REGION MAP

The world by region

East Asia and Pacific
American Samoa
Australia
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
China
Fiji
French Polynesia
Guam
Hong Kong SAR, China
Indonesia
Japan
Kiribati
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Lao PDR
Macao SAR, China
Malaysia
Marshall Islands
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Mongolia
Myanmar
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Northern Mariana Islands
Palau
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Samoa
Singapore
Solomon Islands
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Tonga
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Vietnam
Europe and
Central Asia
Albania
Andorra
Armenia
Austria*
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium*
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Channel Islands
Croatia
Cyprus*
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia*
Faroe Islands
Finland*
France*
Georgia

Germany*
Greece*
Greenland
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland*
Isle of Man
Italy*
Kazakhstan
Kosovo
Kyrgyz Republic
Latvia*
Liechtenstein
Lithuania*
Luxembourg*
Macedonia, FYR
Moldova
Monaco
Montenegro
Netherlands*
Norway
Poland
Portugal*
Romania
Russian Federation
San Marino
Serbia
Slovak Republic*
Slovenia*
Spain*
Sweden
Switzerland
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Latin America and
the Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Aruba
Bahamas, The
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia
Brazil
Cayman Islands
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Curaçao
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador

Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Puerto Rico
Sint Maarten
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Martin
St. Vincent and the
Grenadines
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
Uruguay
Venezuela, RB
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Middle East and
North Africa
Algeria
Bahrain
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Malta*
Morocco
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syrian Arab Republic
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
North America
Bermuda
Canada
United States
South Asia
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
Bhutan
India

Maldives
Nepal
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cabo Verde
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
South Sudan
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

*Member of the Euro area

Classified according to
World Bank analytical
grouping

The world by region
East Asia and Pacific

Middle East and North Africa

Europe and Central Asia

North America

Sub-Saharan Africa

Latin America and the Caribbean

South Asia

No data

Greenland
(Den.)

Iceland

Norway

Faroe
Islands
(Den.)

Sweden

Russian Federation

Finland

Netherlands

Canada

Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Germany Poland Belarus

Isle of Man (U.K.)

Ireland
Belgium

Denmark
U. K.

Russian
Fed.

Ukraine

Channel Islands (U.K.)

France

Luxembourg
Liechtenstein
Switzerland
Andorra
Portugal

United States

Bulgaria
Spain
Turkey

Monaco
Gibraltar (U.K.)

Algeria

The Bahamas
Cuba

Guatemala

Cabo
Verde

Panama
R.B. de
Venezuela

Guyana
Suriname
French Guiana (Fr.)

Colombia

Ecuador
Kiribati

Peru

Cook
Islands
(N.Z.)

Brazil

French
Polynesia
(Fr.)

Niger

Sudan

Eritrea

Namibia

Malawi

Bonaire
(Neth.)

Sri
Lanka

Barbados

St. Vincent and
the Grenadines

Lesotho

Argentina

IBRD 41313 | FEBRUARY 2016

Palau

Malaysia

Maldives

Singapore

Kiribati

Nauru
Papua
New
Guinea

Indonesia

Solomon
Islands

Timor-Leste

Tuvalu

Tokelau (N.Z.)
Wallis and
Futuna (Fr.)

Mayotte
(Fr.)

Samoa
Vanuatu

Fiji
American
Samoa (U.S.)

Mauritius
Germany

New
Caledonia
(Fr.)

Poland

Australia

Czech Republic

Ukraine

Austria

Hungary

Slovenia
Croatia

Romania

Bosnia &
Herzegovina Serbia
San
Marino

Grenada

R.B. de Venezuela

Marshall
Islands

Brunei
Darussalam

Kosovo Bulgaria
FYR
Albania Macedonia

Montenegro

Trinidad and Tobago

Federated States of Micronesia

Philippines

Slovak Republic

Chile

St. Lucia

Curaçao (Neth.)

Guam (U.S.)

Cambodia

Martinique (Fr.)

Aruba (Neth.)

N. Mariana Islands (U.S.)

Vietnam

Thailand

Uruguay

Montserrat (U.K.)
Guadeloupe (Fr.)

Dominica

Macao SAR, China

Lao
PDR

La Réunion
(Fr.)

Swaziland

Antigua and Barbuda

St. Kitts and Nevis

Myanmar

Rep. of
Yemen

Madagascar

Botswana

South
Africa

Sint Maarten (Neth.)
Saint-Barthélemy (Fr.)

Saba (Neth.)
Sint Eustatius (Neth.)

