Solution l0 B Df B D2 W Given.0 kN/m l0 + W = 10 + 0. Clear span of the beam Support width Thickness of slab.

14 kN Using 2 legged 10 mm diameter stirrups.59 × 300 × 550 = 202650 N = 202.65 kN Using 2-legged 8 mm diameter stirrups.87f y Asv d Vus = 0.08 × 550 mm 207140.4bsv = 0.69 mm = 110 mm (say) < 300 mm < 0.5 mm (OK) Check for minimum area of shear reinforcement: Asv min ≥ 0.87 ( 500)100.8 N/mm2 (Table 20 of IS 456: 2000) Shear force to be resisted by shear reinforcement (Vus) = Vu – τcbd = 300 x 103 – 0.87 × 250 × 157.75d = 0.Workbook 17 Maximum shear strength for M 20 concrete (τc max) = 2. Given: © Copyright www.5 N/mm2 (Table 20 of IS 456: 2000) Shear force to be resisted by shear reinforcement (Vus) = Vu – τcbd = 300 × 103 – 0.34 mm2<100.4 (300)(85) 0.75d = 0.87 ( 500 ) 0.4 (300 )110 = = 30. A sv = 2 × π × 10 2 = 2 × 78.54 mm2 4 0.5 mm (OK) Check for minimum area of shear reinforcement: Asv min ≥ 0.87 250 ( ) 0.56 × 300 × 550 = 207140.75 × 550 mm = 412. π × 8 2 = 2 × 50.89 mm2 < 157.87f y T4 : Solution Width of the beam (b) = 350 mm Overall depth of the beam (D) = 650 mm Assuming an effective cover of 50 mm. 0.27 mm2 = 100.08 mm2 (ii) (OK) M 30 concrete and Fe 500 steel For pt = 0.08 4 (sv) = Spacing of shear reinforcement.87fv = 46. shear strength of concrete (τc) = 0.64 = 90.org .madeeasypublications.54 ( 550 ) = 202650 Vus A sv = 2 × Spacing of shear reinforcement (sv) = = 118.76% and M 30 concrete.64 N = 207.71 mm = 85 mm (say) < 300 mm < 0.87f y Asv d 0.4bsv 0.75 × 550 mm = 412.59 N/mm2 (Table 19 of IS 456: 2000) Maximum shear strength for M 30 concrete (τc max) = 3.54 = 157.54 mm2 (OK) 0.

68 kN/m 68 + 5.68 kN/m Factored shear force (Vu) = Nominal shear stress at support τv = wl 1.68 × 7.5 × 73.8 × 600 mm = 679 mm < (span/4 = 7500/4 =1875 mm) (OK) IInd location = 2 2 a = 2 2 jd = 2 × 679 mm = 1358 mm < (span/4 = 7500/4 =1875 mm) (OK) There is no possibility for IIIrd location because 3 × 2 a = 3 × 679 mm = 2037 mm > (span/4 = 7500/4 =1875 mm) (Not possible) Calculation of shear force Total load = 73.724 × 350 × 600 N = 152.5 × 103 = N/mm2 bd 350 × 600 = 1.68 kN/m = 73.65 × 25 kN/m = 5.35 × 0.23 kN = 2 2 www.madeeasypublications. Vcu = τcbd = 0.5 – 152.4% 350 × 600 From table 19 of IS 456: 2000.5 kN = 414.87fy Asv sinα = 0. (= 3.46 – 250.97 N/mm2 < τc max.04 kN Vus = Vu – Vcu = 414.68 kN/m 2 a distance for the support 2 jd = 2 × 0.87 ( 415) 2 × π × 25 2 × sin45° = 250. τc = 0.5 kN = 2 2 Vu 414.64 kN 4 Vertical shear reinforcement shall be designed for a shear force of Vus – Vs bu = 262.46 Vus = 131.724 N/mm2 ∴ SF resisted by concrete.04 kN = 262.18 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Effective depth of the beam (d) Live load Self weight of the beam Total load Bent up bars: Let us bend only 2 bars = = = = Ist location = = 650 – 50 mm = 600 mm 68 kN/m 0. the design shear strength of M 25 concrete.1 N/mm2) (for M 25 concrete as per table 20 of IS 456: 2000) Design Shear strength of concrete 6× Percentage of reinforcement at support (pt) = π × 25 2 × 100 4 = 1.64 kN = 11.46 kN Shear strength of bent up bars Shear strength of bent up bars (Vs bu) = 0.org © Copyright .82 kN 262.

bars @ 160 mm c/c Shear reinforcement design for portion 2 Shear force at a section just beyond the bent up bar Vu1 = 3071 × 414.45 – 168 = 171.87fy Asv d 2 × 4 × 8 × 0.45 × 10 3 = 127.87 × 415 × 600 sv = mm = Vus 171.02 mm ∴ For portion 2.4 × 350 π 4 × 82 mm ≤ 259 mm Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement 1.75d = 0.5 = 339.23 × 10 3 2 = 165. stirrups.95 mm Spacing as per minimum shear reinforcement requirement sv ≤ ≤ 0.45 kN Spacing of 2 legged 8 mm dia. 300 mm ⎫ ⎬ whichever is less = 300 mm ⎭ ∴ For portion 1 provide 2 legged 8 mm dia.87 × 415 × 2 × 4 × 8 × 600 mm = sv = Vus 131.4b 0. 0.org .8 × 350 × 600 N = 168 kN Vsu = Vu – Vcu = 339.87 × 415 × 2 × 0.45 kN 3750 8× Percentage of steel reinforcement (pt) = π × 25 2 4 × 100 = 1.5 x = 1520 mm © Copyright www.75 × 600 mm = 450 mm 2. bars @ 120 mm c/c Shear reinforcement design for portion 3 x 168 = 3750 414. provide 2-legged 8 mm dia.madeeasypublications. π 2 0.87f y Asv d 0.87f y Asv 0.Workbook 19 Using 2 legged 8 mm dia.8 N/mm2 Vcu = τcbd = 0.87% 350 × 600 Design shear strength of M 25 concrete as per table 19 of IS 456: 2000 = 0. shear stirrups π 2 0.

