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Deleanu, Frei and Hilton have developed the notion of generalized Adams completion in a
categorical context; they have also suggested the dual notion, namely, Adams cocompletion of
an obje…Full description

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ISSN 2454-5880

A. Behera et al.

Special Issue, 2015, pp. 48-63

**A CATEGORICAL CONSTRUCTION OF MINIMAL MODEL
**

A. Behera

Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008 (India),

abehera@nitrkl.ac.in

S. B. Choudhury

Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008 (India),

512ma6009@nitrkl.ac.in

M. Routaray

Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008 (India),

512ma302@nitrkl.ac.in

Abstract

Deleanu, Frei and Hilton have developed the notion of generalized Adams completion in a

categorical context; they have also suggested the dual notion, namely, Adams cocompletion of

an object in a category. The concept of rational homotopy theory was first characterized by

Quillen. In fact in rational homotopy theory Sullivan introduced the concept of minimal model.

In this note under a reasonable assumption, the minimal model of a 1-connected differential

graded algebra can be expressed as the Adams cocompletion of the differential graded algebra

with respect to a chosen set in the category of 1-connected differential graded algebras (in short

d.g.a.’s) over ?ℎ? ????? ?? ????????? and d.g.a.-homomorphisms.

Keywords

Category

of

Fractions,

Calculus

of

Right

Fractions,

Grothendieck

Universe,

Adamscocompletion, Differential Graded Algebra, Minimal Model.

1. Introduction

It is to be emphasized that many algebraic and geometrical constructions in Algebraic

Topology, Differential Topology, Differentiable Manifolds, Algebra, Analysis, Topology, etc.,

© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

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**can be viewed as Adams completions or cocompletions of objects in suitable categories, with
**

respect to carefully chosen sets of morphisms.

The notion of generalized completion (Adams completion) arose from a categorical

completion process suggested by Adams, 1973, 1975. Originally this was considered for

admissible categories and generalized homology (or cohomology) theories. Subsequently, this

notion has been considered in a more general framework by Deleanu, Frei & Hilton, 1974, where

an arbitrary category and an arbitrary set of morphisms of the category are considered; moreover

they have also suggested the dual notion, namely the cocompletion (Adams cocompletion) of an

object in a category.

The central idea of this note is to investigate a case showing how an algebraic

geometrical construction is characterized in terms of Adams cocompletion.

2. Adams completion

We recall the definitions of Grothendieck universe, category of fractions, calculus of

right fractions, Adams cocompletion and some characterizations of Adams cocompletion.

**2.1 Definition.Schubert, 1972
**

A Grothendeick universe (or simply universe) is a collection ? of sets such that the

following axioms are satisfied:

U (1):

If {?? : ? ∈ ? } is a family of sets belongingto ?, then⋃?∈I ?? is an element of ?.

U (2):

If ? ∈ ?, then {?} ∈ ?.

U (3):

If ? ∈ ? and ? ∈ ? then ? ∈ ?.

U (4):

If ? is a set belonging to?, then ?(?), the power set of ?, is an element of?.

U (5):

If ? and ? are elements of ?, then {?, ?}, the ordered pair (?, ?) and ? × ?

are elements of ?.

We fix a universe ? that contains ℕ the set of natural numbers (and so ℤ, ℚ, ℝ, ℂ ).

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

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**

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**2.2 Definition.Schubert, 1972
**

A category ? is said to be a small?-category, ? being a fixed Grothendeick universe, if

the following conditions hold:

S(1) :

The objects of ? form a set which is an element of ?.

S (2):

For each pair (?, ?) of objects of?, the set Hom(?, ?) is an element of ?.

**2.3 Definition.Schubert, 1972
**

Let ? be any arbitrary category and

fractions

of ?

? a set of morphisms of

with respect to ? is a category denoted by

?.

?[? −1 ]

A category of

together with a

**functor?? ∶ ? → ?[? −1 ]having the following properties:
**

CF (1): For each ? ∈ ?, ?? (?) is an isomorphism in?[ ? −1 ].

CF(2) : ?? is universal with respect to this property:If? ∶ ? → ? is a functor such

that?(?)is an isomorphism in?, foreach? ∈ ?,then there exists a unique

functor? ∶ ?[? −1 ] → ?such that? = ??? .

