Prepared and Complied by Win Myint Law A.G.T.I. BE Mining, M.MES, ASEAN Engineer
Mineral Exploration Logistics and Mining

that is to say they are caused by unsafe practices.  Discussion on Law and Policy for Safety Management.  Personal Equipment and Conduct.  To create an awareness of the Company’s commitment to safety practices and the responsibility of its employees to the same. The aims of the following of this Safety Management course are: To impart an understanding of international.  Accident Reporting. national.  Detailed examination of Safety Management and Organization.  To discuss procedures for accident and near-miss reporting. regional and local safety laws and regulations.  Review the role of independent Safety Advisers.2 SAFETY CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATION INTRODUCTION An analysis of Industry Accident Reports over the last few years show that more than 80% of accidents causing injuries are due to human behavior. .  Training.  Contingency Planning.  To establish guidelines of practice for preventative supervision and safety auditing.  Auditing of Records.

However. Safety does not just happen –it has to be managed.3 1 1 Safety management 2 Management commitment 3 Safety policy 4 Line responsibility 5 Safety advisor 6 Safety standards and procedures 7 Safety performance 8 Safety plan and objectives 9 Safety inspection and audit programme 10 Safety training 11 Personal Equipment 12 Tools 13 Accident investigation and reporting 14 Safety motivation and communication 15 Contingency planning Safety management You are all involved one way or another in the supervision or management of people at work. . You already know that it is every employee’s duty to work safely so that they protect themselves and others from accidental injury. We will consider what areas of Management Skills are applied to working safely.

grew a selfimage amongst the workers that accepted accidents and almost expected to take a number of injuries on even the simplest of projects. By assigning high priority to Safety performance in all business activities By taking a personal interest in accidents and following up investigations in the interests of preventing further accidents. in front of the workers By always including Safety considerations in day-to-day instructions By including Safety as a priority item at Safety and Management meetings In the past. In your work Contracts. It is a Manager’s responsibility to ensure that his employees are properly equipped.4 2 Management commitment Each member of the Management Team must show to those he supervises that he is fully committed to working safety. concerned management of that party by you. in meetings. This attitude must change. In the final event. By always being involved in Safety inspections and Safety meetings. Your company has a policy to provide you with a safe working environment. down to the lowest level at which they are held. By putting experienced. Through this. By always promoting Safety in public. trained and motivated to work safety. . competent people in charge of Safety By being prepared to spend money to create or restore safe working conditions. By setting a good example at all times – you must wear your Safety Helmet Boots. the safety record of any party will be directly proportional to the active. you must always drive safely within the rules set down and within your own capabilities. you must wear your Safety Belt in the vehicle. A Manager can show this commitment to Safety in a member of ways. the Industry has also had a fairly bad accident rate. you are already under a duty to work safely.

Excellent safety performance. The policy statement should: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) contain a written statement of principles and goals be signed by the chief executive officer be dated recognize the need to comply with the Occupational Health and Safety Act and construction regulations. Poor safety performance. Health and safely must enjoy the same high priority as the organization’s other major goals. The acceptance of the principle that all injuries can and should be prevented. 4 Line responsibility Managers and Supervisors are responsible for demonstrating. 2. Senior management must be committed to carrying out that policy consistently and completely. 3.5 3 Safety policy A health and safety policy is a written statement of principles and goals embodying the company’s commitment to workplace health and safety. Lack of standards for safety practices. personal commitments to the safety programme and reacting to: 1. . 2. as we have already said. acknowledge the right of every employee to work in a safe and healthy environment spell out management’s commitment to providing a safe and healthy work environment by eliminating or minimizing the hazards that can cause accidents and injuries recognize the priority of safety in relation to other organizational goals and policies encourage cooperation with unions and workers to involve all employees in putting the health and safety policy into practice. Management at all levels is responsible for preventing accidents. 1.

5. 10. health and hygiene. Inappropriate or poor safety programme. An inconsistent approach to safety by different people. plans and objectives. They can conduct. Inadequate training or instruction. 7. 8. Unsafe working conditions and practices. Inadequate discipline. They must have received training in Enchance Safety Management Principles. 6. 9. Low standards.6 4. Safety induction programmed Audits Training Risk analysis/Contingency planning Transport Management Supervision Regular meetings in all levels In addition to the day to day co-ordination of safety. Accident and incident reports and the action needed to stop them happening again. They should also have an excellent understanding of the environment and the nature of the job. Safety reports and their recommendations. 11. 12. 5  Senior Management  Superintendent  Supervisors (foreperson)  Workers  Subcontractors  Health and safety Advisor  All Employees Safety advisor A Safety Advisor must be a person of who co-ordinates all aspects of safety in the best and most workable manner. Idea and suggestions for improving safety. they may also be a Paramedic with responsibilities for casualty handling and evacuating. .