4 x 1.416 × 125.org © Copyright .5 x 105 kN = 157. design bond stress (τbd) = 1.34 mm >xu (=125.87 × 415 × 942.479 × 460 mm = 220.362fck b = 0.34 mm) Thus beam section is under-reinforced and fst = 0.79 kNm For M25 concrete and Fe415.2.5 kN Let clear cover to reinforcement = 30 mm Thus effective depth of the beam (d) = 500 − 30 − 20 mm = 460 mm 2 ⎛ π⎞ 2 2 2 Area of tension steel (Ast) = 3 × ⎜ ⎟ × 20 mm = 942.87fy is correct in the above calculation of depth of neutral axis.87f y Ast 0.24 N/mm2 (Cl.362 x 25x 300 Limiting depth of neutral axis (xu lim) = 0.5 = 125. Calculation of moment of resistance: Moment of resistance of the beam section (Mr) = 0. 26.87x 415x 942.34 mm 0.5(460 – 0.1.416xu) = 0.5 mm ⎝ 4⎠ Calculation of depth of neutral axis: xu = 0.6 N/mm2 = 2.20 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 3 1 x = 1520 mm 2 Vu Vu1 3 x = 1520 mm 2 1 Vcu 679 mm 3071 mm 3750 mm Length of portion 2 8mm@ 160mm c/c = 3750 – 679 – 1520 mm = 1551 mm 8mm@ 250mm c/c 8mm@ 120mm c/c 8mm@ 120mm c/c 8mm@ 160mm c/c 2-25 φ 2 a = 679mm 1551 mm 3040 mm 1551 mm 2 a = 679mm Shear reinforcement detailing T5 : Solution Factored shear force (Vu) = 1.34) = 138.479d = 0.madeeasypublications.87 fy Ast(d – 0.1 of IS 456: 2000) www.

87x 415φ = 40. the anchorage length had to be increased either by extending the bar length beyond the anchorage value provided or by providing the anchorage in the form of a U bend (anchorage value = 16φ).437 − 0. If the diameter of bar provided was larger than 32.24 Anchorage length: For 90 degree bend.4 mm then in that case.4 mm So there is no need to increase the anchorage length.25 bd τuc = 0.5 bd 450 4 × 12φ Factored SF =45 kN = Vu We have to calculate the dia of Fe 500 2-Legged stirrup to be used at a spacing of 325 mm c/c τv = Vu 45 × 1000 = = 0.296φ 4x 2.79 × 10 6 + 160 157.5 × 10 3 φ ≤ 32.296φ ≤ 1. T6 : Solution 230 τuc = 0.36 N/mm2 [For M20] for Ast × 100 = 0. π 2 0.87 fy Since we limit fy to 415 N/mm2 hence.36 + 0.4 × (Sv )(b) 0.25 Since τv – τc < 0 ⇒ Min shear reinforcement is required ⇒ Min shear reinforcement is given by 0.org .4 Asv bSv = 0.4 × 325 × 230 ( φ) = 0.45 N/mm2 0. anchorage length (Lo) = 8φ = 8 × 20 mm = 160 mm 40.3 138.87 fy Asv = 0.437% %tensile steel = 230 × 450 4× τc = 0.87fy φ 4τbd = 0.21 Workbook Development length: Ld = 0.26 mm adopt φ = 8 mm Asv = 2 × „„„„ © Copyright www.87 × 415 = 82.814 mm2 4 φ = 7.25) = 0.4348 N/mm2 bd 230 × 450 π 2 (12 ) 4 × 100 = 0.madeeasypublications.12 × ( 0.48 N/mm2 [For M20] for Ast × 100 = 0.

150 kN/m = 3.25 × 5 × 2.36 kN Critical moment either at B or mid span of AB (say E) At B.89 kN 3.03kNm 2 © Copyright .52 = 16.25 kN/m Now.5 ∴ RA = 20. RB × 3.5 + 3.4 Design of Slabs T1 : Solution Load calculations Dead load.25 × 1.25 kN/m B C E RA RB 3.75 = 14.org MB = 14.5 = 50.5 m 1 dtotal = deff + clear cover+ dia.75 kN/m Total load = DL + LL + Self weight = 6 + 4.5 or RB = 14.5 m 1.5 = 14. DL = 6 kN/m (for unit width) Live load.25 × 5 × 2.5 kN/m A 14. LL = 4. www. of bar 2 = 125 + 15 + 4 = 144 mm Take d = 150 mm Unit weight of RCC = 25 kN/m3 Safe weight = 25 × 0.madeeasypublications.

36 × 1.23 m Hence lesser of the above two will be adopted i.33 × 7 = 0.2 m (b) centre to centre distance between supports = 4.9038 3 3 1 1 cjk = × 7 × 0.33.26 mm 619 T2 : Solution (i) Calculation of design constants For M 20 concrete.25 × 23 1. =1– = 0.madeeasypublications. ∴ d = 16.898 Where.33 × 7 j = 1– b g k 02886 . m = 13.Workbook ME = 20.2886 = 0.03 × = Ast × 230 × 90 × 125 Ast = 619 mm2 Area.0 + 0. c = 7 N/mm2 = σcbc For Fe 415 steel.3 = 81. the total depth of the slab will become 200 + 20 = 220 mm.898 × 1000 M = Astjd or or 106 16.752 = 13. Aφ = π 2 (8) = 50.org .9038 × 0.2886 ∴ k = t + mc = 230 + 13.03 kNm = Rbd2 R = 0. (a) Load calculations: Load due to self weight of slab = 0.60 (safe) 0. le = 4.5 kN/m2 © Copyright www.22 × 1 × 1 × 25 = 5.80 kNm 2 Again.00 + 0.2 = 4.9129 2 2 (ii) As per the vertical deflection criterion. t = 230 N/mm2 = σst mc 13.03 × 106 = 133.e.3 mm2 4 ∴ Spacing of 8 mm bar = 1000Aφ Ast = 1000 × 50.23 = 4. Mmax = 16.75 − 14. the span to effective depth ratio for spans upto 10 m for a simply supported slab is given by Q = ⇒ l = 20 d 4000 l d = = = 200 mm 20 20 (iii) Effective span (a) clear span + effective depth = 4.2 m (iv) Bending moment and shear force Assuming a nominal cover of 20 mm.

× 180 × 1000 = 270 mm2 100 ∴ Ast is more than minimum reinforcement. s = 1000 × A φ A st Adopting 10 mm φ bars.9129 × 1000 = ⇒ d = 159. 3 www.54 mm2 4 1000 × 78.5 mm2 120 Spacing is less than 3d and 300 mm both.5 = 436. (vi) Main reinforcement Ast = M 2315 .15%). Bend every third bar at the support. at a distance of le 4.84 m 5 5 from the edge of support Ast at support = 2 × 654. × 106 = = 696 mm2 σ st jd 230 × 0.0 kN/m2 Superimposed live load Load due to surface finishing Total = 10. = Spacing of bars.5 × 4.54 = 654.15% of total cross sectional area 015 .2 = = 22.24 mm < 200 mm.5 × 4. we get Aφ = ∴ s = π × 102 = 78.24 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete = 4.05 kN 2 2 = 23.0 kN/m2 = 1. Hence OK Now taking d = 160 mm and nominal cover = 20 mm we get D = d + 20 = 160 + 20 = 180 mm.9038 × 160 Minimum reinforcement should be 0.5 kN/m2 (b) Bending moment per meter run of slab b g 2 M = wle2 10.2 = = 0.15 kN-m (c) Shear force (v) Design of section M QB d = [B = 1000 mm] 2315 .54 = 112.33 mm2 which is more than minimum reinforcement (0.84 mm 696 Adopting s = 120 mm c/c.madeeasypublications. we get actual Ast = 1000 × 78.org © Copyright .2 = 8 8 V = wle 10. × 106 0.