Thus we have the following

commutative diagram:

?

?↓

??

→

?[? −1 ]

↙?

?

Figure 1

2.4 Note.

For the explicit construction of the category

?[ ? −1 ], we refer to Schubert, 1972. We

**content ourselves merely with the observation that the objects of ?[ ? −1 ] are same as those of
**

? and in the case when ? admits a calculus of left (right) fractions, the category ?[ ? −1 ] can

be described very nicely Gabriel &Zisman, 1967, Schubert, 1972.

**2.5 Definition. Schubert, 1972
**

A family ? of morphisms in a category ?is saidto admit a calculus of right fractions if

(a)

any diagram

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

?

↓?

?

→

?

?

Figure 2

in?with ? ∈ ?can be completed to a diagram

?

?

→

?

?↓

↓?

?

→

?

?

Figure 3

with? ∈ ?and?? = ??,

(b)

given ?

?

→ ?

?

→

→

?

?

→

?with? ∈ ?and?? = ??,there is a morphism? ∶

?

? → ?in ?such that?? = ??.

A simple characterization for a family

?

to admit a calculus of right fractions is the

following.

**2.6 Theorem. Deleanu, et al., 1974
**

Let ? be a closed family of morphisms of?satisfying

(a)

if ?? ∈ ? and ? ∈ ?, then ? ∈ ?,

(b)

any diagram

⦁

↓?

⦁

→

?

⦁

Figure 4

in? with

? ∈ ?, can be embedded in a weak pull-back diagram

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

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?

⦁

→

?↓

⦁

↓?

⦁

→

?

⦁

Figure 5

with? ∈ ?.

Then ? admits a calculus of right fractions.

2.7 Remark.

There are some set-theoretic difficulties in constructing the category?[? −1 ]; these

difficulties may be overcome by making some mild hypotheses and using Grothendeick

universes. Precisely speaking, the main logical difficulty involved in the construction of a

category of fractions and its use, arises from the fact that if the category ?

belongs to a

**particular universe, the category?[? −1 ] would, in general belongs to a higher universe Schubert,
**

1972.

In most applications, however, it is necessary that we remain within the given initial

**universe. This logical difficulty can be overcome by making some kind of assumptions which
**

would ensure that the category of fractions remains within the same universe Deleanu, 1975.

Also the following theorem shows that if ? admits a calculus of left (right) fractions, then the

category of fractions ?[? −1 ] remains within the same universe as to the universe to which the

category ? belongs.

**2.8 Theorem.Nanda, 1980
**

Let ? be a small ?-category and ? a set of morphisms of ? that admits a calculus

of left (right) fractions. Then ?[? −1 ] is a small ?-category.

**2.9 Definition. Deleanu, et al., 1974
**

Let ? be an arbitrary category and?a set of morphisms of ?. Let ?[? −1 ] denote the

category of fractions of ? with respect?and ?: ? → ?[? −1 ]be the canonical functor. Let ?

denote the category of sets and functions. Then for a given object ? of ?, ?[? −1 ](?, −) ∶ ? →

© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

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?defines a covariant functor. If this functor is representable by an object

?? of?,

**i.e.,?[? −1 ](?, −) ≅ ?(?? , −).Then ?? is called the (generalized)Adams cocompletionof? with
**

respect to the set of morphisms ? or simply the ?-cocompletion of?. We shall often refer to ??

as the cocompletion of

? Deleanu, et al., 1974.

We recall some results on the existence of Adams cocompletion.

We state

**Deleanu’stheoremDeleanu, 1975 that under certain conditions, global Adams cocompletion of an
**

object always exists.

**2.10 Theorem. Deleanu, 1975
**

Let ?be a complete small?-category

(?is a fixed Grothendeick universe) and?a set of

**morphisms of?that admits a calculus of right fractions. Suppose that the following compatibility
**

condition with product is satisfied: if each?? ∶ ?? → ?? , ? ∈ ?, is an element of?, then

∏?∈? ?? ∶ ∏?∈? ?? → ∏?∈? ?? is an element of ?.Then every object?of ?has an Adams

cocompletion?? with respect to the set of morphisms?.

The concept of Adams cocompletion can be characterized in terms of a couniversal

property.

