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WORKBOOK

Detailed Explanations of

**Try Yourself Questions
**

Civil Engineering

RCC & Pre-stressed Concrete

2

Design of Beams

T1 : Solution

(a)

b

0.0035

0.002

Xu

d

3

— Xu

7

0.45 fck

4 X

—

7 u

c1

c2

T

Section

0.87 fy

+ 0.002

Es

Strain diagram

Stress diagram

In strain diagram

0.0035

Xu =

⇒

d − Xu

=

Xu

Given,

and

www.madeeasypublications.org

0.87 fy

+ 0.002

Es

d − Xu

0.87 fy

+ 0.002

Es

0.0035

f y= 415 MPa

Es = 2 × 105 MPa

© Copyright

Workbook

⇒

d

−1 =

Xu

⇒

d

xu

0.87 × 415

+ 0.002

2 × 105

0.0035

= 2.0872

Xu = 0.479 d

⇒

Limiting BM, Mu (lim) = C. (lever arm)

C = C1 + C2

(b)

3

...(i)

3

4

⎛

⎞ ⎛2

⎞

= ⎝⎜ 0.45 fck Xu b⎠⎟ + ⎝⎜ × 0.45fck X u b⎠⎟

7

3

7

= 0.19 fck bXu + 0.17 fck bXu = 0.36 fck b Xu

CX = C1X 1 + C2 X 2

⎛ 3

⎞

0.19 fck b Xu ⎜ X u ⎟ + 0.17

⎝ 14 ⎠

⇒

⎛ 3 4 3⎞

fck b Xu ⎜ × + ⎟ Xu

⎝ 8 7 7⎠

0.36 fck bX u

X =

∴

= 0.42 Xu

Lever arm = d – 0.42 Xu

So from eq. (i)

(c)

∵

⇒

⇒

⇒

Mu lim =

=

C =

0.36 fck bXu =

0.36 fck b(0.479 d) =

As =

0.36 fck b Xu(d – 0.42 Xu)

0.36 fck b × 0.479 d (d – 0.42 × 0.479 d) = 0.138 fck bd2

T

0.87 fy As

0.87 × 415 As

4.78 × 10–4 fck bd

T2 : Solution

Bf = 2342 mm

Cu

Xu

C

lever arm = d –

380 mm

d = 500 – 30

= 470 mm

Xa

3

NA

Df = 120 mm

T

Bw = 230 mm

© Copyright

Stress diagram

www.madeeasypublications.org

Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete

4

Given data:

Spacing of beam = 3 m

Effective span,

l eff = 8.35 m, Bw = 230 mm

Thickness of slab

Df = 120 mm

Area of steel,

Ast = 2 ×

π

(32 )2 = 1608.50 mm2

4

Effective width of flange

Beff =

=

l0

+ 6 Df + Bw

6

8.35 × 1000

+ 6 × 120 + 230

6

= 2341.6 ≈ 2342 mm = Bf

Take an effective cover of 30 mm

∴ Effective depth,

d = 500 – 30 = 470 mm

For M 25 Concrete

Modular ratio,

m =

280

280

= 10.98 ≈ 11

=

3 × 8.5

3 σcbc

**Now for actual depth of neutral axis,
**

Moment of area of tension side should be equal to moment of area of compression side.

Assume neutral axis lies in theflange portion.

∴

Bf X a

Xa

2

⇒

2342

X a2

= 11 × 1608.50 × (470 – Xa)

2

= m Ast (d − X a )

**1171 Xa2 = 17693.5 (470 – Xa)
**

1171 Xa 17693.5 Xa – 8315945 = 0

Xa = 77.05 < Df

Critical depth of neutral axis

2+

(hence ok)

mσcbc

11 × 8.5

×d =

× 470

Xc = σ + m σ

230 + (11 × 8.5)

y

cbc

= 135.84 mm

www.madeeasypublications.org

© Copyright

5

Workbook

∵ Xa < Xc

∴ Beam is underreinforced

∴ Ca < σcbc or C

σcbc = C

Ca

ta

σ

= st

m

m

and

Xc

Xa

∴ Moment of resistance

Xa ⎞

⎛

M = σst Ast ⎝⎜ d −

⎟

3 ⎠

77.05 ⎞

⎛

= 230 × 1608.50 ⎜⎝ 470 −

⎟

3 ⎠

ta

m

**= 164.38 × 106 Nmm = 164.38 kNm
**

Maximum bending moment =

σst

m

W l2

8

W (8.35)

8

2

⇒

164.38 =

⇒

W = 18.86 kN/m

Hence safe load including self weight that beam can carry is 18.86 kN/m.

T3 : Solution

Area =

300

π

× 202 × 4 = 1256.63 mm2

4

b

300

xa2

2

xa2

2

650

(i) For BM of 90 kNm

1. Actual depth of NA

= mAst (d − xa )

= 15 × 4 ×

π

(20 )2 (600 − xa )

4

4 - 20φ

50

**150 xa2 = 11309670 – 18849.45xa
**

xa = 218.85 mm

2. From compression side

BM = MR

90 × 106 = b xa

Ca

2

xa ⎞

⎛

⎜d − 3 ⎟

⎝

⎠

Ca ⎛

218.85 ⎞

600 −

90 × 106 = 300 × 218.85 ×

⎜

2 ⎝

3 ⎟⎠

Ca = 5.2 N/mm2

© Copyright

www.madeeasypublications.org

55 mm Depth of rectangular portion of compressive stress = www.org 3 3 xu lim = (215.55 350 NA 100 125 125 T Given.13 N/mm2 90 135.84 N/mm2 For BM of 210 kNm linear interpolation can be done for stress in concrete and steel.9 N/mm2 2nd method for ta t /m Ca = a d − xa xa ta = mCa (d − xa ) xa = 135.64 × ⎜⎛ 600 − ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ta = 135.85 ⎞ 90 × 106 = t a × 1256.2 × 210 = 12.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 6 xa ⎞ ⎛ BM = t a × Ast ⎜ d − ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ From tension side 218. concrete stress = 5.48 d = 0.38 mm 7 7 © Copyright .2 N/mm2 ∴ For 210 kNm moment. For 90 kNm moment.55 ) mm = 92.1 N/mm2 90 T4 : Solution 0. concrete stress = Similarly stress in steel = 5. M 20 concrete ⇒ Fe 415 steel ⇒ T fck = 20 N/mm2 f y = 415 N/mm2 b = 350 mm D = 500 mm Effective cover = 50 mm ∴ Effective depth (d ) = 500 mm – 50 mm = 450 mm Distance of top edge of duct from top of beam = CK = 75 mm Limiting depth of neutral axis (xu lim) = 0.48 (450) = 215.9 × 210 = 317.madeeasypublications.446 fck A 200 C D J 175 75 K I 500 75 500 C II 175 Duct B E 100 III F G H C 215.

45 fck bh = 0.2 mm2 4 Limiting depth of NA xu lim = 0.49 kN f st = 0.5 kN C3 = Compressive force due to Part III From statical equilibrium.42 × 215.55 N = 193. ∴ ⇒ T = 455.5 + 193.42 xu lim) + C2 (d – 75/2) = 2 × 193.5) Nmm = 167.36 (20)(125) 215.995 + 67.87 fy Ast = 455.madeeasypublications.314 kNm T5 : Solution Case (a) 3-16 mm φ bars 400 D = 650 mm d = 650 – 50 = 600 mm π × 162 = 603.87 fy T = 0.87 ( 415) Moment of resistance at balanced stage (MOR) = (C1 + C3) (d – 0.36 fck b xu lim = 0.5 × 103 (450 – 37.57 mm 2 0.48 × 600 = 288 mm © Copyright 650 Area of steel = 3 × 3-16 φ www.45 (20) (100) 75 N = 67.99 = T ⇒ At balanced stage.org .49 × 10 3 = 1261. This part II is within the rectangular stress block because h = 75 mm depth 3 < xu lim (= 92.48 × d (for Fe 415) = 0.49 × 103 N Ast = 455.Workbook 7 Divide the area above the balanced neutral axis into 3 parts with portion ABFE → Part I portion BCKJ → Part II portion CDHG → Part III and Part I and III are each of width 125 mm and are under the influence of complete compressive stress block over a depth of xu lim (= 215.38 mm) 7 Let.55 mm). C1 + C2 + C3 = T ⇒ 193. C1 = Compressive force due to Part I ∴ C1 = C3 = 0. Part II is of width 100 mm which is under the influence of compressive stress block for a depth of h = 75 mm.55) + 67.995 × 103 (450 – 0.995 kN C2 = Compressive force due to Part II C2 = 0.

09 = 352.2 xu = 50.e.36fckbxu = 0.05 = 84.madeeasypublications.42 × 246. i. xu < xu lim Moment of resistance MR = 0.05 kNm ⇒ Unfactored moment/working moment = 126.42xu) = 0.87 × 415 × 603.41 (600 – 0.36 × 30 × 400 × 50.24 xu = 246.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 8 Actual depth of NA C = T 0.36 × 30 × 400 × 246.87fy) 0.15) = 528.41) = 126.42 × 50.04 kNm 1.87 × 415 × 2945.15(600 – 0.87fy Ast (Assuming under reinforced section so that fst = 0.05 = 84.24 mm2 4 6-25 φ Limiting depth of NA = 0.87 × 415 × 60.15 mm < xu lim (= 288 mm) So section is under reinforced section Moment of resistance MR = 0.32 (600 – 0.06 kNm 1.36fckbxu(d – 0..09 kNm Unfactored moment/working moment = www.41 mm < xu lim (= 288 mm) Thus assumption of under-reinforced section is correct.87fy Ast (assuming under reinforced section) 0.5 © Copyright .41) = 126.42 × 50.5 400 650 Case (b) 6-25 mm φ bars Ast = 6 × Given : π × 252 = 2945.42xu) = 0.36 × 30 × 400 × xu = 0.87fy Ast(d – 0.36fck bxu = 0.org 528.5 From tension side MR = 0.48d ⇒ xu lim = 0.03 kNm 1.36fck bxu (d – 0.48(650 –50) mm = 288 mm Actual depth of NA C = T 0.36 × 30 × 400 × xu = 0.06 kNm Unfactored MR = 126.42xu) = 0.