36 – 028 .352 N/mm . – 015 .2 4 τ bd M1 13 .24% 180 × 1000 FG 0.51 × 106 N-mm V = 22.Workbook 25 (vii) Check for development length at the support The code stipulates that at simple supports. I (0.48 Ld = = 100 mm beyond the face of 3 3 support.madeeasypublications.24 – 0. The reinforcement should extend by a length equal to 299.05 × 103 = = 0.36 ∴ For p = 0. (viii) Check for shear p = % reinforcement at support = For p = 0. (ix) Distribution reinforcement Ast = © Copyright 015 .25%.15) = 0. j . τc = 0.24%.51 × 106 + L0 = + 220 V 22. d × Ast at support = 230 × 0.6 × 1.46 mm > Ld Hence ok.15%.28 + Now τv = 436.3 ls – x′ + 13 φ 2 230 – 25 + 13 × 10 = 220 mm 2 10 × 230 φ σ st = = 299.org .48 mm (60% increase for HYSD bars) 4 × 1.3 M1 + L0 V M1 = σst . the diameter of the reinforcement be such that Ld ≤ 1. JK H 025 2 V 22. τc = 0.33 × 100 = 0.05 × 103 = 1075. τc = 0.28 For p = 0. × 1000 × 180 = = 270 mm2 100 100 www.33 = 14. BD 015 .138 N/mm2 Bd 1000 × 160 ∵ τv < τc Hence safe. × 14.05 kN Assuming a clear cover of 25 mm is provided at the side (end) and providing a U-hook Given width of support = 230 mm = ls ∴ L0 = = Ld = Now 1.9038 × 160 × 436.

5 m Effective span along y(ly) = clear span + depth = 4500 + 130 mm = 4630 mm Effective span along x(lx) = clear span + depth = 3500 + 130 = 3630 mm ly lx = 4630 = 1.28 < 2 ⇒ Two way slab 3630 Short span moment (Mx) = αx w lx2 Short span moment (My) = αy w lx2 www.madeeasypublications.org © Copyright .5 m Let overall thickness of slab = 150 mm ∴ Effective depth of slab assuming 15 mm as clear cover (d) 10 = 130 mm 2 4. each having Aφ = Spacing of bars = 1000 × A φ A sd = π × 62 = 28.7 ≈ 105 mm 270 This is less than 5d and 450 mm both. The details of the reinforcement are shown below. Hence provide 6 mmφ bars @ 105 mm C/C. the distribution reinforcement may be provided both at top as well as the bottom.26 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Using 6 mm φ bars. 10 φ @ 360 C/C 6 φ @ 105 C/C 180 mm a. c 820 mm 820 mm 10 φ @ 120 C/C 4000 mm (4 m) 820 mm 820 mm T3 : Solution y (a) Edges are simply supported and corners are not held down = 150 – 15 – x 3. b. Near the edge of the support.27 = 104.27 mm2 4 1000 × 28.

75 kN/m2 Live load = 4 kN/m2 Assume miscellaneous loads like finishes etc = 1 kN/m2 Total load = 3.138 (30) (1000) (d ) 2 ⇒ d = 61.0912 (13.763 × 1000 × 80 = 610.432 1000 × Provide 10 Φ bars @ 120 c/c in short direction.72 mm Adopt overall depth (D ) = 100 mm ∴ Effective depth (d) = 100 – 15 – 10 = 80 mm 2 Self weight of slab (= 0.77 × 10 6 1000 × 80 2 = 2.75 = 13.1 × 25 = 2.0558 ⎭ Loads Self weight of slab = 0.75 + 4 + 1 = 8.598 R x ⎤ = ck ⎢1 − 1 − ⎥ bd 2 fy ⎣ fck ⎦ 30 ⎡ 2.5078 www.125) 3.75 kN/m2 Factored load (w) = 1.632 = 9. αx = 0.432 mm 2 / m 100 1000 A = spacing = As t x π × 10 2 4 = 128.28.5 × 8.763% = ∴ pt x ⇒ As t x = Using 10 Φ bars.0558 (13.0912 ⎫ (for simply supported slab) ⎬ (Table 27 of IS 456: 2000 2000) αy = 0.65 kNm/m Calculation of effective depth required Ultimate moment of resistance for Fe415 is given by 0. Reinforcement in long direction Ry = © Copyright My bd 2 = 9.Workbook ly For lx 27 = 1.464 ⎤ −3 ⎢1 − 1 − 4.63 × 10 2 ( 415) ⎣ 30 ⎦ = 0.464 Ast f ⎡ 4.138 fck bd 2 ⇒ 15.5 kN/m2) need not to be received since already a higher design load is taken.125 kN/m2 ∴ Mx = αx w lx2 = 0.65 × 10 6 1000 × 80 2 = 1. 0.77 kNm/m My = αy w lx2 = 0.77 × 106 = 0.15 × 25 kN/m2 = 3.138 fck bd 2 ∴ 15.org .632 = 15.66 mm c/c 610.598 × ⎥ = 7.madeeasypublications.125) 3. Reinforcement in short direction Rx = ∴ pt x 100 = Mx bd 2 = 15.77 × 106 Nmm/m = 0.

61 m Assuming that the slab is resting on 230 mm thick supports (one brick wall) centre to centre distance in short direction.598 = bd 2 ( 415) ⎢⎣ 30 ⎥⎦ pt y = 0.11 = 3.org ⎡ Clear span + depth Effective span = ⎢ ⎣ c/c distance between the supports (which ever is small) © Copyright .5 + 0.61 m and.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 28 pt y 100 ∴ = Asty (1.11 = 4.5078) ⎤⎥ = 4.23 + = 3.445 × 1000 × 80 = 356 mm2 / m 100 1000 × Using 10 Φ bars.73 m 2 2 Now. π 4 356 spacing = × 10 2 = 220. www.23 0.23 + = 4.62 mm c/c Provide 10 Φ bars @ 200 c/c in short direction.432 mm 2 /m) < As t y (= 356 mm 2 /m) 10 φ @120 c/c x (OK) 10 φ @ 200 c/c (nominal) x 10 φ @ 200 c/c (nominal) 100 10 φ @ 200 c/c 10 φ @ 120 c/c SECTION X-X 10 φ @ 200 c/c PLAN Reinforcement detailing (b) Edges are simply supported with corners held down Let overall thickness of slab (D) = 130 mm ∴ Effective depth (d ) = 130 – 15 – 10 = 110 mm 2 ∴ Effective short span (lx) = 3. = 3.73 m 2 2 Centre to centre distance in long direction = 4. minimum reinforcement should be 0.12% = 0.23 0.5 + 0.45 × 10 −3 30 ⎡ ⎢1 − 1 − 4. effective long span (ly) = 4.5 + 0.5 + 0.madeeasypublications. Check for minimum reinforcement As per IS:456.445% ⇒ As t y = 0.12 × 1000 × 80 = 96 mm 2 / m 100 < As t x (= 610.