**2.11 Definition. Deleanu, et al., 1974
**

Given aset ? of morphisms of ?,

we define?̅, the saturation of

? as the set of all

**morphisms ? in ? such that ?(?) is an isomorphism in ?[? −1 ]. ?is said to be saturated if
**

? = ?̅.

**2.12 Proposition. Deleanu, et al., 1974
**

A family ? of morphisms of?is saturated if and only if thereexists a factor ? ∶ ? →

?such that?is the collection of morphisms?such that?? is invertible.

Deleanu, Frei and Hilton have shown that if the set of morphisms ?is saturated then the

Adams cocompletion of a space is characterized by a certain couniversal property.

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

**2.13 Theorem. Deleanu, et al., 1974
**

Let ? be a saturated family of morphisms of ? admitting a calculus of right fractions.

Then an object ?? of ? is the ?-cocompletion of the object ? with respect to

? if and only

**if there exists a morphism? ∶ ?? → ?in ?which is couniversal with respect to morphisms of ?
**

: given a morphism? ∶ ? → ?in ?there exists a unique morphism? ∶ ?? → ?in ? such

that?? = ?. In other words, the following diagram is commutative:

?

??

→

?↓

?

↗?

?

Figure 6

For most of the application it is essential that the morphism ? ∶ ?? → ? has to be in

?; this is the case when ? is saturated and the result is as follows:

**2.14 Theorem. Deleanu, et al., 1974
**

Let ? be a saturated family of morphisms of ? and let every object of

?-cocompletion. Then the morphism

? ∶ ?? → ? belongs to

morphisms to ?-cocomplete objects and couniversal for morphisms in

? admit an

**? and is universal for
**

?.

3. The category ???

Let ??? be the category of 1-connected differential graded algebras over ℚ (in short

d.g.a.) and d.g.a.-homomorphisms. Let

?

denote the set of all d.g.a.-epimorphisms in

**???which induce homology isomorphisms in all dimensions. The following results will be
**

required in the sequel.

3.1 Proposition.

?Is saturated.

Proof.The proof is evident from Proposition 2.12.

∎

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

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3.2Proposition.

?admits a calculus of right fractions.

Proof.Clearly, ? is a closed family of morphisms of the category ???. We shall verify

conditions

(?) and (?) of Theorem 2.6. Let?, ? ∈ ?. We show that if ?? ∈ ? and? ∈ ?,

then? ∈ ?. Clearly ?

is an epimorphism.We have(??)∗ = ?∗ ?∗ and ?∗ are both homology

isomorphisms implying?∗ is a homology isomorphism. Thus ? ∈ ?. Hence condition (?)

of

Theorem 2.6 holds.

To prove condition (?) of Theorem 2.6 consider the diagram

?

↓?

?

→

?

?

Figure 7

In??? with? ∈ ?.We assert that the above diagram can be completed to a weak pull-back

diagram

?

?

→

?↓

?

?

↓?

→

?

?

Figure 8

In???with? ∈ ?. Since?, ? and?are in???

we write? = Σ?≥0 ?? , ? = Σ?≥0 ?? ,? =

**Σ?≥0 ?? ,? = Σ?≥0 ?? ,? = Σ?≥0 ?? and?? ∶ ?? → ?? ,?? ∶ ?? → ?? ,are d.g.a.-homomorphisms.
**

Let ?? = {(?, ?) ∈ ?? × ?? ∶ ?? (?) = ?? (?)} ⊂ ?? × ?? .

We have to show that? = Σ?≥0 ?? is a differential graded algebra. Let?? ∶ ?? →

?? and?? ∶ ?? → ?? be the usual projections. Let? = Σ?≥0 ?? and? = Σ?≥0 ?? . Clearly the

above diagram is commutative. It is required to show that ? is a d.g.a..Define a multiplication

in ? in the following way: (?, ?) ∙ (?′ , ? ′ ) = (??′ , ?? ′ ),where(?, ?) ∈ ?? , (?′ , ? ′ ) ∈ ?? .Let