36fck bxu lim (d – 0.48d = 0.61⎜ ⎟ (0.42 × 288) = 3445.06 kNm 1.5 Area of steel for limiting section: Ast lim = ( Mu lim 0. So limit xu to xu lim ∴ Mu = 0.138fck bd2 = 596 kNm (for Fe 415) ∴ Unfactored MR = 596 = 397 kNm 1.42 × 288) = 596 kNm Alternatively Mu = 0.44% d ⎝ 415 ⎠ ⎠ ⎠⎝ 1.09 kNm Unfactored moment = 528.38 × 0.44 × 400 × 600 = 3465.48 ) = 1.org .5 400 Case (c) 8-25 mm φ bars Area of steel = 8 × π × 252 = 3927 mm2 4 650 Given: xu lim = 0.87 × 415 (600 − 0.87fy .42 xu lim) = 0.09 = 352.36 × 30 × 400 × 288 (d – 0. Effective depth of the beam (d) Loads and bending moment Live load Self weight of the beam Given: © Copyright = 380 mm = 700 mm = 6m = 700 – 50 mm = 650 mm = 20 kN/m = 0.7 × 25 kN/m = 6.36fck bxu = 0.6 mm2 100 T6 : Solution Width of beam (b) Overall depth of the beam (D) Span (L) Assuming an effective cover of 50 mm.61⎜ ck ⎜ fy ⎝ Ast lim = ⎞ ⎛ xu lim ⎞ ⎛ 30 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 41.87fy Ast(d – 0.42xu) = 528.48 × 600 = 288 mm Limiting depth of NA Actual depth of NA 8-25 φ xu = 0.madeeasypublications.Workbook 9 Moment of resistance from tension side MR = 0.65 kN/m www.87fy d − 0.42xu lim ) 596 × 106 2 = 0.87 fy Ast xu = 328 mm > xu lim (= 288 mm) Thus section is over reinforced and fst ≠ 0.9 mm Alternatively ∴ ⎛f pt lim = 41.

89 × 10 6 = 0.42 × 299) = 643.36 × 30 × xu × 380(650 – 0.2697 × 380 × 650 = 666.89 × 10 6 380 × 650 2 = 1.7 mm2 Alternatively R = ∴ ⇒ ⇒ www.42xu) Mu lim = 0.89 × 106 43832.36fck bxu lim (d – 0.133 fck bd2 (for Fe 500) = 640.65 + 20 kN/m = 26.5 kNm Alternatively Mu lim = 0.42 xu ) 0.65 kN/m = 39.42 xu lim) = 0.36 × 30 × 380 × 299 (650 – 0.7) = 666.846 xu Area of tension steel required = = = = Ast = 0.975 kN/m w uL2 39.42 × 70.7 mm Mu 179.87 fy Ast (d – 0.org pt 100 = Mu bd 2 = 179.madeeasypublications.36fckbxu = 0.87 fy Ast and Mu = 0.87 fy Ast (d – 0.89 kNm = 8 8 Limiting depth of neutral axis xu lim = 0.87 × 500 (650 − 0.120461⎤ = ⎢1 − 1 − 4.120461 Ast 30 ⎡ 1.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 10 Total load = = = Factored load (wu) = Factored bending moment (Mu) = Dead load + Live load Self weight of the beam + Live load 6.65 kN/m 1.42xu) 0.42 xu) 650 xu – 0.87f y (d − 0.975 × 62 kNm = 179.46d = 0.2679% Ast = 0.5 × 26.16 mm2 (same as above) 100 © Copyright .42 xu2 70.5 kNm) ∴ Calculation of xu for M u Mu < Mu lim and thus we require an under reinforced section Mu 179.46 × 650 mm = 299 mm (For Fe 500 steel) Actual depth of neutral axis Compression force = Tension force 0.598 × ⎥ bd 2 ( 500 ) ⎣ 30 ⎦ pt = 0.6 kNm (which is very close to 643.

5 . 1 (a) of IS 456 1(a) 456:: 2000. Ast lim bd Let = 0. ∴ xu lim d = 0. Span = 7 m < 10 m l d ∴ ≤ 20 7000 l = = 350 mm 20 20 Adopt d = 350 mm d ≥ ⇒ ∴ ∴ Effective span is ⎫ (i) Clear span + d = 6770 + 350 = 7120 mm ⎬ whichever is less (ii) c/c distance between supports = 7000 mm ⎭ Hence. f s = 0.2.48 = 1. 23.58 (415) ⎝ Area of steel provided ⎠ Assuming area of steel required = Area of steel provided = 240. effective span is taken as : ⎫ (i) Clear span + effective depth ⎬ whichever is less (ii) Centre to centre distance between the two supports ⎭ 230 230 7000 ∴ Clear span = 7000 − 230 230 = 6770 mm − 2 2 Now Cl.7 N/mm2 © Copyright www. L e f f = 7000 mm = Effective span of beam Step: 3 Assume percentage of steel reinforcement for calculation of actual effective depth For Fe 415.203 % ⎝ 415 ⎠ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ = Maximum percentage of tension steel reinforcement Also.9 % < pt lim (OK) Step: 4 Effective Depth (d) : The basic value of span/ depth ratio is multiplied by modification factor (kt) to account for tension reinforcement. d (and thus D).58 fy ⎛⎜ Area of steel required ⎞⎟ = 0. minimum percentage of steel reinforcement is given by.1 of IS : 456 – 2000 gives basic ratios of span to effective depth which is 20 for simply supported beam for beam upto 10 m span.madeeasypublications. 1.2 (a) of IS 456: 2000. Ast Step: 2 Effective Span : As per Cl.61⎜ ⎟ 0. Here.org . as per Cl.Workbook 11 T7 : Solution Step: 1 Unknown Parameters : b. 26. 22.48 ⎛f ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 25 ⎞ pt lim = 41.85 fy pt = 0.61⎜ ck ⎟ ⎜ u lim ⎟ = 41.

7 D b = 250 mm Let b D ∴ = 250 = 0.138 fck bd 2 ⇒ 87.5 kN/m ∴ Factored load (wu) = 1.28 kNm 8 8 Step: 6 Effective depth of beam required from design moment consideration For Fe 415.25 kN/m (Partial safety factor for dead and live loads is 1. 4 of IS 456: 2000.7 N/mm2 and pt = 0.7) (OK) Step: 5 Design loads and design bending moment Cl. Mu lim = 0.28 × 106 = (0.11 mm which is less than adopted effective depth (= 350 mm). pt 100 Where www.2.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 12 From Fig.5 for limit state of collapse) ∴ Factored bending moment (Mu) = w u l 2 eff. kc = 1 for pc = 0 % = 20 (1) = 20 ∴ d = 7000 span = = 350 mm 20 20 Which is same as assumed earlier Let Effective cover = 50 mm ∴ Overall depth (D ) = 350 + 50 = 400 mm Width of Beam (b): The ratio b should preferably lie between 0.25 × 0.4 × 25 kN/m = 2.madeeasypublications. 1 for fs = 240. 19.5 × 9. k t .25 × = 87.9 % (assumed) ∴ ⎛l ⎞ Actual span/depth ratio = ⎜ ⎟ kt × kc ⎝ d ⎠basic Where.625 400 (between 0.1 of IS 456: 2000 specifies unit weight of reinforced concrete as 25 kN/m3 ∴ Self weight of beam = 0.598 ⎥ bd 2f y ⎣ fck ⎦ 87.5 and 0.138) (25) (250)d 2 ⇒ d = 318.11 mm < 350 mm as calculated above (OK) Step: 7 Area of steel required Since d = 350 mm and effective depth required from design moment consideration is 318.org = R = Ast f ⎡ R ⎤ = ck ⎢1 − 1 − 4.5 + 7 = 9.5 and 0.28 × 106 Mu = = 2.85 N/mm2 250 × 3502 bd 2 © Copyright . ∴ Design moment is on conservative side and need not to be revised. 72 = 14.5 kN/m Live load = 7 kN/m ∴ Total load = 2.5 kN/m = 14.

343 × 10–3 pt = 0. pt assumed (=0.madeeasypublications.83 mm < xu lim (= 220.87 fy Ast = 0.002 = 0.51 = 2. 3 nos.002404795 ⎝ 127.2 xu + 141590.87 × 415 – 0.75 mm 2 4 xu lim = 0.598 × ⎥ 2 ( 415 ) ⎢⎣ 25 ⎥⎦ bd = 9.447 × 20) 402.87 fy is correct.13 Workbook pt 100 ∴ = 25 ⎡ 2.87 × 415 2 × 10 5 + 0.6 .34 mm) Assumption of fst = 0.479 (460) = 220.51 mm2 100 817.00380525 >∈s www.47 N Tu = 0.12 = 141590.9343 × 250 × 350 = 817.9343 % .47 = 354460. π (20 )2 4 Provide 3-20 φ bars at bottom and 2-10 φ bars at top for holding the stirrups as hanger bars.87 (415) 981.12 mm 2 4 2-25φ Ast = 2 × π × 25 2 = 981.0035 ⎜ 1 − = 0.34 mm Let ∴ f st = fsc = 0.479 d = 0.84 xu = 127.87 fy Cuc = 0.org . number of bars reqd. = 0.84 N Cuc + Cus = Tu ⇒ ∴ ∴ 1665.362 fck b xu = 0.362 (20) 230 (xu) = 1665.75 = 354460.9 %) ∴ ∴ Ast = Using 20 mm φ bars. 40 ⎞ ⎛ Strain in compression steel (∈sc) = 0.87fy – 0. T8 : Solution b = 230 mm Effective cover = 40 mm (for both tension and compression) M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel 2-16φ Asc = 2 × D = 500 mm Effective depth (d) = 50 – 40 = 460 mm π × 16 2 = 402.447 fck) Asc = (0.83 ⎟⎠ Yield strain (∈y) = © Copyright 0.85 ⎤ Ast = ⎢1 − 1 − 4.2 xu Cus = (0.