03 kNm/m Calculation of effective depth required ∴ 12.8 × 10 −3 = bd 2 ( 415 ) ⎢ 30 ⎥⎦ ⎣ pt x = 0.68 mm2/m 1000 × Using 10 mm diameter bars.955 ) ⎤ Ast x 30 ⎡ ⎢1 − 1 − ⎥ = 5.612 = 9.73 m (whichever is less) = 3.61 = 1.61 m ⎣ ly lx = 29 4. Reinforcement in long direction Ry = © Copyright My bd 2 = 9.375) 3.13 × 25 = 3.25 kN/m2 Live load = 4 kN/m2 Assume miscellaneous loads = 1 kN/m2 Total load = 3.411 www.598 (1.138 (30) (1000) (d ) 2 ⇒ d = 54.0776 αy+ = 0.25 + 4 + 1 = 8.Workbook Thus.51 × 106 = 0.73 m (whichever is less) = 4.51 × 106 = 0.955 4. lx = ⎡3.58% As t x = 471.51 kNm/m My = αy w lx2 = 0.25 kN/m2 Factored load (w ) = 1.612 = 12.056 ∴ Mx = αx w lx2 = 0.61 m ⎢ 4.138 fck bd 2 ⇒ 12.25 = 12.org . 12.5 × 8.51 mm c/c Provide 10 Φ bars @ 150 c/c in short direction.68 spacing = = 166.776 (12.28 < 2 ⇒ Two way slab 3.61 m ⎣ ly = ⎡ 4.375) 3.51× 10 6 π × 10 2 4 471.97 mm Adopt overall depth as (D) = 100 mm ∴ Effective depth (d ) = 100 – 15 – 20 = 80 mm 2 Reinforcement in short direction Rx = ∴ ∴ ⇒ pt x 100 = Mx bd 2 = 1000 × 80 2 = 1.375 kN/m2 Since all the four edges of the slab are discontinuous This refers to case 9 of Table 26 of IS 456: 2000 ∴ αx+ = 0.madeeasypublications.03 × 10 6 1000 × 80 2 = 1.056 (12.61 m ⎢3.61 Loads Self weight of slab = 0.

org © Copyright .146 × 10 −3 30 ⎡ ⎢1 − 1 − 4.12% 0.79 mm c/ c Provide 10 Φ bars @ 200 c/c in long direction. www.6 = 392. Check for minimum reinforcement As per IS:456.6 mm2 /m 523. minimum reinforcement = 0.66 kN / m 2 2 21.7mm 2 along both short and long directions in four layers.5 = 21.6545% as per table 19 of IS:456 (τc) = 0.411) ⎤⎥ = 4.375) 3.12 × 1000 × 20 = 24 mm 2 /m 100 < Ast x < As t y = (OK) Shear check for slab Maximum shear force = Nominal shear stress (τv) = Percentage of tension steel provided (pt ) = 1 1 w l x = (12. As = 4 × 10 2 × 1000 100 = 785. Corner reinforcement Area of each layer of corner reinforcement = 75% of maximum mid span reinforcement = 0.556) = 0.7 mm2 = π Using 10 Φ bars @ 100 mm c/c.27075 N/mm2) Thus slab is safe in shear.4 mm 2 > 392.6 × 100 = 0.3 ∴ k τc = 1.69 mm2/m 1000 × Using 10 Φ bars. k = 1.3 (0.556 N/mm2 For 130 mm thick slab.75 × 523. Length of corner reinforcement = 1 ( 4610 ) = 922 mm = 950 mm (say) 5 Provide corner reinforcement for 950 mm length.4146% A s t y = 331.66 × 10 3 = 0. π × 10 2 = 523.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 30 pt y ∴ 100 ∴ ⇒ = Asty (1.27N / mm 2 1000 × 80 Ast × 100 bd 1000 × 4 150 Ast = where.6545% 1000 × 80 Design shear strength of M30 concrete for pt = 0. π × 10 2 4 331.69 spacing = = 236.598 = bd 2 ( 415) ⎢⎣ 30 ⎥⎦ pt y = 0.madeeasypublications.7228 N/mm2 > τv ( = 0.

org .Workbook 10 φ @120 c/c 31 950 x 950 x 10 φ @ 200 c/c BOTTOM PLAN 10 φ @ 200 c/c TOP PLAN 10 φ @ 200 c/c 100 10 φ @ 200 c/c 10 φ @ 120 c/c SECTION X-X Reinforcement detailing „„„„ © Copyright www.madeeasypublications.

5 × π (20)2 × 4 4 = 577398.4 × 350 = 140 d ∴ ∈sc = 0.87 fy = 0.0035 ( xu − d′ ) xu Assume xu = 0.362 × 20 × 140 × 300 + 217.0035 (140 − 50) = 0.5 N/m2 Pu = 0. fsc = stress in the compression reinforcement to be read of from stress-strain curve ∈sc = 0.madeeasypublications.87 × 250 × (a) π (20)2 × 4 = 273318.56 mm2 4 Pu = 0.00225 140 For strain greater than 0.87 × 250 = 217.4 or. xu = 0.87 fy Ast = 0.org © Copyright .5 Design of Columns T1 : Solution Tu = 0.2% fsc = 0.56 N = Tu (adopt) (b) Centroid = 400 = 200 mm 2 xu xu = 140 mm e = Centroid – xu = 200 – 140 = 60 mm www.362 fck xub + fsc Asc Where.

9 × 100 = 0. 2250 × 103 = 0.05 × 550 mm = 27.4 fck Ag + (0. the following formula given by IS 456: 2000 can be used for the design of axially loaded short columns: Step-3: Use of column design formula Pu = 0.4 fck Ag + (0.madeeasypublications.53 mm) 0.5 × 1500 kN = 2250 kN Pu = 0.636 < 12 Slenderness ratio along X-direction = λx = e x = Dx 550 Slenderness ratio along Y-direction = λy = ley Dy = X 550 mm 3100 = 7.5 mm > exmin (= 24.org .67 fy – 0.05 times the lateral dimension in both the directions.9 mm2 > 1814.4 fck) Asc Now.75 < 12 400 Thus.05 Dy = 0.8%) < Maximum reinforcement permissible (= 6%) © Copyright (OK) www.4 fck) Asc Now axial service load (P ) = 1500 kN Factored axial load (Pu ) = 1.53 mm 500 30 0.4 × 20 × (400 × 550) + (0. Ascprovided = 2060.48 mm2 Step-4: Reinforcement Design Provide 4-16 mm + 4-20 mm diameter bars with 20 mm diameter bars at the corners and 16 mm diameter bars at the face. the minimum eccentricities are less than 0. Thus.Workbook 33 T2 : Solution Y fck = 20 N/mm2 400 mm f y = 415 N/mm2 Step-1: Checking the column as short or long l e x = l ey = 3100 mm Dx = 550 mm. slenderness ratio in both the directions is less than 12 so the column is short.53 mm) Since.937% ( 400 × 550) > Minimum reinforcement required (= 0.67 × 415 – 0. Dy = 400 mm 3100 l = 5.05 × 400 mm = 20 mm > eymin (= 19.53 mm 500 30 500 30 ley 500 + Dy 30 = 3100 400 + = 19.05 Dx = 0.67 fy – 0.48 mm2 Percentage of reinforcement provided (pt) = 2060. Step-2: Calculation of minimum eccentricities exmin = eymin = D 3100 550 le x + x = + = 24.4 × 20) Asc Asc = 1814.