? ? = Σ?≥0 ??? ,

??? ∶ ?? → ??+1 and? ? = Σ?≥0 ??? ,??? ∶ ?? → ??+1 .Define

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

??? ∶ ?? →

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

??+1by

the

??? (?, ?) = (??? (?), ??? (?)),

rule

(?, ?) ∈ ?? .Let?? = Σ?≥0 ??? .Since? ? ?? (?, ?) = (? ? ? ? (?), ? ? ?? (?)) = (0,0)for

all

**(?, ?) ∈ ? we have that ?? is a differential. Next we show that? ? is a derivation: For
**

(?1 , ?1 ) ∈ ??

and(?2 , ?2 ) ∈ ?? ,?? ((?1 , ?1 ) ∙ (?2 , ?2 )) = ?? (?1 ?2 , ?1 ?2 ) = (? ? (?1 ?2 ), ? ? (?1 ?2 )) =

(? ? (?1 ) ∙ (?2 ) + (−1)? (?1 ) ∙ ? ? (?2 ), ? ? (?1 ) ∙ (?2 ) + (−1)? (?1 ) ∙ ? ? (?2 )) = (? ? (?1 ) ∙ ?2 ,

? ? (?1 ) ∙ ?2 ) + ((−1)? ?1 ∙ ? ? (?2 ), (−1)? ?1 ∙ ? ? (?2 )) = (? ? (?1 ),

? ? (?1 )) ∙ (?2 , ?2 ) +((−1)? ?1 , (−1)? ?1 ) ∙ (? ? (?2 ), ? ? (?2 )) = ? ? (?1 , ?1 ) ∙ (?2 , ?2 ) +

(−1)? (?1 , ?1 ) ∙ ?? (?2 , ?2 ).

Thus ? becomes a d.g.a..

We show that ? is 1-connected, i.e., ?0 (?) ≅ ℚand?1 (?) ≅ 0. We have ?0 (?) =

?0 (?)⁄?0 (?) = ?0 (?) = {(?, ?) ∈ ?0 (?) × ?0 (?) ∶ ?0 (?) = ?0 (?)}.Let

1? ∈ ?.

Then?? (1? , 1? ) = (? ? (1? ), ? ? (1? )) = 0implies

1? ∈ ?

and

that(1? , 1? ) ∈ ?0 (?).?0 (?) =

**?0 (?) ≅ ℚimplies that ?0 (?) = ℚ1? .Similarly,?0 (?) = ?0 (?) ≅ ℚimplies that ?0 (?) =
**

ℚ1? .Thus (?, ?) ∈ ?0 (?) = ?0 (?) ⊂ ?0 (?) × ?0 (?)if and only if? = ?1? and? = ?1? for

some ? ∈ ℚ. Thus?0 (?) ≅ ℚ.

In order to show?1 (?) ≅ 0, let(?, ?) ∈ ?1 (?). This implies that? ∈ ?1 (?),? ∈

?1 (?)and?1 (?) = ?1 (?). Sinc?is 1-connected we have?1 (?) ≅ 0, i.e., ?1 (?)⁄?1 (?) = ?1 (?);

hence

? = ?0? (?′ ), ?′ ∈ ?0 .

Similarly

since?is

1-connected

we

have?1 (?) ≅ 0,

i.e.,?1 (?)⁄?1 (?) = ?1 (?);hence? = ?0? (? ′ ), ? ′ ∈ ?0 . Now ?1 (?) = ?1 (?),i.e., ?1 (?0? (?′ )) =

?1 (?0? (? ′ )).This

gives?0? ?0 (?′ ) = ?0? ?0 (? ′ ),i.e.,?0? (?0 (?′ ) − ?0 (? ′ )) = 0.Thus?0 (?′ ) −

?0 (? ′ ) ∈ ?0 (?).But ? ∈ ?. Hence ?∗ ∶ ?0 (?) → ?0 (?)

?0 (?) → ?0 (?)

is an isomorphism.

?0 (?̃ ) = ?0 (?′ ) − ?0 (? ′ ).Moreover

is an isomorphism, i.e., ?0 ∶

Hence there exists an element ?̃ ∈ ?0 (?)such that

?0? (?′ , ?̃ + ? ′ ) = (?0? (?′ ), ?0? (?̃ ) + ?0? (? ′ ))= (?0? (?′ ),

**0 + ?0? (? ′ ))= (?0? (?′ ), ?0? (? ′ ) = (?, ?)showing that(a, c) ∈ ?1 (?). Thus?1 (?) ≅ 0.
**

Clearly

?is a d.g.a.-epimorphism. We show that?∗ ∶ ?∗ (?) → ?∗ (?)is an

**isomorphism. First we show that ?∗ ∶ ?∗ (?) → ?∗ (?) is a monomorphism. The hollowing
**

commutative diagram will be used in the sequel.