34) (460 – 0.34) + (353.524 – 0.524 N/mm2 Mu lim = 0.447 fck) Asc (d – d′) = 0.42 × 220.org © Copyright .12 (460 – 40) = 193 kNm www.madeeasypublications.87 fy Thus.0869 = d 460 ∴ For ∴ xu = xu lim.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 14 ∴ Compression steel has not yielded.362 fck b xu lim (d – 0.83 mm d′ 40 = 0.42 xu lim)+ (fsc – 0.447 × 20) 402.362 (20) 230 (220. xu ≠ 127. fsc = 353. ⇒ fsc ≠ 0.

6 nos.3 Shear.87fy Ast ⎜ d − f b ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ck 12 mm φ. © Copyright www.6 ⎞ ⎛ × M = 0.6 ⎜⎝ 419 − ⎟ 15 250 ⎠ = 55. L0 = 0 V 55.16 Ld < 200 55.madeeasypublications.87 × 250 Ld = 4τ = = 54.375 φ bd 4 ×1 M1 + L0 .org . Area of steel Ast = 6 × Also. effective depth π 2 × (12 ) = 678.87 × 250 × 678.6 mm2 4 12 = 419mm 2 250 678. Bond and Torsion 250 mm T1 : Solution f y = 250 N/mm2 fck = 15 N/mm2 Cover = 25 mm 450 mm Given Bending moment fy Ast ⎞ ⎛ M = 0.16 1 × φ < 200 54. beam is not safe in bond.16 kNm d = 450 − 25 − ∴ Then development length Also development length φσs φ × 0.375 φ < 5 Ld < or or Since Hence.

90 N/mm2 T3 : Solution Since the beam is reinforced with 4-20 mm diameter bars and thus area of tension steel provided (Ast) is 1256.48 m l eff = 10.48 = 10. Reinforcement of 32 mm φ bar Effective span.90 N/mm2 b.625 kN 2 2 w/m wl 2 + _ Shear Force Diagram Assume effective cover = 25 mm Now.5 × 200 kN = 300 kN So shear stress (τv) = (i) 300 × 1000 = 1.818 N/mm2 (300 × 550 ) M 20 concrete and Fe 250 steel For pt = 0.45 = 10.45 m Vmax = wL 25 × 10.7616% (300 × 550 ) Now shear reinforcement is designed for factored shear force. shear strength of concrete (τc) = 0.d 250 × 575 = 0.56 N/mm2 (Table 19 of IS 456: 2000) www. leff = Minimum of and ∴ Maximum shear force. = = = = = = 10.625 × 1000 = = 0. Assuming an effective cover of 50 mm.63 mm2. Factored shear force (Vu) = 1.0 m 450 mm 120 mm 250 mm 480 mm 25.org © Copyright .45 = = 130.63 × 100 = 0. effective depth ∴ Nominal shear stress in the beam ∴ Design shear stress for concrete wl 2 = (D1 + D2 – 25) = (120 + 480 – 25) = 575 mm τv = V 130.45 m l0 + d = 10 + 0.7616% and M 20 concrete.madeeasypublications. effective beam depth = 600 mm – 50 mm = 550 mm Percentage tension steel (pt) = 1256. Total load. Width of the beam Depth of the beam below slab.16 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete T2 : Solution l0 B Df B D2 W Given.0 kN/m l0 + W = 10 + 0. Clear span of the beam Support width Thickness of slab.

14 kN Using 2 legged 10 mm diameter stirrups.59 × 300 × 550 = 202650 N = 202.65 kN Using 2-legged 8 mm diameter stirrups.87f y Asv d Vus = 0.08 × 550 mm 207140.4bsv = 0.69 mm = 110 mm (say) < 300 mm < 0.5 mm (OK) Check for minimum area of shear reinforcement: Asv min ≥ 0.87 ( 500)100.8 N/mm2 (Table 20 of IS 456: 2000) Shear force to be resisted by shear reinforcement (Vus) = Vu – τcbd = 300 x 103 – 0.87 × 250 × 157.75d = 0.Workbook 17 Maximum shear strength for M 20 concrete (τc max) = 2. Given: © Copyright www.5 N/mm2 (Table 20 of IS 456: 2000) Shear force to be resisted by shear reinforcement (Vus) = Vu – τcbd = 300 × 103 – 0.34 mm2<100.4 (300)(85) 0.75d = 0.87 ( 500 ) 0.4 (300 )110 = = 30. A sv = 2 × π × 10 2 = 2 × 78.54 mm2 4 0.5 mm (OK) Check for minimum area of shear reinforcement: Asv min ≥ 0.87 250 ( ) 0.56 × 300 × 550 = 207140.75 × 550 mm = 412. π × 8 2 = 2 × 50.89 mm2 < 157.87f y T4 : Solution Width of the beam (b) = 350 mm Overall depth of the beam (D) = 650 mm Assuming an effective cover of 50 mm. 0.27 mm2 = 100.08 mm2 (ii) (OK) M 30 concrete and Fe 500 steel For pt = 0.08 4 (sv) = Spacing of shear reinforcement.87fv = 46. shear strength of concrete (τc) = 0.64 = 90.org .madeeasypublications.54 ( 550 ) = 202650 Vus A sv = 2 × Spacing of shear reinforcement (sv) = = 118.76% and M 30 concrete.64 N = 207.71 mm = 85 mm (say) < 300 mm < 0.87f y Asv d 0.4bsv 0.75 × 550 mm = 412.59 N/mm2 (Table 19 of IS 456: 2000) Maximum shear strength for M 30 concrete (τc max) = 3.54 = 157.54 mm2 (OK) 0.

68 kN/m 68 + 5.68 kN/m Factored shear force (Vu) = Nominal shear stress at support τv = wl 1.68 × 7.5 × 73.8 × 600 mm = 679 mm < (span/4 = 7500/4 =1875 mm) (OK) IInd location = 2 2 a = 2 2 jd = 2 × 679 mm = 1358 mm < (span/4 = 7500/4 =1875 mm) (OK) There is no possibility for IIIrd location because 3 × 2 a = 3 × 679 mm = 2037 mm > (span/4 = 7500/4 =1875 mm) (Not possible) Calculation of shear force Total load = 73.724 × 350 × 600 N = 152.5 × 103 = N/mm2 bd 350 × 600 = 1.68 kN/m = 73.65 × 25 kN/m = 5.35 × 0.23 kN = 2 2 www.madeeasypublications. Vcu = τcbd = 0.5 – 152.4% 350 × 600 From table 19 of IS 456: 2000.5 kN = 414.87fy Asv sinα = 0. (= 3.46 – 250.97 N/mm2 < τc max.04 kN Vus = Vu – Vcu = 414.68 kN/m 2 a distance for the support 2 jd = 2 × 0.87 ( 415) 2 × π × 25 2 × sin45° = 250. τc = 0.5 kN = 2 2 Vu 414.64 kN 4 Vertical shear reinforcement shall be designed for a shear force of Vus – Vs bu = 262.46 Vus = 131.724 N/mm2 ∴ SF resisted by concrete.04 kN = 262.18 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Effective depth of the beam (d) Live load Self weight of the beam Total load Bent up bars: Let us bend only 2 bars = = = = Ist location = = 650 – 50 mm = 600 mm 68 kN/m 0. the design shear strength of M 25 concrete.1 N/mm2) (for M 25 concrete as per table 20 of IS 456: 2000) Design Shear strength of concrete 6× Percentage of reinforcement at support (pt) = π × 25 2 × 100 4 = 1.64 kN = 11.46 kN Shear strength of bent up bars Shear strength of bent up bars (Vs bu) = 0.org © Copyright .82 kN 262.

bars @ 160 mm c/c Shear reinforcement design for portion 2 Shear force at a section just beyond the bent up bar Vu1 = 3071 × 414.45 – 168 = 171.87fy Asv d 2 × 4 × 8 × 0.45 × 10 3 = 127.87 × 415 × 600 sv = mm = Vus 171.02 mm ∴ For portion 2.4 × 350 π 4 × 82 mm ≤ 259 mm Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement 1.75d = 0.5 = 339.23 × 10 3 2 = 165. stirrups.95 mm Spacing as per minimum shear reinforcement requirement sv ≤ ≤ 0.45 kN Spacing of 2 legged 8 mm dia. 300 mm ⎫ ⎬ whichever is less = 300 mm ⎭ ∴ For portion 1 provide 2 legged 8 mm dia.87 × 415 × 2 × 4 × 8 × 600 mm = sv = Vus 131.4b 0. 0.org .8 × 350 × 600 N = 168 kN Vsu = Vu – Vcu = 339.87 × 415 × 2 × 0.45 kN 3750 8× Percentage of steel reinforcement (pt) = π × 25 2 4 × 100 = 1.5 x = 1520 mm © Copyright www.75 × 600 mm = 450 mm 2. bars @ 120 mm c/c Shear reinforcement design for portion 3 x 168 = 3750 414. provide 2-legged 8 mm dia.madeeasypublications. π 2 0.87f y Asv d 0.87f y Asv 0.Workbook 19 Using 2 legged 8 mm dia.8 N/mm2 Vcu = τcbd = 0.87% 350 × 600 Design shear strength of M 25 concrete as per table 19 of IS 456: 2000 = 0. shear stirrups π 2 0.