org © Copyright . Pu = 1.4 fck) Asc] www.24 × 100 = 2.602 mm2 4 Total reinforcement area (Asc ) = 6 × ∴ Percentage reinforcement (p) = π × 252 = 2945.madeeasypublications.36 ⎞ fck ⎛ Ag − 1⎟ ⎜ fy ⎝ Acore ⎠ ⇒ Ah π Dcore Acore s ≥ 0.24 mm2 4 Asc 2945.4 fck Ag + (0.27 ) π (280 ) (61575.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 34 Step-5: Lateral ties ⎧ φmain 20 = = 5 mm ⎪ Diameter of the tie: φt ≥ ⎨ 4 4 ⎪⎩6 mm Adopt tie diameter as 8 mm 550 400 ⎧Least lateral dimension ⎪ of column = 400 mm ⎪ Spacing of the ties: st ≤ ⎨ ⎪16 × 16 = 256 mm ⎪⎩300 mm 4-20φ bars (at corners) 4-16φ bars Adopt spacing of ties as 200 mm c/c.36 ⎞ fck ⎛ Ag − 1⎟ ⎜ fy ⎝ Acore ⎠ ⇒ ( 50.602 Ag For spirally reinforced columns. Volume of helical reinforcement Volume of core ≥ 0.67 fy – 0. 8φ ties @ 200 c/c Reinforcement detailing T3 : Solution Let ∴ Clear cover to reinforcement = 40 mm Core diameter (Dcore) = 360 – 2 × 40 = 280 mm Area of core (Acore) = Thus π 2 π 2 D core = ( 280 ) = 61575.0144 ≥ 0.05[0.27 mm2 4 (Ag ) = π ( 360 )2 = 101787. ∴ Which is true.89 % × 100 = 101787.0113 Thus load carrying capacity of the column can be increased by 5%.22 mm2 4 4 Cross-section area of helix (helical reinforcement) Gross area of column (Ah ) = π × 82 = 50.0113 ⇒ 0.22 ) 50 ≥ 0.

Workbook 35 = 1. 1 = D 500 and.67 × 415 – 0.4(20)101787. Axial load (P ) = 900 kN Factored axial load (Pu) = 1. 5 8φ tie @ 50 c/c = 1126.1 D Pu = 0.45 × 30 × 0.5 × 900 kN = 1350 kN 1350 × 10 3 Pu = 0. for and d′ = 0.75 × 500 × 0. (P) = Pu 1.992 × Ag + 0.24]N 360 = 1690.77 kN .45 fck Ac + 0. Now since the column is square in section and is symmetrically reinforced and thus the uniaxial moment capacity of the column will be same in both the directions i.e.8 = 0.008 × 5002 = 4098 kN © Copyright www.18 = 30 × 500 × 500 fck bD From Chart 48 of SP: 16.madeeasypublications.8%. let p = 0.8% of Ag) = 0.75 × 500 × (0.org .15 kN ∴ Safe working load.992 × 5002 + 0.02667 30 50 d′ = 0.45 fck (Ag – Asc) + 0. along ‘x’ and ‘y’ directions. 1126 kN Reinforcement Detailing T4 : Solution As per IS 456: 2000 requirements.45 x 30 × (Ag – 0.4 × 20)2945.75 fy Asc = 0.45 × 30 × 0.8% of Ag) + 0.8% and effective cover = 50 mm on all the sides p So.5 6 – 25 φ 1690.75 × 500 × 0.008 × Ag = 0.15 = kN 1. Thus.04 Mu = Mu x = Muy 1 1 = 0.05 [0.75 fy Asc = 0.18 fck bD Mu fck bD 2 or = 0.04 × 30 × 500 × 5002 Nmm = 150 kNm Load carrying capacity of the column under pure axial load (Pz ) Pz = 0. fck = 0.602 + (0. minimum area of compression steel in column is 0.

32943 comes out to be 1. i. bars.63 mm2 Using 25 mm dia.346667)1.16 mm2 4 = 2513.05 × ⎜1. no.8% of Ag = 0.e. i.madeeasypublications.63 = 8. Asc = 0. Also.346667 = 150 Mu x1 and.21572 (Cl.32943 = 4098 Pz So. Given: λ= ∴ It is a long column. 39. Load carrying capacity of the column leff 9000 = = 15 > 12 D 600 P = 1.21572 = 0. of bars required = www.20 mm diameter bars so that Asc provided is Asc provided = 8 × π (20 )2 = 8 × 314.6 of IS: 456) Pz Checking the strength of the section: ⎛ Mu x ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ M u x1 ⎠ αn ⎛ M uy ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ M uy 1 ⎠ αn = (0. the reinforcement assumed initially is O.507 < 1 (OK) So.e. of the column (D) = 600 mm Axial load (P) = 2400 kN Effective length of the column (leff) = 9000 mm Slenderness ratio.3)1.36 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 1350 Pu = 0.05 × Cr ( As σcc + Asc σsc ) ⎞ 9000 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ π ⎛ ⎞ × 6002 − Asc ⎟ × 6 + Asc × 190⎟ 2400 × 103 = 1.8% of gross column area.25 − ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ 48 × 600 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠ Asc = 4030.K. 3 = 150 Muy1 P Value of α n for u = 0.21572 + (0. p = 0. (say) π × 252 4 © Copyright .org 40330. Muy 45 = 0.28 mm2 > 2000 mm2 (OK) T5 : Solution Dia.008 x 500 × 500 mm2 = 2000 mm2 Provide 8 . 52 Mu x = 0.2  10 nos.