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

56

**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

⋮

↓

??−2

⋮

↓

??−2

→

?

??−2

↓

??−1

??−2

←

??−2

?

↓ ??−2

?

??−2

↓

→

??−1

??−1

?

??−1

↓

??

??−2

⋮

↓

←

??−1

??−1

?

↓ ??−1

?

??−1

↓

→

??

??

↓

⋮

←

??

??

↓

⋮

↓

⋮

Figure 9

?? ∶ ?? → ?? is the usual projection, we have

Since

?? (?, ?) = ?

for every

(?, ?) ∈ ?? .

**Hence the algebra homomorphism ?∗ ∶ ?? (?) → ?? (?) is given by ?∗ [(?, ?)] = [?? (?, ?)] =
**

[?]for

[(?, ?)] ∈ ?? (?).

We

note

that

?? (?)

=

?? (?)⁄?? (?) ⊂ (?? (?) × ?? (?) )⁄(?? (?) × ?? (?)).Hence

?? (?) = (?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ ))⁄(?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ ))

for some?̅? ⊂ ??

and ??̅ ⊂ ?? . For any [(?, ?)] ∈ ?? (?) we have [(?, ?)] = (?, ?) +

?? (?) = (?, ?) + (?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ )),(?, ?) ∈ ?? (?) ⊂ ?? .

? (? ′ ′ )

Then(?, ?) + ??−1

,? ∈

? (? ′ ′ )

(?, ?) + ?? (?), for every ??−1

, ? ∈ ?? (?)where (?′ , ? ′ ) ∈ ??−1 ⊂ ?? , i.e., (?, ?) +

? (? ′ ′ )

??−1

,?

? (? ′ ′ )

every??−1

,?

?

? (? ′

(?, ?) + (??−1

), ??−1

(? ′ )) ∈ (?, ?) + (?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ )),

=

=

? (? ′

?

(??−1

), ??−1

(? ′ )) ∈ ?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ ).

for

? (?′ ),

Thus(? + ??−1

?+

?

?

? (? ′ ),

??−1

(? ′ )) ∈ (?, ?) + (?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ )), i.e.,[(? + ??−1

? + ??−1

(? ′ )]= [(?, ?)] ∈ ?? (?).

?

? (? ′ )

We note that [?] = [? + ??−1

]and[?] = [? + ??−1

(? ′ )].

**Now let[(?1 , ?1 )], [(?2 , ?2 )] ∈ ?? (?)and assume that ?∗ [(?1 , ?1 )] = ?∗ [(?2 , ?2 )]; this
**

gives[?1 ] = [?2 ],

?

?

[?1 + ??−1

(?′ )] = [?2 + ??−1

(?′ )].

i.e.

? (? ′ ), ?

Since(?1 , ?1 ), (?2 , ?2 ), (??−1

??−1 (? ′ )) ∈ ?? , we have ?? (?1 ) = ?? (?1), ?? (?2 ) = ?? (?2)

?

?

and?? ??−1

(?′ ) = ?? ??−1

(? ′).

?

? (? ′ ))

??−1

= ?? (?2 + ??−1

(? ′ )).

?

? (? ′ ))

So?? (?1 + ??−1

= ?? (?1 + ??−1

(? ′ ))

Therefore,

from

? (? ′ )]

? (? ′ )],

gives?∗ [?1 + ??−1

= ?∗ [?1 + ??−1

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**

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the

and?? (?2 +

above,?∗ [(?1 , ?1 )] = ?∗ [(?2 , ?2 )]

? (? ′ ))]

i.e.,[?? (?1 + ??−1

= [?? (?2 +

57

**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

?

?

?

? (? ′ ))];this

??−1

gives [?? (?1 + ??−1

(? ′ ))] = [?? (?2 + ??−1

(? ′ ))], i.e., ?∗ [?1 + ??−1

(? ′ )] =

?