4 x 1.416 × 125.org © Copyright .5 x 105 kN = 157. design bond stress (τbd) = 1.34 mm >xu (=125.87 × 415 × 942.479 × 460 mm = 220.362fck b = 0.34 mm) Thus beam section is under-reinforced and fst = 0.79 kNm For M25 concrete and Fe415.2.5 kN Let clear cover to reinforcement = 30 mm Thus effective depth of the beam (d) = 500 − 30 − 20 mm = 460 mm 2 ⎛ π⎞ 2 2 2 Area of tension steel (Ast) = 3 × ⎜ ⎟ × 20 mm = 942.87fy is correct in the above calculation of depth of neutral axis.87f y Ast 0.24 N/mm2 (Cl.362 x 25x 300 Limiting depth of neutral axis (xu lim) = 0.5 = 125. Calculation of moment of resistance: Moment of resistance of the beam section (Mr) = 0. 26.87x 415x 942.34 mm 0.5(460 – 0.1.416xu) = 0.5 mm ⎝ 4⎠ Calculation of depth of neutral axis: xu = 0.6 N/mm2 = 2.20 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 3 1 x = 1520 mm 2 Vu Vu1 3 x = 1520 mm 2 1 Vcu 679 mm 3071 mm 3750 mm Length of portion 2 8mm@ 160mm c/c = 3750 – 679 – 1520 mm = 1551 mm 8mm@ 250mm c/c 8mm@ 120mm c/c 8mm@ 120mm c/c 8mm@ 160mm c/c 2-25 φ 2 a = 679mm 1551 mm 3040 mm 1551 mm 2 a = 679mm Shear reinforcement detailing T5 : Solution Factored shear force (Vu) = 1.34) = 138.479d = 0.madeeasypublications.87 fy Ast(d – 0.1 of IS 456: 2000) www.

87x 415φ = 40. the anchorage length had to be increased either by extending the bar length beyond the anchorage value provided or by providing the anchorage in the form of a U bend (anchorage value = 16φ).437 − 0. If the diameter of bar provided was larger than 32.24 Anchorage length: For 90 degree bend.4 mm then in that case.4 mm So there is no need to increase the anchorage length.25 bd τuc = 0.5 bd 450 4 × 12φ Factored SF =45 kN = Vu We have to calculate the dia of Fe 500 2-Legged stirrup to be used at a spacing of 325 mm c/c τv = Vu 45 × 1000 = = 0.296φ 4x 2.79 × 10 6 + 160 157.5 × 10 3 φ ≤ 32.296φ ≤ 1. T6 : Solution 230 τuc = 0.36 N/mm2 [For M20] for Ast × 100 = 0. π 2 0.87 fy Since we limit fy to 415 N/mm2 hence.36 + 0.4 × (Sv )(b) 0.25 Since τv – τc < 0 ⇒ Min shear reinforcement is required ⇒ Min shear reinforcement is given by 0.org .4 Asv bSv = 0.4 × 325 × 230 ( φ) = 0.45 N/mm2 0. anchorage length (Lo) = 8φ = 8 × 20 mm = 160 mm 40.3 138.87 fy Asv = 0.437% %tensile steel = 230 × 450 4× τc = 0.87fy φ 4τbd = 0.21 Workbook Development length: Ld = 0.26 mm adopt φ = 8 mm Asv = 2 × © Copyright www.87 × 415 = 82.814 mm2 4 φ = 7.25) = 0.4348 N/mm2 bd 230 × 450 π 2 (12 ) 4 × 100 = 0.madeeasypublications.12 × ( 0.48 N/mm2 [For M20] for Ast × 100 = 0.

150 kN/m = 3.25 × 5 × 2.36 kN Critical moment either at B or mid span of AB (say E) At B.89 kN 3.03kNm 2 © Copyright .52 = 16.25 kN/m Now.5 ∴ RA = 20. RB × 3.5 + 3.4 Design of Slabs T1 : Solution Load calculations Dead load.25 × 1.25 kN/m B C E RA RB 3.75 = 14.org MB = 14.5 = 50.5 m 1 dtotal = deff + clear cover+ dia.75 kN/m Total load = DL + LL + Self weight = 6 + 4.5 or RB = 14.5 m 1.5 = 14. DL = 6 kN/m (for unit width) Live load.25 × 5 × 2.5 kN/m A 14. LL = 4. www. of bar 2 = 125 + 15 + 4 = 144 mm Take d = 150 mm Unit weight of RCC = 25 kN/m3 Safe weight = 25 × 0.madeeasypublications.

36 × 1.23 m Hence lesser of the above two will be adopted i.33 × 7 = 0.2 m (b) centre to centre distance between supports = 4.9038 3 3 1 1 cjk = × 7 × 0.33.26 mm 619 T2 : Solution (i) Calculation of design constants For M 20 concrete.25 × 23 1. =1– = 0.madeeasypublications. ∴ d = 16.898 Where.33 × 7 j = 1– b g k 02886 . m = 13.Workbook ME = 20.2886 = 0.03 × = Ast × 230 × 90 × 125 Ast = 619 mm2 Area.0 + 0. c = 7 N/mm2 = σcbc For Fe 415 steel.3 = 81. the total depth of the slab will become 200 + 20 = 220 mm.898 × 1000 M = Astjd or or 106 16.752 = 13. Aφ = π 2 (8) = 50.org .9038 × 0.2886 ∴ k = t + mc = 230 + 13.03 kNm = Rbd2 R = 0. (a) Load calculations: Load due to self weight of slab = 0.60 (safe) 0. le = 4.5 kN/m2 © Copyright www.22 × 1 × 1 × 25 = 5.80 kNm 2 Again.00 + 0.2 = 4.9129 2 2 (ii) As per the vertical deflection criterion. t = 230 N/mm2 = σst mc 13.03 × 106 = 133.e.3 mm2 4 ∴ Spacing of 8 mm bar = 1000Aφ Ast = 1000 × 50.23 = 4. Mmax = 16.75 − 14. the span to effective depth ratio for spans upto 10 m for a simply supported slab is given by Q = ⇒ l = 20 d 4000 l d = = = 200 mm 20 20 (iii) Effective span (a) clear span + effective depth = 4.2 m (iv) Bending moment and shear force Assuming a nominal cover of 20 mm.

× 180 × 1000 = 270 mm2 100 ∴ Ast is more than minimum reinforcement. s = 1000 × A φ A st Adopting 10 mm φ bars.9129 × 1000 = ⇒ d = 159. 3 www.54 mm2 4 1000 × 78.5 mm2 120 Spacing is less than 3d and 300 mm both.5 = 436. (vi) Main reinforcement Ast = M 2315 .15%). Bend every third bar at the support. at a distance of le 4.84 m 5 5 from the edge of support Ast at support = 2 × 654. × 106 = = 696 mm2 σ st jd 230 × 0.0 kN/m2 Superimposed live load Load due to surface finishing Total = 10. = Spacing of bars.5 × 4.54 = 654.15% of total cross sectional area 015 .2 = = 22.24 mm < 200 mm.5 × 4. we get Aφ = ∴ s = π × 102 = 78.24 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete = 4.05 kN 2 2 = 23.0 kN/m2 = 1. Hence OK Now taking d = 160 mm and nominal cover = 20 mm we get D = d + 20 = 160 + 20 = 180 mm.9038 × 160 Minimum reinforcement should be 0.5 kN/m2 (b) Bending moment per meter run of slab b g 2 M = wle2 10.2 = = 0.15 kN-m (c) Shear force (v) Design of section M QB d = [B = 1000 mm] 2315 .54 = 112.33 mm2 which is more than minimum reinforcement (0.84 mm 696 Adopting s = 120 mm c/c.madeeasypublications. we get actual Ast = 1000 × 78.org © Copyright .2 = 8 8 V = wle 10. × 106 0.

36 028 .352 N/mm . 015 .2 4 τ bd M1 13 .24% 180 × 1000 FG 0.51 × 106 N-mm V = 22.Workbook 25 (vii) Check for development length at the support The code stipulates that at simple supports. I (0.48 Ld = = 100 mm beyond the face of 3 3 support.madeeasypublications.24 – 0. The reinforcement should extend by a length equal to 299.05 × 103 = = 0.36 ∴ For p = 0. (viii) Check for shear p = % reinforcement at support = For p = 0. (ix) Distribution reinforcement Ast = © Copyright 015 .25%.15) = 0. j . τc = 0.24%.51 × 106 + L0 = + 220 V 22. d × Ast at support = 230 × 0.6 × 1.46 mm > Ld Hence ok.15%.28 + Now τv = 436.3 ls – x′ + 13 φ 2 230 – 25 + 13 × 10 = 220 mm 2 10 × 230 φ σ st = = 299.org .48 mm (60% increase for HYSD bars) 4 × 1.3 M1 + L0 V M1 = σst . the diameter of the reinforcement be such that Ld ≤ 1. JK H 025 2 V 22. τc = 0.33 × 100 = 0.05 × 103 = 1075. τc = 0.28 For p = 0. × 1000 × 180 = = 270 mm2 100 100 www.33 = 14. BD 015 .138 N/mm2 Bd 1000 × 160 ∵ τv < τc Hence safe. × 14.05 kN Assuming a clear cover of 25 mm is provided at the side (end) and providing a U-hook Given width of support = 230 mm = ls ∴ L0 = = Ld = Now 1.9038 × 160 × 436.