Workers must wear appropriate PPE when and where required. You are not permitted to arrive or remain at work if your ability to perform the job safely is impaired. No fighting or horseplay is permitted at the workplace. and prior to leaving the workplace. It is important to involve the management and supervision to carry out the safety standards and procedures and they provide adequate training for workers likely to follow these safety standards and procedures. Workers must perform all work following safe work practices and safe job procedures. No theft or vandalism will be tolerated at the workplace. Workers must maintain good housekeeping. For examples some of the following rules are part of safety standards and procedure. All workers must have proof of training indicating that they are trained in WHMIS. No possession or consumption of alcohol or illegal drugs is permitted while at the workplace.7 6 Safety standards and procedures Some of the companies are laid down the rules as Safety Standards and Procedures in the following documents Safety Policy of the company Occupational Health and Safety Act and construction regulations Safety compilation Handbook which has been written by the company health and safety requirements The safety manual and compilation handbook must be distributed to everybody on the working crew. All accidents must be reported immediately to your supervisor/foreman. .

near miss. Lost Time Injury and Medical Treatment Cases Crew medical boxes-check and refill schedule list Fire prevention procedure and drill All kinds of check lists for vehicles.000 UNSAFE PRACTICES UNSAFE ACTS & UNSAFE CONDITIONS . equipments and machines used.s.000 near misses and 100. The basis of most injury statistics is the lost time injury (L. ONE FATAL ACCIDNET 100 LTI'S 1000 NON-LTI'S 10. Monthly crew safety meetings. it must be appreciated as seen in the diagram below that for each fatal accident there have been 100 L.I.000 unsafe practices.Ls.T. they may include. 10.000 NEAR-MISSES 100. incident.I) frequency rate. accident. Daily toolbox meetings and weekly worksite Safety Meetings Safety Memos of an unsafe act. The monthly safely report is an indicator of the safety performance done during the previous month. 1000 non-L. However.T. An unsafe practice is defined as either unsafe acts by employees (like the local national in Gabon who used bunches of detonators as a rattle to enhance his dancing) or unsafe working conditions (uninspected scaffolding).8 7 Safety performance Safety performance is the activities carried out by the Safety Officer and all the working crew members.T. For example.

rules or documents to be written or reviewed by specific dates The frequency of safety committee meetings and other safety meetings The frequency of inspections and audits The frequency of contingency plan rehearsals A schedule for construction of safety facilities and implementation of new procedures 9 Safety inspection and audit programmed A well-managed inspection program can help to identify problems and assess risks before accidents or injuries occur. The future safety plan includes detailed tasks and targets for implementation of safety procedures. Demonstrate management support for the health and safety program. Identify deficiencies in equipment and/or machinery.9 8 Safety plan and objectives The future safety plan for the working crews must be developed for the project periods. It is management’s job to quantify safety targets and objectives in the following areas: Instructions. equipments. etc. Most of the companies have set an ambitious target of zero LTI’s for their project works. Assess and determine the degree of compliance. trainings. A proper inspection program can: Identify potential problems. contingency. The company’s program should address the following points: o frequency of inspections o who conducts the inspection o use of inspection checklists o communication of inspection results o follow up on corrective actions required o retention/forwarding of inspection reports .

In addition to the transfer of knowledge and skills.  WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System)  Fall Protection 11 Personal Equipment Protective clothing is your first defense. Drilling crew members must wear safety boots. Therefore. up to about mid calf.10 10 Safety Training Training Health and safety training is the foundation of a successful health and safety program. Workers need training in specific health and safety topics such as PPE. a question of training only new workers and apprentices. Management and supervision need training in such topics as health and safety program planning and accident investigation. The crew chief will decide exactly who is to wear hard hats but in any event they must worn by at least drilling crews and shooters. In areas where there is risk of ground snake bites you must ensure that there is sufficient low leg protection from the boots. scaffolding. . It is not. and workers an appreciation of their personal responsibilities for health and safety within the framework of the minimum standards outlined by legislation. equipments and work practices that protect both themselves and those around them. With regard to the extremities (hands and feet). welders and welder’s helpers. All levels of management. must be involved in health and safety training. insect bites. It is essential that all clothing and equipment used on the job does not itself become a hazard to you. Training requirements that are common to most construction workers include. all field crew members must wear suitable safety shoes or boots. Such training should give management. bristles and even nettles. from the president to site supervisors. however. Gloves should be worn under most field conditions and must be worn by drilling crew members. supervision. there are some simple rules which you must follow with regard to clothing and equipment to ensure that you are properly protected. thorns. ladders. training promotes positive attitudes and a culture in which all parties within a firm collaborate to establish and maintain worksite health and safety. against sun burn.