36 × ⎞ V fck ⎛ Ag − 1⎟ ≤ h ⎜ fy ⎝ Ac Vc ⎠ 10 φ @75 c/c Tie or 8 φ @ 50 c/c Reinforcement Detailing „„„„ © Copyright www.3 ⎞ − 1⎟ = ⎜ 212371660p 415 ⎝ 212371.66 ⎠ Dc = 520 mm 0. pitch p ≮ 25 mm ⎭ If 8 mm dia.67 mm p≯ c = 6 6 ⎫ ⎬ max. of core (Dc) = 600 – 40 – 40 = 600 – 80 mm = 520 mm Area of core (Ac) = π π × Dc2 = × 5202 = 212371.46 mm p ≯ 75 mm D 520 = 86. of helix (Dh) = 520 – 10 mm = 510 mm (using 10 mm dia.1 mm3 = ⎜ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ p ⎟⎠ p As per the requirement of helical reinforcement 0.77 mm Option 1: Provide 10 mm dia ties @ 75 mm c/c Option 2: Provide 8 mm dia.Workbook 37 Design of helical reinforcement Dia. 125837456.org .46 × 82 102 = 52. pitch p= 82.3 mm2 4 Dia.36 p = 82.66 mm2 4 4 Volume of core per meter column length (Vc) = Ac × 1000 = 212371660 mm3 Gross area of the column section (Ag) = π × 6002 = 282743. ties @ 50 mm c/c 10-25 Dg = 600 mm Pitch. ties) ⎛ 1000 ⎞ π 2 × ( πDh ) × ( φh ) Volume of helix (Vh) = ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ p ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ × 510π × ⎜ ⎟ × 102 = 125837456. ties are used then.madeeasypublications.1 25 ⎛ 282743. pitch ⎭ p ≮ 3φh = 3 × 10 mm = 30 mm ⎫ ⎬ min.

madeeasypublications.48 kN / m 2 Soil pressure acting upwards = 3.5 × 1200 = 131.7 m × 3. ∴ ∴ Weight of footing and soil backfill = 10% of 1200 kN = 120 kN Total axial load = 1200 + 120 = 1320 kN 1320 = 12.7 m.55m i. provide square footing of size 3.org A B © Copyright . Calculation of bending moment 1.e.7 × 3.57 m 2 ∴ Area of footing required = 105 ∵ Column section is square of size 450 mm × 450 mm ∴ Provide square footing of side = 12.57 = 3.7 A B d Critical section for two way shear 450 3700 d/2 450 Critical section for one way shear Critical section for bending moment 3700 www.6 Design of Footings T1 : Solution Axial load (P ) = 1200 kN Assuming 10% of column load as weight of footing and soil backfill..

15bars π 2 20 ) ( 4 3700 − 2 × 75 − 15 × 20 = 232. ⎛ 3.45 ⎞ 1 Mu = 131. (for Fe415 steel) 642.598 ⎜ ⎥ = 2.3 mm (16 − 1) Provide 16 nos.Workbook 39 Section (A) – (A) is the face of column which is critical section for bending moment.935 × 10–3 ⎝ 25 ⎠⎟ ⎥ bd 2 ( 415) ⎣⎢ ⎦ pt = 0.7 − 0.7 − 0. at section (B) – (B) ⎡ ⎛ 3.org .138 fck bd 2 .7 mm2 100 Using 20 mm diameter bars.48 × 3. of bars required = Spacing of bars = Using 16 nos.7 ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎣⎝ ⎦ Nominal shear stress (τv ) = © Copyright 588. 20 Φ bars ⇒ Ast provided = 16 × π × 20 2 = 5026.315 mm Adopt overall depth of footing as 500 mm so that effective depth of footing (d). d = 500 − 75 − 20 = 415 mm 2 (Assuming 20 mm diameter bars and 75 mm clear cover) Reinforcement required for footing D = 500 mm d = 415 mm R = pt 100 ∴ = Mu 642.00795 ⎞ ⎤ = ⎢1 − 1 − 4. No.415⎥ kN = 588. bars.55 mm2 > 4506. spacing = 4506.madeeasypublications.64 kN SF at critical section (B) – (B) (Vu1) = 131.14 mm (15 − 1) 3700 − 2 × 75 − 16 × 20 = 215.7 = 14.64 × 10 3 = 0.3834 N/mm 2 3700 × 415 www. . .138 (25) 3700 d 2 ⇒ d = 224.2935 × 3700 × 415 = 4506.3 kNm ⎝ 2 2 2 ∴ Depth of footing required Mu = ⇒ 0.45 ⎞ ⎤ − 0.45 ⎞ ⎛ 3. of 20 mm dia.2935% ⇒ Ast = 0.3 × 10 6 = = 1.7 − 0.7 ⎜ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = 642.00795 bd 2 3700 ( 415)2 Ast 25 ⎡ ⎛ 1.3 .3 × 106 = 0.48 × 3.7 mm2 4 (OK) Check for one way shear Critical section for one way shear is at a distance ‘d ’ from the face of column i.e.

madeeasypublications.25 N/mm2 > τv (= 1.org © Copyright .24 N/mm2 where.5 × 1200 Permissible bearing stress = 0.87 fy φ 4 τ bd τbd = 1.87 ( 415) 10 = 403 mm 4 (2. Ld = 0.25 Thus depth of footing is safe in two way shear. 26.25 N/mm2 > 8.3274% 3700 × 415 As per table 19 of IS:415.5% steel is provided at column footing interface.3834 N/mm2) This depth provided is safe in one way shear.6 kN Nominal shear stress (τv) = (OK) 1701.6 × 10 3 = 1.1 of IS:456) Actual development length provided from the face of column = 3700 − 450 − 75 ( clear cov er ) 2 = 1550 mm > 403 mm Load transfer at column-footing interface Bearing pressure in column concrete at column footing interface.89 N/mm2 (OK) Thus column load can be transferred by bearing alone.72 – (0. SF at critical section (Vu 2 ) = 131.5 + 1 >/ 1 = 1 Longer side of column τ′c = k s τ v = ks 0.4 = 2.2.185 N/mm2) = (1) 0.40 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Shear strength of M25 concrete with p t = 5026.1. Development length Development length (Ld ) = 25 0.4 N/mm2 > τu (= 0.48 (3.45 f ck 450 2 A1 A2 (OK) × 1000 = 8. www.24 ) (Cl.25 25 = 1. Even then a minimum 0.6 × 1. Check for two way shear Critical section for two way shear is at a distance ‘d /2’ from the column face. (τc ) = 0.45 (25) = 11.45 + 0.415)2) = 1701.89 N / mm2 where A1 = 1 here A2 Permissible bearing stress = 0.55 × 100 = 0. = fbr = 1.185N / mm 2 4 ( 450 + 415) 415 Design shear strength of M25 concrete in two way shear τ′c = ksτv where ks = 1 + βc 2 where βc = Shorter side of column = 1 = 0.

87 ( 415) 20 = 644. Development length in compression (Ld ) = 0.37 mm <385 mm (OK) 20 φ @ 200 c/c X 450 450 3700 X Column bars 450 500 Dowel bars 14 – 10 φ 300(min. at the interface of column and footing.) 300(min. of bars required = 1012 .7 mm Provide small diameter bars as dowel bars.5 = 1289 . Using 10 mm diameter bars.5% of column area = 41 0.Workbook ∴ Minimum steel (As min) = 0. 14 bars π 2 10 ( ) 4 0.8 = 90 kNm Eccentricity (e) = M 590 = = 1.) 75 clear cover 3700 3700 SECTION X-X PLAN T2 : Solution Solution: P = 350 kN M = 500 kNm V = 50 kN Ground level Moment due to lateral force = 50 × 1.madeeasypublications. No.org .5 × 450 2 = 1012.22 = 4 bars π 2 (20 ) 4 Provide 4-20 Φ bars as dowel bars.87 ( 415 )10 4 ( 2. No.25 = 322.24 ) 1.25 m deep © Copyright www.5 = 3.5 mm2 100 Using 20 mm diameter bars.24 ) 1. of dowel bars required = Development length = 1012.25 Available length = 500 – 75 (clear cover) – 2 × 20 (bar diameter) = 385 mm < 644.686 m 350 P 1800 Total moment at footing base (M ) = 500 + 90 = 590 kNm 400 Provide a square footing of size = 5 m × 5 m × 1.7mm 4 (2.