5 m Effective span along y(ly) = clear span + depth = 4500 + 130 mm = 4630 mm Effective span along x(lx) = clear span + depth = 3500 + 130 = 3630 mm ly lx = 4630 = 1.28 < 2 ⇒ Two way slab 3630 Short span moment (Mx) = αx w lx2 Short span moment (My) = αy w lx2 www.madeeasypublications.org © Copyright .5 m Let overall thickness of slab = 150 mm ∴ Effective depth of slab assuming 15 mm as clear cover (d) 10 = 130 mm 2 4. each having Aφ = Spacing of bars = 1000 × A φ A sd = π × 62 = 28.7 ≈ 105 mm 270 This is less than 5d and 450 mm both. The details of the reinforcement are shown below. Hence provide 6 mmφ bars @ 105 mm C/C. the distribution reinforcement may be provided both at top as well as the bottom.26 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Using 6 mm φ bars. 10 φ @ 360 C/C 6 φ @ 105 C/C 180 mm a. c 820 mm 820 mm 10 φ @ 120 C/C 4000 mm (4 m) 820 mm 820 mm T3 : Solution y (a) Edges are simply supported and corners are not held down = 150 – 15 – x 3. b. Near the edge of the support.27 = 104.27 mm2 4 1000 × 28.

75 kN/m2 Live load = 4 kN/m2 Assume miscellaneous loads like finishes etc = 1 kN/m2 Total load = 3.138 (30) (1000) (d ) 2 ⇒ d = 61.0912 (13.763 × 1000 × 80 = 610.432 1000 × Provide 10 Φ bars @ 120 c/c in short direction.72 mm Adopt overall depth (D ) = 100 mm ∴ Effective depth (d) = 100 – 15 – 10 = 80 mm 2 Self weight of slab (= 0.77 × 10 6 1000 × 80 2 = 2.75 = 13.1 × 25 = 2.0558 ⎭ Loads Self weight of slab = 0.75 + 4 + 1 = 8.598 R x ⎤ = ck ⎢1 − 1 − ⎥ bd 2 fy ⎣ fck ⎦ 30 ⎡ 2.5078 www.125) 3.75 kN/m2 Factored load (w) = 1.632 = 9. αx = 0.432 mm 2 / m 100 1000 A = spacing = As t x π × 10 2 4 = 128.28.5 × 8.763% = ∴ pt x ⇒ As t x = Using 10 Φ bars.0558 (13.0912 ⎫ (for simply supported slab) ⎬ (Table 27 of IS 456: 2000 2000) αy = 0.65 kNm/m Calculation of effective depth required Ultimate moment of resistance for Fe415 is given by 0. Reinforcement in long direction Ry = © Copyright My bd 2 = 9.Workbook ly For lx 27 = 1.464 ⎤ −3 ⎢1 − 1 − 4.63 × 10 2 ( 415) ⎣ 30 ⎦ = 0.464 Ast f ⎡ 4.138 fck bd 2 ⇒ 15.5 kN/m2) need not to be received since already a higher design load is taken.125 kN/m2 ∴ Mx = αx w lx2 = 0.65 × 10 6 1000 × 80 2 = 1. 0.77 kNm/m My = αy w lx2 = 0.77 × 106 = 0.15 × 25 kN/m2 = 3.138 fck bd 2 ∴ 15.org .632 = 15.66 mm c/c 610.598 × ⎥ = 7.madeeasypublications.125) 3. Reinforcement in short direction Rx = ∴ pt x 100 = Mx bd 2 = 15.77 × 106 Nmm/m = 0.

61 m Assuming that the slab is resting on 230 mm thick supports (one brick wall) centre to centre distance in short direction.598 = bd 2 ( 415) ⎢⎣ 30 ⎥⎦ pt y = 0.11 = 3.org ⎡ Clear span + depth Effective span = ⎢ ⎣ c/c distance between the supports (which ever is small) © Copyright .5 + 0.61 m and.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 28 pt y 100 ∴ = Asty (1.11 = 4.5078) ⎤⎥ = 4.23 + = 3.445 × 1000 × 80 = 356 mm2 / m 100 1000 × Using 10 Φ bars.73 m 2 2 Now. π 4 356 spacing = × 10 2 = 220. www.23 0.23 + = 4.62 mm c/c Provide 10 Φ bars @ 200 c/c in short direction.432 mm 2 /m) < As t y (= 356 mm 2 /m) 10 φ @120 c/c x (OK) 10 φ @ 200 c/c (nominal) x 10 φ @ 200 c/c (nominal) 100 10 φ @ 200 c/c 10 φ @ 120 c/c SECTION X-X 10 φ @ 200 c/c PLAN Reinforcement detailing (b) Edges are simply supported with corners held down Let overall thickness of slab (D) = 130 mm ∴ Effective depth (d ) = 130 – 15 – 10 = 110 mm 2 ∴ Effective short span (lx) = 3. = 3.73 m 2 2 Centre to centre distance in long direction = 4. minimum reinforcement should be 0.12% = 0.23 0.5 + 0.45 × 10 −3 30 ⎡ ⎢1 − 1 − 4. effective long span (ly) = 4.5 + 0.5 + 0.madeeasypublications. Check for minimum reinforcement As per IS:456.445% ⇒ As t y = 0.12 × 1000 × 80 = 96 mm 2 / m 100 < As t x (= 610.

03 kNm/m Calculation of effective depth required ∴ 12.8 × 10 −3 = bd 2 ( 415 ) ⎢ 30 ⎥⎦ ⎣ pt x = 0.68 mm2/m 1000 × Using 10 mm diameter bars.955 ) ⎤ Ast x 30 ⎡ ⎢1 − 1 − ⎥ = 5.612 = 9.73 m (whichever is less) = 3.61 = 1.61 m ⎣ ly lx = 29 4. Reinforcement in long direction Ry = © Copyright My bd 2 = 9.375) 3.13 × 25 = 3.25 kN/m2 Live load = 4 kN/m2 Assume miscellaneous loads = 1 kN/m2 Total load = 3.411 www.598 (1.138 (30) (1000) (d ) 2 ⇒ d = 54.0776 αy+ = 0.25 + 4 + 1 = 8.Workbook Thus.51 × 106 = 0.73 m (whichever is less) = 4.51 × 106 = 0.955 4. lx = ⎡3.58% As t x = 471.51 kNm/m My = αy w lx2 = 0.25 kN/m2 Factored load (w ) = 1.612 = 12.056 ∴ Mx = αx w lx2 = 0.61 m ⎢ 4.138 fck bd 2 ⇒ 12.25 = 12.org . 12.5 × 8.51 mm c/c Provide 10 Φ bars @ 150 c/c in short direction.68 spacing = = 166.776 (12.28 < 2 ⇒ Two way slab 3.61 m ⎣ ly = ⎡ 4.375) 3.51× 10 6 π × 10 2 4 471.97 mm Adopt overall depth as (D) = 100 mm ∴ Effective depth (d ) = 100 – 15 – 20 = 80 mm 2 Reinforcement in short direction Rx = ∴ ∴ ⇒ pt x 100 = Mx bd 2 = 1000 × 80 2 = 1.375 kN/m2 Since all the four edges of the slab are discontinuous This refers to case 9 of Table 26 of IS 456: 2000 ∴ αx+ = 0.madeeasypublications.03 × 10 6 1000 × 80 2 = 1.056 (12.61 m ⎢3.61 Loads Self weight of slab = 0.

org © Copyright .146 × 10 −3 30 ⎡ ⎢1 − 1 − 4.12% 0.79 mm c/ c Provide 10 Φ bars @ 200 c/c in long direction. www.6 = 392. Check for minimum reinforcement As per IS:456.6 mm2 /m 523. minimum reinforcement = 0.66 kN / m 2 2 21.7mm 2 along both short and long directions in four layers.5 = 21.6545% as per table 19 of IS:456 (τc) = 0.411) ⎤⎥ = 4.375) 3.12 × 1000 × 20 = 24 mm 2 /m 100 < Ast x < As t y = (OK) Shear check for slab Maximum shear force = Nominal shear stress (τv) = Percentage of tension steel provided (pt ) = 1 1 w l x = (12. As = 4 × 10 2 × 1000 100 = 785. Corner reinforcement Area of each layer of corner reinforcement = 75% of maximum mid span reinforcement = 0.556) = 0.7 mm2 = π Using 10 Φ bars @ 100 mm c/c.27075 N/mm2) Thus slab is safe in shear.4 mm 2 > 392.6 × 100 = 0.3 ∴ k τc = 1.69 mm2/m 1000 × Using 10 Φ bars. k = 1.3 (0.556 N/mm2 For 130 mm thick slab.75 × 523. Length of corner reinforcement = 1 ( 4610 ) = 922 mm = 950 mm (say) 5 Provide corner reinforcement for 950 mm length.4146% A s t y = 331.66 × 10 3 = 0. π × 10 2 = 523.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 30 pt y ∴ 100 ∴ ⇒ = Asty (1.27N / mm 2 1000 × 80 Ast × 100 bd 1000 × 4 150 Ast = where.6545% 1000 × 80 Design shear strength of M30 concrete for pt = 0. π × 10 2 4 331.69 spacing = = 236.598 = bd 2 ( 415) ⎢⎣ 30 ⎥⎦ pt y = 0.madeeasypublications.7228 N/mm2 > τv ( = 0.

org .Workbook 10 φ @120 c/c 31 950 x 950 x 10 φ @ 200 c/c BOTTOM PLAN 10 φ @ 200 c/c TOP PLAN 10 φ @ 200 c/c 100 10 φ @ 200 c/c 10 φ @ 120 c/c SECTION X-X Reinforcement detailing © Copyright www.madeeasypublications.

5 × π (20)2 × 4 4 = 577398.4 × 350 = 140 d ∴ ∈sc = 0.87 fy = 0.0035 ( xu − d′ ) xu Assume xu = 0.362 × 20 × 140 × 300 + 217.0035 (140 − 50) = 0.5 N/m2 Pu = 0. fsc = stress in the compression reinforcement to be read of from stress-strain curve ∈sc = 0.madeeasypublications.87 × 250 × (a) π (20)2 × 4 = 273318.56 mm2 4 Pu = 0.00225 140 For strain greater than 0.87 × 250 = 217.4 or. xu = 0.87 fy Ast = 0.org © Copyright .5 Design of Columns T1 : Solution Tu = 0.2% fsc = 0.56 N = Tu (adopt) (b) Centroid = 400 = 200 mm 2 xu xu = 140 mm e = Centroid – xu = 200 – 140 = 60 mm www.362 fck xub + fsc Asc Where.