Finding the causes of an accident and taking steps to control or eliminate it can help prevent similar accidents from happening in the future. Whenever welding. always use the correct tool for the job and replace the tools in their storage containers immediately after use. When welding with the electric are. You must therefore provide. In most Countries it is a requirement by law that power tools operate on no. should a sound level survey have been made on areas where you might be exposed to damaging noise levels. 12 Tools In October 1990 one of the European crews that we were supervising had seven accidents in its first operational week and the most serious one involved the head of a hammer flying off the handle and hitting an employee on the head. In general terms. Always replace worn parts and dispose of defective tools that cannot be repaired. Work environment. These factors must be examined to determine what role each had in causing the accident. where necessary. the welder must wear a proper welder’s hood and his helper must wear goggles or a mask with flip-up colored lenses backed with a clear lenses. Accident can rarely be attributed to a single cause. drilling press. when spray painting or spraying chemicals and when operating a lathe. you must wear ear defenders if the noise. Three core cable must be used and the plugs must be of the three prongs type to ensure earthling. The improper use of hand tools or the abuse of them is a major cause of many minor but painful injuries. brazing or soldering with gas goggles or mask must again be worn. portable drill or other machine tools. do not use the tool. . if the guard has been removed.11 To protect your eyes. Similarly when cutting with a gas torch. In general any helpers and any other man working in the area must also have suitable eye protection. of the operations cannot be reduced. and supervisory or worker experience can all play a part. grinding or chipping. Remember that Argon Laser and Argon Krypton Laser welding require special protective lenses. In addition all power tools must have proper guards and. goggles or eye mask must be worn when buffing. more than 110 volts. All electrical power hand tools must be double insulated or earthed. job constraints. conversion of the local electricity to that required by the hand tools. Finally to protect your ears. 13 Accident investigation and reporting The prime objective of accident investigation is prevention.

note similar occurrences and investigate all relevant background information. Corrective action must be taken. Collect and record facts. There is little point in keeping it to yourself when you can prevent injury or death to someone else. Once recommendations have been made they must be followed up and lessons learned communicated not just within the local working environment but upwards and sideways within the company and the industry. 14 Safety Motivation and Communication Safety motivation should include a review of your company Health and Safety Policy and Program to determine what further training and information the employee needs to do for job safety. . and The action must be monitored for effectiveness Company health and safety programs should have the following items addressed in the requirements regarding accident investigation:  What kinds of accidents must be investigated?  Who should investigate that?  What training should investigator have?  Who reviews the investigation report and follows up on any observations or recommendations?  What should be investigated: All Lost Time Injuries?  All Medical Aid Injuries?  All with more than $ X in property damage?  Any with potential for serious injury or major financial loss? When setting up an investigation make sure that you stick to the following guide lines:       Investigate properly. Recommend corrective action. Companies should have clear requirements regarding the provision and use of PPE. State the objective as to prevent a similar accident happening again. three things must take place: The information gathered must be analyzed.12 In order for an investigation to be a valuable tool in accident prevention. Identify the basic causes. somewhere else. Use as investigators those who have a real knowledge of the work situation.

The following items should be addressed when preparing your emergencies response plan.13 These requirements should be effectively communicated to all affected employees. These include emergency response steps and a checklist to identify the resources required on sites.  hazard identification/assessment . For example. Monthly Crew Safety Meeting. A quick and efficient response to an emergency will:  prevent the present situation from getting worse  protect workers and the public from further danger and injury  provide first aid to injured workers  protect material and equipment from further damage  isolate and secure the area to ensure that nothing is disturbed. all persons on site should be required to wear:  CSA Grade 1 Safety Footwear  CSA Class G or Class E Hard Hat  CSA Safety Glasses Specialized requirements Additional PPE or specialized PPE is often required. Weekly Crew Safety Meeting. This element contains documents to help companies prepare for site emergencies. Daily toolbox meeting and filling Daily. This means is that planning for emergencies must begin before any work commences on the project. This may include:  Safety Vests  Respiratory Protection  Face Shields  Safety Harnesses  Goggles  Hearing Protection  Gloves The Monthly safety operations meeting. In some cases specialized PPE requires specific training as well as regular maintenance and inspection. 15 Contingency planning The company shall establish Emergency Response Procedures for every project. The company should have a program in place to ensure that the requirements are being met. weekly and Monthly Safety Checklist for equipment will also help safety motivation. Basic requirements Most companies have basic requirements for PPE.

But. every member of the crew must know what the standard plans and drills are and these plans must De rehearsed by all staff on a regular basis. you have to have plans in being to cater for the emergency situations. and any special training requirements.14  emergency resources  communication system  administration of plan  emergency response procedure  communication of procedure  debriefing and post-traumatic stress procedure Regarding the other key points. . it is most likely that you will never be able to reduce the risk to zero. Remember that every project has different needs and plans must be adapted to reflect local situations. Therefore. Plans to cover actions in the event of anyone or all of the above emergency situations must be in place from the start or any project. the company’s emergency plan should identify responsibilities. Furthermore.