?

?

?∗ [?2 + ??−1

(? ′ )]. Since ?∗ is an isomorphism we have [?1 + ??−1

(? ′ )] = [?2 + ??−1

(? ′ )].

Hence

we

?

? (? ′ )], [?

′

have([?1 + ??−1

1 + ??−1 (? )])=

?

??−1

(? ′ )]);we

? (? ′ )], [?

([?2 + ??−1

2+

apply

the

isomorphism?∗ ∶ (?? (?̅)⁄?? (?̅)) × (?? (?̅ )⁄?? (?̅ )) → (?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ ))⁄(?? (?̅) × ?? (?̅ ))to

the above

?

? (? ′ )], [?

′

to get?∗ ([?1 + ??−1

1 + ??−1 (? )])

=

? (? ′ )], [?

?∗ ([?2 + ??−1

2+

?

?

?

? (? ′ ),

? (? ′ ),

??−1

(? ′ )]), i.e.,[(?1 + ??−1

?1 + ??−1

(? ′ ))] = [(?2 + ??−1

?2 + ??−1

(? ′ ))]. Thus

**[(?1 , ?1 )] = [(?2 , ?2 )], showing that ?∗ ∶ ?∗ (?) → ?∗ (?)is a monomorphism.
**

Next we show that ?∗ ∶ ?∗ (?) → ?∗ (?) is anepimorphism.Let[?] ∈ ?∗ (?)

arbitrary. Then ?? (?) ∈ ?? . Since ? is an epimorphism

be

?? (?) = ?? (?) for some ? ∈ ?? .

**Hence (?, ?) ∈ ?? . Then?∗ [(?, ?)] = [?? (?, ?)] = [?]showing ?∗ is an epimorphism. Since ?
**

is an epimorphism and ?∗ is an isomorphism we conclude that? ∈ ?.

Next for any d.g.a. ? = Σ ?? and d.g.a.-homomorphisms? = {?? ∶ ?? → ?? }and? =

?≥0

**{?? ∶ ?? → ?? }in???, let the following diagram
**

?

?

→

?

?↓

↓?

?

→

?

?

Figure 10

commute, i.e., ?? = ??. Consider the diagram

?

↘?

↘ℎ

?

?

→

?↘ ?↓

?

?

↓?

→

?

?

Figure 11

Define ℎ = {ℎ? ∶ ?? → ?? }by the ruleℎ(?) = (?(?), ?(?))for ? ∈ ?. Clearly ℎ is

well defined and is a d.g.a. homomorhism. Now for any ? ∈ ?,?ℎ(?) = ?(?(?), ?(?)) =

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58

**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

**?(?)and?ℎ(?) = ?(?(?), ?(?)) = ?(?), i.e.,?ℎ = ?and?ℎ = ?. This completes the proof of
**

Proposition 3.2.∎

3.3 Proposition.

If each?? ∶ ?? → ?? ,? ∈ ?,is an element of?, where the index set?is an element of?,

then ∏?∈? ?? ∶ ∏?∈? ?? → ∏?∈? ?? is an element of?.

Proof.The proof is trivial.

∎

The following result can be obtained from the above discussion.

3.4 Proposition. The category???is complete.

**From Propositions 3.1- 3.4, it follows that the conditions of Theorem 2.10 are fulfilled
**

and by the use of Theorem 2.13, we obtain the following result.

3.5 Theorem.

Every object?of the category ??? has an Adams cocompletion ?? with respect to the

set of morphisms ? and there exists a morphism? ∶ ?? → ?in ? which is couniversal with

respect to the morphisms in?, that is, given a morphism? ∶ ? → ?in? there exists a unique

morphismt ∶ AS → Bsuch that st = e. In other words the following diagram is commutative:

??

?↓

?

→

?

↗?

?

Figure 12

3.

Minimal model

We recall the following algebraic preliminaries.

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**

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

**4.1 Definition.Deschner, 1975, Wu, 1980
**

A d.g.a. ? is called a minimal algebra if it satisfies the following properties:

?is free as a graded algebra.

?has decomposable differentials.

?0 = ℚ,

?has homology of finite type, i.e., for each?, ?? (?) is a finite dimensionalvector

?1 = 0.

space.