9 × 100 = 0. 2250 × 103 = 0.05 × 550 mm = 27.4 fck Ag + (0. the following formula given by IS 456: 2000 can be used for the design of axially loaded short columns: Step-3: Use of column design formula Pu = 0.4 fck Ag + (0.madeeasypublications.53 mm) 0.5 × 1500 kN = 2250 kN Pu = 0.636 < 12 Slenderness ratio along X-direction = λx = e x = Dx 550 Slenderness ratio along Y-direction = λy = ley Dy = X 550 mm 3100 = 7.5 mm > exmin (= 24.org .67 fy – 0.05 times the lateral dimension in both the directions.9 mm2 > 1814.4 fck) Asc Now.75 < 12 400 Thus.05 Dy = 0.8%) < Maximum reinforcement permissible (= 6%) © Copyright (OK) www.4 fck) Asc Now axial service load (P ) = 1500 kN Factored axial load (Pu ) = 1.53 mm 500 30 0.4 × 20 × (400 × 550) + (0. Ascprovided = 2060.48 mm2 Step-4: Reinforcement Design Provide 4-16 mm + 4-20 mm diameter bars with 20 mm diameter bars at the corners and 16 mm diameter bars at the face. the minimum eccentricities are less than 0. Thus.Workbook 33 T2 : Solution Y fck = 20 N/mm2 400 mm f y = 415 N/mm2 Step-1: Checking the column as short or long l e x = l ey = 3100 mm Dx = 550 mm. slenderness ratio in both the directions is less than 12 so the column is short.53 mm) Since.937% ( 400 × 550) > Minimum reinforcement required (= 0.67 × 415 – 0. Dy = 400 mm 3100 l = 5.05 × 400 mm = 20 mm > eymin (= 19.53 mm 500 30 500 30 ley 500 + Dy 30 = 3100 400 + = 19.05 Dx = 0.67 fy – 0.48 mm2 Percentage of reinforcement provided (pt) = 2060. Step-2: Calculation of minimum eccentricities exmin = eymin = D 3100 550 le x + x = + = 24.4 × 20) Asc Asc = 1814.

org © Copyright . Pu = 1.4 fck) Asc] www.24 × 100 = 2.602 mm2 4 Total reinforcement area (Asc ) = 6 × ∴ Percentage reinforcement (p) = π × 252 = 2945.madeeasypublications.36 ⎞ fck ⎛ Ag − 1⎟ ⎜ fy ⎝ Acore ⎠ ⇒ Ah π Dcore Acore s ≥ 0.24 mm2 4 Asc 2945.4 fck Ag + (0.27 ) π (280 ) (61575.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 34 Step-5: Lateral ties ⎧ φmain 20 = = 5 mm ⎪ Diameter of the tie: φt ≥ ⎨ 4 4 ⎪⎩6 mm Adopt tie diameter as 8 mm 550 400 ⎧Least lateral dimension ⎪ of column = 400 mm ⎪ Spacing of the ties: st ≤ ⎨ ⎪16 × 16 = 256 mm ⎪⎩300 mm 4-20φ bars (at corners) 4-16φ bars Adopt spacing of ties as 200 mm c/c.36 ⎞ fck ⎛ Ag − 1⎟ ⎜ fy ⎝ Acore ⎠ ⇒ ( 50.602 Ag For spirally reinforced columns. Volume of helical reinforcement Volume of core ≥ 0.67 fy – 0. 8φ ties @ 200 c/c Reinforcement detailing T3 : Solution Let ∴ Clear cover to reinforcement = 40 mm Core diameter (Dcore) = 360 – 2 × 40 = 280 mm Area of core (Acore) = Thus π 2 π 2 D core = ( 280 ) = 61575.0144 ≥ 0.05[0.27 mm2 4 (Ag ) = π ( 360 )2 = 101787. ∴ Which is true.89 % × 100 = 101787.0113 Thus load carrying capacity of the column can be increased by 5%.22 mm2 4 4 Cross-section area of helix (helical reinforcement) Gross area of column (Ah ) = π × 82 = 50.0113 ⇒ 0.22 ) 50 ≥ 0.

Workbook 35 = 1. 1 = D 500 and.67 × 415 – 0.4(20)101787. Axial load (P ) = 900 kN Factored axial load (Pu) = 1. 5 8φ tie @ 50 c/c = 1126.1 D Pu = 0.45 × 30 × 0.5 × 900 kN = 1350 kN 1350 × 10 3 Pu = 0. for and d′ = 0.75 × 500 × 0. (P) = Pu 1.992 × Ag + 0.24]N 360 = 1690.77 kN .45 fck Ac + 0. Now since the column is square in section and is symmetrically reinforced and thus the uniaxial moment capacity of the column will be same in both the directions i.e.8 = 0.008 × 5002 = 4098 kN © Copyright www.18 = 30 × 500 × 500 fck bD From Chart 48 of SP: 16.madeeasypublications.8%. let p = 0.8% of Ag) = 0.75 × 500 × (0.org .15 kN ∴ Safe working load.992 × 5002 + 0.02667 30 50 d′ = 0.45 fck (Ag – Asc) + 0. along ‘x’ and ‘y’ directions. 1126 kN Reinforcement Detailing T4 : Solution As per IS 456: 2000 requirements.45 x 30 × (Ag – 0.4 × 20)2945.75 fy Asc = 0.45 × 30 × 0.8% of Ag) + 0.8% and effective cover = 50 mm on all the sides p So.5 6 – 25 φ 1690.75 × 500 × 0.008 × Ag = 0.15 = kN 1. Thus.04 Mu = Mu x = Muy 1 1 = 0.05 [0.75 fy Asc = 0.18 fck bD Mu fck bD 2 or = 0.04 × 30 × 500 × 5002 Nmm = 150 kNm Load carrying capacity of the column under pure axial load (Pz ) Pz = 0. fck = 0.602 + (0. minimum area of compression steel in column is 0.

32943 comes out to be 1. i. bars.63 mm2 Using 25 mm dia.346667)1.16 mm2 4 = 2513.05 × ⎜1. no.8% of Ag = 0.e. i.madeeasypublications.63 = 8. Asc = 0. Also.346667 = 150 Mu x1 and.21572 (Cl.32943 = 4098 Pz So. Given: λ= ∴ It is a long column. 39. Load carrying capacity of the column leff 9000 = = 15 > 12 D 600 P = 1.21572 = 0. of bars required = www.20 mm diameter bars so that Asc provided is Asc provided = 8 × π (20 )2 = 8 × 314.6 of IS: 456) Pz Checking the strength of the section: ⎛ Mu x ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ M u x1 ⎠ αn ⎛ M uy ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ M uy 1 ⎠ αn = (0. the reinforcement assumed initially is O.507 < 1 (OK) So.e. of the column (D) = 600 mm Axial load (P) = 2400 kN Effective length of the column (leff) = 9000 mm Slenderness ratio.3)1.36 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 1350 Pu = 0.05 × Cr ( As σcc + Asc σsc ) ⎞ 9000 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ π ⎛ ⎞ × 6002 − Asc ⎟ × 6 + Asc × 190⎟ 2400 × 103 = 1.8% of gross column area.25 − ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ 48 × 600 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠ Asc = 4030.K. 3 = 150 Muy1 P Value of α n for u = 0.21572 + (0. p = 0. (say) π × 252 4 © Copyright .org 40330. Muy 45 = 0.28 mm2 > 2000 mm2 (OK) T5 : Solution Dia.008 x 500 × 500 mm2 = 2000 mm2 Provide 8 . 52 Mu x = 0.2 10 nos.

36 × ⎞ V fck ⎛ Ag − 1⎟ ≤ h ⎜ fy ⎝ Ac Vc ⎠ 10 φ @75 c/c Tie or 8 φ @ 50 c/c Reinforcement Detailing © Copyright www.3 ⎞ − 1⎟ = ⎜ 212371660p 415 ⎝ 212371.66 ⎠ Dc = 520 mm 0. pitch p ≮ 25 mm ⎭ If 8 mm dia.67 mm p≯ c = 6 6 ⎫ ⎬ max. of core (Dc) = 600 – 40 – 40 = 600 – 80 mm = 520 mm Area of core (Ac) = π π × Dc2 = × 5202 = 212371.46 mm p ≯ 75 mm D 520 = 86. of helix (Dh) = 520 – 10 mm = 510 mm (using 10 mm dia.1 mm3 = ⎜ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ p ⎟⎠ p As per the requirement of helical reinforcement 0.77 mm Option 1: Provide 10 mm dia ties @ 75 mm c/c Option 2: Provide 8 mm dia.Workbook 37 Design of helical reinforcement Dia. 125837456.org .46 × 82 102 = 52. pitch p= 82.3 mm2 4 Dia.36 p = 82.66 mm2 4 4 Volume of core per meter column length (Vc) = Ac × 1000 = 212371660 mm3 Gross area of the column section (Ag) = π × 6002 = 282743. ties @ 50 mm c/c 10-25 Dg = 600 mm Pitch. ties) ⎛ 1000 ⎞ π 2 × ( πDh ) × ( φh ) Volume of helix (Vh) = ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ p ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ × 510π × ⎜ ⎟ × 102 = 125837456. ties are used then.madeeasypublications.1 25 ⎛ 282743. pitch ⎭ p ≮ 3φh = 3 × 10 mm = 30 mm ⎫ ⎬ min.

madeeasypublications.48 kN / m 2 Soil pressure acting upwards = 3.5 × 1200 = 131.7 m × 3. ∴ ∴ Weight of footing and soil backfill = 10% of 1200 kN = 120 kN Total axial load = 1200 + 120 = 1320 kN 1320 = 12.7 m.55m i. provide square footing of size 3.org A B © Copyright . Calculation of bending moment 1.e.7 × 3.57 m 2 ∴ Area of footing required = 105 ∵ Column section is square of size 450 mm × 450 mm ∴ Provide square footing of side = 12.57 = 3.7 A B d Critical section for two way shear 450 3700 d/2 450 Critical section for one way shear Critical section for bending moment 3700 www.6 Design of Footings T1 : Solution Axial load (P ) = 1200 kN Assuming 10% of column load as weight of footing and soil backfill..