42) (1.32 = 82.25) 16.25 m is adequate.77 kN  1361 kN When water table is at ground level.25 kN Weight of soil above footing = (52 – 0.8 – 1. Weight of footing = 5 × 5 × 1.2 kN  921 kN Overturning moment about point × (M0) = 590 kNm Restoring moment about point × (MR) = 0.8 = 229.52 + 781.25 = 3.25) (16.42) (1.25 = 1360.84 ± 28.7 = 920.25 × (25 – 9. 8.9 × 921 × Factor of safety against overturning = 5 = 2072.8 – 1.8 – 9.12 kN.42 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete When water table is at 1.32 = 65.52 kN/m2 σ = Thus footing size 5 m × 5 m × 1. 26. Weight of footing = 5 × 5 × 1. „„„„ www.76 kN/m2.16 kN/m2.81) = 95.m2 Thus there is no uplift any where in the footing base.org © Copyright .7 kN Weight of soil above footing = (52 – 0.8 m below ground level.4 590 (OK) Bearing pressure check Water table at 1.5 kN Axial load = 350 kN Total load = 350 + 95.madeeasypublications.44 ± 28. Water table at GL σ = 921 590 ⎛ 5 ⎞ P M ± y = 2 ± ⎜ ⎟ A I 5 53 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 5× 12 = 36.25 kNm 2 2072.52 kN Axial load = 350 kN Total load = 350 + 229.57 > 1.81) = 474.25 × 25 = 781.8 m below GL P M 1361 590 ⎛ 5 ⎞ ± y = ± ⎜ ⎟ 2 A I 5 53 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 5× 12 = 54.5 + 474.

33 = 49.33 N/mm Loss of stress due to elastic deformation of concrete = mfc = 6 × 8. Initial stress in steel Area of steel placed concentrically Initial prestressing force.0 ∴ Direct stress in concrete. 300 T1 : Solution 500 mm 2 A = b × d = 200 × 300 = 60000 mm2 Dimensions in mm = 1000 MPa = 1000 N/mm2 = 500 mm2 P = 500 × 1000 = 500.7 Prestressed Concrete 200 Given data. d = 300 mm ∴ Area.000 2 60. b = 200 mm Depth of beam.madeeasypublications.000 = 8.000N fc = 500. Width of beam. Effective prestress P = 800 kN γc = 25 kN/m3 W = ? 6000 mm 6000 mm Area of cross-section A = bd = 200 × 400 = 80 × 103 mm2 © Copyright www. Modular ratio = 6.org .98 N/mm2 T2 : Solution w b = 200 mm d = 400 mm. L = 12 m e = 70 at mid span = 0 at ends 70 mm 400 mm Given.

437 – 3W σbot = For no tension in beam σbot = 0 ⇒ W = 12.25 × 106 8..4 × 25 kN/m3 = 2 kN/m Now self weight of beam So dead load moment Md = wl 2 = 36 kNm 8 Live load moment Ml = Wl = 3W 4 Putting values in eq.5 × 10 = 25 N/mm2 www.067 × 109 mm4 12 12 At mid span ⇒ and e = 70 mm y t = 270 mm yb = 130 mm ⇒ Zt = 1. we get 36 × 106 800 × 103 800 × 103 × 70 − − 3W + 80 × 103 8.067 × 109 = 3.. (i).2 × 0.951 × 106 mm3 270 Zb = 1.(i) w = A × 1 × γc = 0.org © Copyright .206 × 106 = 10 + 6.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 44 and I = 1 1 3 bd3 = × 200 × ( 400) = 1.067 × 109 = 8.825 – 4.madeeasypublications.437 = 4.14 kN 3 T3 : Solution ES 200000 αe = E = 20000 = 10 C Strain in steel = Δl 20 = 10 × 1000 l 200000 × 20 = 400 N/mm2 10000 P = Stress × Area = 400 × 500 = 200 kN Stress in steel = Tensile force in steel. Stress in concrete at the level of steel fc = P 200 × 1000 = 2.5 N/mm2 = A 200 × 400 Loss due to elastic deformation = fcα = 2.388 – 3W = 12.205 × 106 mm3 130 P Pe Md Mi σbot = A + Z − Z − Z b b b Hence at service load .

37 190.madeeasypublications.24 N/mm2 For equivalent concrete section.86 mm2 4 ⎛ 350 ⎞ − 75 mm ⎟ Centroid of section from soffit = 100 mm ⎜ = ⎝ 2 ⎠ Location of Neutral Axis 5 nos.85 × 10 3 × 75 ⎛ P Pe ⎞ × 175⎟ y ⎟ = ⎜ 2. (A) = 200 × 350 = 70000 mm2 Moment of inertia (I) = 200 × 350 3 = 714.-6φ P/A A = x from bottom = ∴ © Copyright Pe/Z P/A e = 75 350 200 Pe/Z π × 62 × 5 = 141.52 × 10 6 = 2.85 × 10 3 × 75 + × 174. Cross-sectional area.85 kN 4 For nominal concrete section.47 = 6.Workbook 45 T4 : Solution Applied prestressing force (P) = 5 × π × 6 2 × 1350 N = 190.17 N/mm2 Stress at soffit of section = www.37 × 100 = 174.85 × 10 3 190.85 × 10 3 = = 2.25 mm 70000 + 141.org .25 70706.7 + 3.86 718.583 × 10 6 mm 4 12 ∴ Axial compressive stress at the soffit of the section = ∴ P 190.37 mm2 4 70000 × 175 + 141. Let modulur ratio (m) = 6 ∴ Equivalent concrete area (Ae) = 70000 + (6 − 1) × 5 × π × 6 2 = 70706.73 + Final stress at the soffit of section = ⎜ + 6 I ⎠ 714.583 × 10 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝A = 6.73 N/mm 2 A 70000 ⎛ ⎞ 190.