Let ℳ be the full subcategory of the category ??? consisting of all minimal algebras

and all d.g.a.-maps between them.

**4.2 Definition. Deschner, 1975, Wu, 1980
**

Let?be a simply connected d.g.a..A d.g.a.? = ?? is called a minimal model of ? if the

following conditions hold:

(i)

?? ∈ ℳ.

**(ii) Thereis a d.g.a.-map? ∶ ?? → ?which induces an isomorphism on homology,
**

≅

i.e.,?∗ ∶ ?∗ (?? ) → ?∗ (?).

Henceforth we assume that the d.g.a.-map? ∶ ?? → ?is a d.g.a.-epimorphism.

4.3 Theorem.Deschner, 1975, Wu, 1980

LetAbe a simply connected d.g.a. andMA be its minimal model. The mapρ ∶ MA →

Ahas couniversal property, i.e., for any d.g.a. Zand d.g.a.-mapφ ∶ Z → A,there exists a d.g.a.map θ ∶ MA → Zsuch that ρ ≃ φθ; furthermore if the d.g.a.-map

φ ∶ Z → Ais an

**epimorphism thenρ = φθ, i.e., the following diagram is commutative:
**

??

?↓

?

→

?

↗?

?

Figure 13

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**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

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5. The result

We show that under a reasonable assumption,the minimal model of a 1-connected d.g.a.

can be expressed as the Adams cocompletion of the d.g.a. with respect to the chosen set of d.g.a.maps.

5.1 Theorem. ?? ≅ ?? .

Proof.Let ? ∶ ?? → ?be the map as in Theorem 3.5 and? ∶ ?? → ?be the d.g.a.-map as in

Theorem 4.3. Since the d.g.a.-map ? ∶ ?? → ? is a d.g.a.-epimorphism, by the couniversal

property of ? there exists a d.g.a.-map ? ∶ ?? → ?? such that ? = ??.

??

?

→

?↓

?

↗?

??

Figure 14

By the couniversal property of ?there exists a d.g.a.-map? ∶ ?? → ?? such that?? = ?.

??

?↓

?

→

?

↗?

??

Figure 15

Consider the diagram

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61

**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

??

?

→

?

?↓

1?? ↓

??

↗?

?↓

??

Figure 16

Thus we have??? = ?? = ? .By the uniqueness condition of the couniversal property

of ? (Theorem 3.5), we conclude that?? = 1?? .Next consider the diagram

??

?

→

?

?↓

1?? ↓

??

↗?

?↓

??

Figure 17

Thus we have??? = ?? = ?. By the couniversal oroperty of ? (Theorem 4.3), we

conclude that?? = 1?? .Thus?? ≅ ?? . This completes the proof of Theorem 5.1.

REFERENCES

Adams, J. F. (1973). Idempotent Functors in Homotopy Theory: Manifolds, Conf.

Adams J. F. (1975).Localization and Completion, Lecture Notes in Mathematics.Univ. of

Chicago.

Deleanu A., Frei A. & Hilton P. J. (1974). Generalized Adams completion.Cahiers de Top.et

Geom. Diff., 15, 61-82.

© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.

Available Online at: http://grdspublishing.org/MATTER/matter.html

62

**MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology
**

ISSN 2454-5880

**Deleanu A. (1975). Existence of the Adams completion for objects of cocomplete categories. J.
**

Pure and Appl. Alg., 6, 31-39.

Deschner A. J. (1976). Sullivan’s Theory of Minimal Models, Thesis.Univ. of British Columbia.

Gabriel P. &Zisman M. (1967).Calculus of Fractions and Homotopy Theory.SpringerVerlag, New York.

Halperin S. (1977, 1981). Lectures on Minimal Models.Publ. U. E. R. de Math?́ matiques, Univ.

de Lille I.

Lane S. Mac (1971). Categories for the working Mathematicians.Springer-Verlag, New York.

Nanda S. (1980). A note on the universe of a category of fractions.Canad.Math. Bull., 23(4),

425-427.

Schubert H. (1972). Categories. Springer Verlag, New York.

Wu wen-tsun (1980).Rational Homotopy Type.LNM 1264, Springer-Verlag.

**© 2015 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
**

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