15bars π 2 20 ) ( 4 3700 − 2 × 75 − 15 × 20 = 232. ⎛ 3.45 ⎞ 1 Mu = 131. (for Fe415 steel) 642.598 ⎜ ⎥ = 2.3 mm (16 − 1) Provide 16 nos.Workbook 39 Section (A) – (A) is the face of column which is critical section for bending moment.935 × 10–3 ⎝ 25 ⎠⎟ ⎥ bd 2 ( 415) ⎣⎢ ⎦ pt = 0.7 − 0.7 − 0. at section (B) – (B) ⎡ ⎛ 3.org .138 fck bd 2 .7 mm2 100 Using 20 mm diameter bars.48 × 3. of bars required = Spacing of bars = Using 16 nos.7 ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎣⎝ ⎦ Nominal shear stress (τv ) = © Copyright 588. 20 Φ bars ⇒ Ast provided = 16 × π × 20 2 = 5026.315 mm Adopt overall depth of footing as 500 mm so that effective depth of footing (d). d = 500 − 75 − 20 = 415 mm 2 (Assuming 20 mm diameter bars and 75 mm clear cover) Reinforcement required for footing D = 500 mm d = 415 mm R = pt 100 ∴ = Mu 642.00795 ⎞ ⎤ = ⎢1 − 1 − 4. No.415⎥ kN = 588. bars.55 mm2 > 4506. spacing = 4506.madeeasypublications.64 kN SF at critical section (B) – (B) (Vu1) = 131.14 mm (15 − 1) 3700 − 2 × 75 − 16 × 20 = 215.7 = 14.64 × 10 3 = 0.3834 N/mm 2 3700 × 415 www. . .138 (25) 3700 d 2 ⇒ d = 224.2935 × 3700 × 415 = 4506.3 kNm ⎝ 2 2 2 ∴ Depth of footing required Mu = ⇒ 0.45 ⎞ ⎤ − 0.45 ⎞ ⎛ 3. of 20 mm dia.2935% ⇒ Ast = 0.3 × 10 6 = = 1.7 − 0.7 ⎜ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = 642.00795 bd 2 3700 ( 415)2 Ast 25 ⎡ ⎛ 1.3 .3 × 106 = 0.48 × 3.7 mm2 4 (OK) Check for one way shear Critical section for one way shear is at a distance ‘d ’ from the face of column i.e.

madeeasypublications.25 N/mm2 > τv (= 1.org © Copyright .24 N/mm2 where.5 × 1200 Permissible bearing stress = 0.87 fy φ 4 τ bd τbd = 1.87 ( 415) 10 = 403 mm 4 (2. Ld = 0.25 Thus depth of footing is safe in two way shear. 26.25 N/mm2 > 8.3274% 3700 × 415 As per table 19 of IS:415.5% steel is provided at column footing interface.3834 N/mm2) This depth provided is safe in one way shear.6 kN Nominal shear stress (τv) = (OK) 1701.6 × 10 3 = 1.1 of IS:456) Actual development length provided from the face of column = 3700 − 450 − 75 ( clear cov er ) 2 = 1550 mm > 403 mm Load transfer at column-footing interface Bearing pressure in column concrete at column footing interface.89 N/mm2 (OK) Thus column load can be transferred by bearing alone.72 – (0. SF at critical section (Vu 2 ) = 131.5 + 1 >/ 1 = 1 Longer side of column τ′c = k s τ v = ks 0.4 = 2.2.185 N/mm2) = (1) 0.40 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Shear strength of M25 concrete with p t = 5026.1. Development length Development length (Ld ) = 25 0.4 N/mm2 > τu (= 0.48 (3.45 f ck 450 2 A1 A2 (OK) × 1000 = 8. www.24 ) (Cl.25 25 = 1. Even then a minimum 0.6 × 1. Check for two way shear Critical section for two way shear is at a distance ‘d /2’ from the column face. (τc ) = 0.45 (25) = 11.45 + 0.415)2) = 1701.89 N / mm2 where A1 = 1 here A2 Permissible bearing stress = 0.55 × 100 = 0. = fbr = 1.185N / mm 2 4 ( 450 + 415) 415 Design shear strength of M25 concrete in two way shear τ′c = ksτv where ks = 1 + βc 2 where βc = Shorter side of column = 1 = 0.

87 ( 415) 20 = 644. Development length in compression (Ld ) = 0.37 mm <385 mm (OK) 20 φ @ 200 c/c X 450 450 3700 X Column bars 450 500 Dowel bars 14 – 10 φ 300(min. at the interface of column and footing.) 300(min. of bars required = 1012 .7 mm Provide small diameter bars as dowel bars.5 = 1289 . Using 10 mm diameter bars.5% of column area = 41 0.Workbook ∴ Minimum steel (As min) = 0. 14 bars π 2 10 ( ) 4 0.8 = 90 kNm Eccentricity (e) = M 590 = = 1.) 75 clear cover 3700 3700 SECTION X-X PLAN T2 : Solution Solution: P = 350 kN M = 500 kNm V = 50 kN Ground level Moment due to lateral force = 50 × 1.madeeasypublications. No.org .5 × 450 2 = 1012.22 = 4 bars π 2 (20 ) 4 Provide 4-20 Φ bars as dowel bars.87 ( 415 )10 4 ( 2. No.25 = 322.24 ) 1.25 m deep © Copyright www.5 = 3.5 mm2 100 Using 20 mm diameter bars.24 ) 1. of dowel bars required = Development length = 1012.25 Available length = 500 – 75 (clear cover) – 2 × 20 (bar diameter) = 385 mm < 644.686 m 350 P 1800 Total moment at footing base (M ) = 500 + 90 = 590 kNm 400 Provide a square footing of size = 5 m × 5 m × 1.7mm 4 (2.

42) (1.32 = 82.25) 16.25 m is adequate.77 kN 1361 kN When water table is at ground level.25 kN Weight of soil above footing = (52 – 0.8 – 1. Weight of footing = 5 × 5 × 1.2 kN 921 kN Overturning moment about point × (M0) = 590 kNm Restoring moment about point × (MR) = 0.8 = 229.52 + 781.25 = 3.25) (16.42) (1.25 = 1360.84 ± 28.7 = 920.25 × (25 – 9. 8.9 × 921 × Factor of safety against overturning = 5 = 2072.8 – 1.8 – 9.12 kN.42 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete When water table is at 1.32 = 65.52 kN/m2 σ = Thus footing size 5 m × 5 m × 1. 26. Weight of footing = 5 × 5 × 1. www.76 kN/m2.16 kN/m2.81) = 95.m2 Thus there is no uplift any where in the footing base.org © Copyright .7 kN Weight of soil above footing = (52 – 0.8 m below ground level.4 590 (OK) Bearing pressure check Water table at 1.5 kN Axial load = 350 kN Total load = 350 + 95.madeeasypublications.44 ± 28. Water table at GL σ = 921 590 ⎛ 5 ⎞ P M ± y = 2 ± ⎜ ⎟ A I 5 53 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 5× 12 = 36.25 kNm 2 2072.52 kN Axial load = 350 kN Total load = 350 + 229.57 > 1.81) = 474.25 × 25 = 781.8 m below GL P M 1361 590 ⎛ 5 ⎞ ± y = ± ⎜ ⎟ 2 A I 5 53 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 5× 12 = 54.5 + 474.

33 = 49.33 N/mm Loss of stress due to elastic deformation of concrete = mfc = 6 × 8. Initial stress in steel Area of steel placed concentrically Initial prestressing force.0 ∴ Direct stress in concrete. 300 T1 : Solution 500 mm 2 A = b × d = 200 × 300 = 60000 mm2 Dimensions in mm = 1000 MPa = 1000 N/mm2 = 500 mm2 P = 500 × 1000 = 500.7 Prestressed Concrete 200 Given data. d = 300 mm ∴ Area.000 2 60. b = 200 mm Depth of beam.madeeasypublications.000 = 8.000N fc = 500. Width of beam. Effective prestress P = 800 kN γc = 25 kN/m3 W = ? 6000 mm 6000 mm Area of cross-section A = bd = 200 × 400 = 80 × 103 mm2 © Copyright www. Modular ratio = 6.org .98 N/mm2 T2 : Solution w b = 200 mm d = 400 mm. L = 12 m e = 70 at mid span = 0 at ends 70 mm 400 mm Given.

437 – 3W σbot = For no tension in beam σbot = 0 ⇒ W = 12.25 × 106 8..4 × 25 kN/m3 = 2 kN/m Now self weight of beam So dead load moment Md = wl 2 = 36 kNm 8 Live load moment Ml = Wl = 3W 4 Putting values in eq.5 × 10 = 25 N/mm2 www.067 × 109 mm4 12 12 At mid span ⇒ and e = 70 mm y t = 270 mm yb = 130 mm ⇒ Zt = 1. we get 36 × 106 800 × 103 800 × 103 × 70 − − 3W + 80 × 103 8.067 × 109 = 3.. (i).2 × 0.951 × 106 mm3 270 Zb = 1.(i) w = A × 1 × γc = 0.org © Copyright .206 × 106 = 10 + 6.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 44 and I = 1 1 3 bd3 = × 200 × ( 400) = 1.067 × 109 = 8.825 – 4.madeeasypublications.437 = 4.14 kN 3 T3 : Solution ES 200000 αe = E = 20000 = 10 C Strain in steel = Δl 20 = 10 × 1000 l 200000 × 20 = 400 N/mm2 10000 P = Stress × Area = 400 × 500 = 200 kN Stress in steel = Tensile force in steel. Stress in concrete at the level of steel fc = P 200 × 1000 = 2.5 N/mm2 = A 200 × 400 Loss due to elastic deformation = fcα = 2.388 – 3W = 12.205 × 106 mm3 130 P Pe Md Mi σbot = A + Z − Z − Z b b b Hence at service load .