5 N/mm2 (compression) At bottom.24 T5 : Solution Prestressing force (P) = 180 kN Eccentricity (e) = 30 mm Gross area of cross-section (A) = 120 × 300 = 36000 mm2 Sectional modulus (Z) = 120 × Direct stress = Flexural stress due to eccentricity = P 180 × 1000 = = 5 N/mm 2 A 36000 Pe 180 × 1000 × 30 = = 3 N/mm 2 Z 1. 180 × 10 3 180 × 10 3 e + 36000 1.17 × 100 = 1.5 ⇒ e = 95 mm ∴ Pressure line gets shifted from original pressure line by 95 + 30 = 125 mm Alternatively: This shift of pressure line can be computed as. stress = 5 – 3 + 12.5 ⇒ 5 + 0.8 × 10 6 Stresses at mid-span section At top.1e = 14.24 − 6.875 kNm 32 © Copyright .5 × 10 6 = = 125 mm (which is same as above) P 180 × 10 3 At quarter span ⎛ wL ⎞ L wL L wL2 wL2 3wL2 − − = Moment at quarter span (M1) = ⎜ = ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠4 4 8 8 32 32 = www.5 = 14.5 N/mm 2 Z 1.5 N/mm2 (tension) Shift of pressure line is given by.8 × 10 6 = 14.12% 6.org 3 × 5 × 62 = 16. stress = 5 + 3 – 12.5 kNm 8 M 22.8 × 10 6 mm 3 6 62 = 22.8 × 10 6 Mid span moment (M) = 5 × Flexural stress due to moment = 300 2 = 1.5 × 10 6 = = 12. Shift = M 22.madeeasypublications.5 = –4.46 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete ∴ Percentage difference in stresses at soffit = 6.

8 × 10 6 ⇒ e = 63.875 × 10 6 = = 9.375 N/mm2 (compression) ∴ At bottom. stress = 5 + 3 – 9.75 mm P 180 × 10 3 (same as calculated above) Pressure Line 125 mm 93.75 + 30 = 93.375 = –1.375 N/mm2 (tension) ∴ Shift of pressure line is.madeeasypublications.875 × 10 6 = = 93.75 mm Thus pressure line gets shifted from original location by 63.8 × 25 = 6 kN/m 3 kN/m 6 + 3 = 9 kN/m 9 × 10 = 90 kN = 0 = 56.3 × 0.25 kN = 90 – RB = 33.375 36000 1.375 N/mm2 Z 1. 180 × 10 3 180 × 10 3 e + = 11.8 × 10 6 ∴ At top.375 = 11.75 kN www.75 mm P = 180 kN P = 180 kN 6m T6 : Solution RA x 300 3 kN/m 8m C 2m RB x Prestressing force (P) Self weight of beam Live load on beam ∴ Total load RA + RB and taking moment about A is zero RB(8) – 9 × 10 × 5 ⇒ RB ∴ RA © Copyright B 800 x A = = = = = 450 kN 0.75 mm Alternatively: This shift of pressure line can be computed as. Shift = M1 16.Workbook ∴ Flexural stress due to moment (M1) = 47 M 1 16. stress = 5 – 3 + 9.org .

703 × 210 × 1000 = 23.3906 × 10 8 mm 4 12 P = 1300 × 175 = 227.5m (from support A) ⇒ e = When ⇒ ⇒ Eccentricity of cable at support B = MB 18 × 10 6 = = 40 mm 450 × 1000 P At support A.37 + 2 × (3. distant x from A = R A x − 9 x.75)2 = 63.37 ) 3.5x2 Moment at section x-x.75) – 4.75 – 9x x Mmax For maximum moment. ⇒ ⇒ ∴ = 0 = 0 = 3.5x2 = 0 x = 0.madeeasypublications. 18 kNm A C B Mmax = 63.5 × 1000 = 3.5 × 1000 × 50 × 50 + 67500 11.87 N/mm2 at mid-span = ∴ ∴ Average stress at the level of steel = 3.87 − 3.5 = 3.5 kN Stress in concrete at the level of steel.75 m = 33.3906 × 10 8 = 3.5(3.28 kNm 300 40 mm A 800 140.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 48 x 2 = 33.62 mm P Mx = 0 33. moment is zero and thus eccentricity is zero at A.75x – 4.37 N/mm 2 67500 227.5 × 1000 227.75(3. at support = 227. dM x dx 33.org © Copyright .6 mm B C Cable profile T7 : Solution Gross cross-sectional area of beam (A) = 150 × 450 = 67500 mm2 Moment of inertia of beam (I) = 150 × 450 3 = 11.703 N/mm2 3 Loss of stress due to creep = 3 × 10–5 × 3.28 kNm M max = = 140.37 + 0.75x – 4. 7.33 N/mm2 www.

madeeasypublications.0015 × 8) 0.04 radians L 8000 α = 2 × 0.04 × 1100 = 44 N/mm2 Po(0. ∴ Slope = ∴ Slope at support for cable 1 dy dx ∴ Slope at support for cable 2 ∴ ∴ x (L − x ) L2 dy 4h = (L − 2 x ) d x L2 4hL 2 L = 4h 4 × 80 = = 0.04 radian 1100 × 150 = 165 kN Poe–(μα + kx) = Po (1 – μα – kx) Po – Px = Po(μα + kx) Po(0. prestress loss = = 4h 4 × 40 = = 0.026 × 1100 = 28.08 + 0.org .02 = 0.026Po = 0.02 rad L 8000 2 × 0.08 radians dy dx ∴ x=0 = 4h x=0 = a Initial prestressing force (Px) Px Loss of prestress For cable 1. prestress loss = = For cable 3.2 N/mm2 T9 : Solution Step-1: Assume size of beam Width = 500 mm Depth = 800 mm wd = 0.35 × 0.0015 × 8) 0.04 + 0.04 = 0.012Po = 0.35 × 0 + 0.0015 × 8) 0.85 ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ © Copyright www.35 × 0.04 Po = 0. prestress loss = = = = = = For cable 2.8 × 1 × 25 = 10 kN/m Self weight Live load moment Md = 10 × 202 = 500 kNm 8 Ml = 30 × 202 wl × l2 = 1500 kNm = 8 8 Step-2: Section modulus required Z = (1 − k ) Md + Ml fc P ⎞ ⎛ 15 ⎞ ⎛ k = ⎜1 − L ⎟ = ⎜1 − ⎟ = 0.6 N/mm2 Po(0.012 × 1100 = 13.Workbook 49 T8 : Solution y = For parabolic cable profile.5 × 0.

44 × 106 mm3 6Z 6 × 98.5 × 103 = 315 mm „„„„ www.5 × 103 = = 3451 mm2 fs 1500 (1 + k ) Md + Ml 2kP (1 + 0.85 × 5176.org © Copyright .5 × 1.44 × 106 = = 1086.75 × 202 = 687.85 P 5176. Consider D = (1 − 0.86 mm B 500 D = 1100 mm B = 500 mm wd = 0.5 × 106 + 1500 × 106 16 = 100.1 × 1 × 25 = 13.5 × 106 + 1500 × 106 2 × 0.2 × 106 mm3 6Z = 1096 mm B So. B = 500 mm Step-3: Cross-sectional area.85 ) 500 × 106 + 1500 × 106 16 = 98.75 kN/m Md = 13. e = = A × fc 55 × 104 × 16 = = 5176. A = B × D = 500 × 1100 = 55 × 104 mm2 Prestressing force P = Step-4: Area of steel.5 kN 2k 2 × 0.madeeasypublications.85 ) × 687.5 kNm 8 Section modulus (Z) required. D = 1100 mm. As = Step-5: Eccentricity.85 ) 687.50 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Z = Depth required. Z = D = (1 − 0.