37 190.madeeasypublications.24 N/mm2 For equivalent concrete section.86 mm2 4 ⎛ 350 ⎞ − 75 mm ⎟ Centroid of section from soffit = 100 mm ⎜ = ⎝ 2 ⎠ Location of Neutral Axis 5 nos.85 × 10 3 × 75 ⎛ P Pe ⎞ × 175⎟ y ⎟ = ⎜ 2. (A) = 200 × 350 = 70000 mm2 Moment of inertia (I) = 200 × 350 3 = 714.-6φ P/A A = x from bottom = ∴ © Copyright Pe/Z P/A e = 75 350 200 Pe/Z π × 62 × 5 = 141.52 × 10 6 = 2.85 × 10 3 × 75 + × 174. Cross-sectional area.85 kN 4 For nominal concrete section.47 = 6.Workbook 45 T4 : Solution Applied prestressing force (P) = 5 × π × 6 2 × 1350 N = 190.17 N/mm2 Stress at soffit of section = www.37 × 100 = 174.85 × 10 3 190.85 × 10 3 = = 2.25 mm 70000 + 141.org .25 70706.7 + 3.86 718.583 × 10 6 mm 4 12 ∴ Axial compressive stress at the soffit of the section = ∴ P 190.37 mm2 4 70000 × 175 + 141. Let modulur ratio (m) = 6 ∴ Equivalent concrete area (Ae) = 70000 + (6 − 1) × 5 × π × 6 2 = 70706.73 + Final stress at the soffit of section = ⎜ + 6 I ⎠ 714.583 × 10 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝A = 6.73 N/mm 2 A 70000 ⎛ ⎞ 190.

5 N/mm2 (compression) At bottom.24 T5 : Solution Prestressing force (P) = 180 kN Eccentricity (e) = 30 mm Gross area of cross-section (A) = 120 × 300 = 36000 mm2 Sectional modulus (Z) = 120 × Direct stress = Flexural stress due to eccentricity = P 180 × 1000 = = 5 N/mm 2 A 36000 Pe 180 × 1000 × 30 = = 3 N/mm 2 Z 1. 180 × 10 3 180 × 10 3 e + 36000 1.17 × 100 = 1.5 ⇒ e = 95 mm ∴ Pressure line gets shifted from original pressure line by 95 + 30 = 125 mm Alternatively: This shift of pressure line can be computed as. stress = 5 – 3 + 12.5 ⇒ 5 + 0.8 × 10 6 Stresses at mid-span section At top.1e = 14.24 − 6.875 kNm 32 © Copyright .5 × 10 6 = = 125 mm (which is same as above) P 180 × 10 3 At quarter span ⎛ wL ⎞ L wL L wL2 wL2 3wL2 − − = Moment at quarter span (M1) = ⎜ = ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠4 4 8 8 32 32 = www.5 = 14.5 N/mm 2 Z 1.5 N/mm2 (tension) Shift of pressure line is given by.8 × 10 6 = 14.12% 6.org 3 × 5 × 62 = 16. stress = 5 + 3 – 12.5 kNm 8 M 22.8 × 10 6 mm 3 6 62 = 22.8 × 10 6 Mid span moment (M) = 5 × Flexural stress due to moment = 300 2 = 1.5 × 10 6 = = 12. Shift = M 22.madeeasypublications.5 = –4.46 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete ∴ Percentage difference in stresses at soffit = 6.

8 × 10 6 ⇒ e = 63.875 × 10 6 = = 9.375 N/mm2 (compression) ∴ At bottom. stress = 5 + 3 – 9.75 mm P 180 × 10 3 (same as calculated above) Pressure Line 125 mm 93.75 + 30 = 93.375 = –1.375 N/mm2 (tension) ∴ Shift of pressure line is.madeeasypublications.875 × 10 6 = = 93.75 mm Thus pressure line gets shifted from original location by 63.8 × 25 = 6 kN/m 3 kN/m 6 + 3 = 9 kN/m 9 × 10 = 90 kN = 0 = 56.3 × 0.25 kN = 90 – RB = 33.375 36000 1.375 N/mm2 Z 1. 180 × 10 3 180 × 10 3 e + = 11.8 × 10 6 ∴ At top.375 = 11.75 kN www.75 mm P = 180 kN P = 180 kN 6m T6 : Solution RA x 300 3 kN/m 8m C 2m RB x Prestressing force (P) Self weight of beam Live load on beam ∴ Total load RA + RB and taking moment about A is zero RB(8) – 9 × 10 × 5 ⇒ RB ∴ RA © Copyright B 800 x A = = = = = 450 kN 0.75 mm Alternatively: This shift of pressure line can be computed as. Shift = M1 16.Workbook ∴ Flexural stress due to moment (M1) = 47 M 1 16. stress = 5 – 3 + 9.org .

703 × 210 × 1000 = 23.3906 × 10 8 mm 4 12 P = 1300 × 175 = 227.5m (from support A) ⇒ e = When ⇒ ⇒ Eccentricity of cable at support B = MB 18 × 10 6 = = 40 mm 450 × 1000 P At support A.37 + 2 × (3. distant x from A = R A x − 9 x.75)2 = 63.37 ) 3.5x2 Moment at section x-x.75) – 4.75 – 9x x Mmax For maximum moment. ⇒ ⇒ ∴ = 0 = 0 = 3.5x2 = 0 x = 0.madeeasypublications. 18 kNm A C B Mmax = 63.5 × 1000 = 3.5 × 1000 × 50 × 50 + 67500 11.87 N/mm2 at mid-span = ∴ ∴ Average stress at the level of steel = 3.87 − 3.5 = 3.5 kN Stress in concrete at the level of steel.75 m = 33.3906 × 10 8 = 3.5(3.28 kNm 300 40 mm A 800 140.Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete 48 x 2 = 33.62 mm P Mx = 0 33. moment is zero and thus eccentricity is zero at A.75x – 4.37 N/mm 2 67500 227.5 × 1000 227.75(3. at support = 227. dM x dx 33.org © Copyright .6 mm B C Cable profile T7 : Solution Gross cross-sectional area of beam (A) = 150 × 450 = 67500 mm2 Moment of inertia of beam (I) = 150 × 450 3 = 11.703 N/mm2 3 Loss of stress due to creep = 3 × 10–5 × 3.28 kNm M max = = 140.37 + 0.75x – 4. 7.33 N/mm2 www.

madeeasypublications.0015 × 8) 0.04 radians L 8000 α = 2 × 0.04 × 1100 = 44 N/mm2 Po(0. ∴ Slope = ∴ Slope at support for cable 1 dy dx ∴ Slope at support for cable 2 ∴ ∴ x (L − x ) L2 dy 4h = (L − 2 x ) d x L2 4hL 2 L = 4h 4 × 80 = = 0.04 radian 1100 × 150 = 165 kN Poe–(μα + kx) = Po (1 – μα – kx) Po – Px = Po(μα + kx) Po(0. prestress loss = = 4h 4 × 40 = = 0.026 × 1100 = 28.08 + 0.org .02 = 0.026Po = 0.02 rad L 8000 2 × 0.08 radians dy dx ∴ x=0 = 4h x=0 = a Initial prestressing force (Px) Px Loss of prestress For cable 1. prestress loss = = For cable 3.2 N/mm2 T9 : Solution Step-1: Assume size of beam Width = 500 mm Depth = 800 mm wd = 0.35 × 0.0015 × 8) 0.04 + 0.04 = 0.012Po = 0.35 × 0 + 0.0015 × 8) 0.85 ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ © Copyright www.35 × 0.04 Po = 0. prestress loss = = = = = = For cable 2.8 × 1 × 25 = 10 kN/m Self weight Live load moment Md = 10 × 202 = 500 kNm 8 Ml = 30 × 202 wl × l2 = 1500 kNm = 8 8 Step-2: Section modulus required Z = (1 − k ) Md + Ml fc P ⎞ ⎛ 15 ⎞ ⎛ k = ⎜1 − L ⎟ = ⎜1 − ⎟ = 0.6 N/mm2 Po(0.012 × 1100 = 13.Workbook 49 T8 : Solution y = For parabolic cable profile.5 × 0.

44 × 106 mm3 6Z 6 × 98.5 × 103 = 315 mm www.5 × 103 = = 3451 mm2 fs 1500 (1 + k ) Md + Ml 2kP (1 + 0.85 × 5176.org © Copyright .5 × 1.44 × 106 = = 1086.75 × 202 = 687.85 P 5176. Consider D = (1 − 0.86 mm B 500 D = 1100 mm B = 500 mm wd = 0.5 × 106 + 1500 × 106 16 = 100.1 × 1 × 25 = 13.5 × 106 + 1500 × 106 2 × 0.2 × 106 mm3 6Z = 1096 mm B So. B = 500 mm Step-3: Cross-sectional area.85 ) 500 × 106 + 1500 × 106 16 = 98.75 kN/m Md = 13. e = = A × fc 55 × 104 × 16 = = 5176. A = B × D = 500 × 1100 = 55 × 104 mm2 Prestressing force P = Step-4: Area of steel.5 kN 2k 2 × 0.madeeasypublications.85 ) × 687.5 kNm 8 Section modulus (Z) required. D = 1100 mm. As = Step-5: Eccentricity.85 ) 687.50 Civil Engineering • RCC & Prestressed Concrete Z = Depth required. Z = D = (1 − 0.

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