Hong Kong SAR, China

India

Comoros

Angola

Paraguay

Puerto Rico
(U.S.)

United
Arab
Emirates

Zimbabwe Mozambique

U.S. Virgin Islands British Virgin Anguilla (U.K.)
(U.S.) Islands (U.K.)
St. Martin (Fr.)

Dominican
Republic

Nepal

Chad
Burkina
Djibouti
Faso
Guinea
Benin
Nigeria
Côte Ghana
Ethiopia
South
Sierra Leone
Central
d’Ivoire
Sudan
Cameroon African Rep.
Somalia
Liberia
Togo
Equatorial Guinea
Uganda
Rep.
of
São Tomé and Príncipe
Kenya
Gabon Congo
Rwanda
Seychelles
Dem. Rep.
Burundi
of Congo
Tanzania

Bolivia

Pitcairn
Islands
(U.K.)

Bhutan

Pakistan

Bangladesh

Zambia

Niue
(N.Z.)

Afghanistan

The Gambia
Guinea-Bissau

Costa Rica

American
Samoa (U.S.)

Islamic Rep.
of Iran

Mauritania
Mali

Japan

Rep. of
Korea

Oman

Senegal

Nicaragua

El Salvador

D. P. R.
of Korea

China

Kuwait
Bahrain
Qatar
Saudi
Arabia

Arab Rep.
of Egypt

Turks and Caicos Is. (U.K.)

Haiti

Jamaica
Belize
Honduras

Armenia

Greece

Libya

Western
Sahara

Cayman Is. (U.K.)

Mexico

Mongolia

Kyrgyz
Uzbekistan
Rep.
Azerbaijan Turkmenistan
Tajikistan

Georgia

Cyprus
Syrian
A. R.
Tunisia
Lebanon
Iraq
Israel
West Bank and Gaza
Jordan
Malta

Morocco

Bermuda
(U.K.)

Kazakhstan

Moldova

Italy
Vatican
City

Greece

New
Zealand

Tonga

.

2016 World Development Indicators .

Third-party content—The World Bank does not necessarily own each component of the content contained within the work.1596/978–1-4648–0683–4. DC 20433. DC: World Bank. Under the Creative Commons Attribution license. Washington.© 2016 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank 1818 H Street NW. Washington. © Gerhard Jörén/World Bank.org. All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the Publishing and Knowledge Division. distribute. Other photos: page xvi. Used with permission. denominations.0 IGO Translations—If you create a translation of this work. © Almin Zrno/World Bank. doi:10. interpretations.org /licenses/by/3. ISBN (paper): 978-1-4648-0683-4 ISBN (electronic): 978-1-4648-0684-1 DOI: 10. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3. If you wish to re-use a component of the work. you are free to copy. © Visual News Associates/World Bank. Further permission required for reuse. © Grant Ellis/World Bank.0/igo. fax: 202–522–2625. or images. further permission required for reuse. Adaptations—If you create an adaptation of this work. and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests solely with you. Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immunities of The World Bank.org Some rights reserved 1 2 3 4 19 18 17 16 This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. Examples of components can include. Cover photo: © Simone D. including for commercial purposes. Washington DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000. it is your responsibility to determine whether permission is needed for that re-use and to obtain permission from the copyright owner. The boundaries. and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. page 124.0 IGO license (CC BY 3. page 110. Internet: www. The World Bank. colors. but are not limited to. or the governments they represent. Rights and Permissions This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3. tables. all of which are specifically reserved. McCourtie/World Bank. and adapt this work. please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This is an adaptation of an original work by The World Bank. © Sofie Tesson/Taimani Films/World Bank. e-mail: pubrights@worldbank. page 96. World Development Indicators 2016. please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World Bank translation. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. 1818 H Street NW.1596/978-1-4648-0683-4 Cover design: Communications Development Incorporated. USA. page 82.worldbank. figures. page 66. Views and opinions expressed in the adaptation are the sole responsibility of the author or authors of the adaptation and are not endorsed by The World Bank. under the following conditions: Attribution—Please cite the work as follows: World Bank. transmit. The findings. . Trevor Samson/ World Bank.0 IGO) http://creativecommons. its Board of Executive Directors. The World Bank therefore does not warrant that the use of any third-party-owned individual component or part contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of those third parties. The World Bank shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation. 2016.

A new Global Partnership for Sustainable Development Data was launched alongside Agenda 2030 in September 2015 (see http://data4sdgs. Aggregates restricted to low- and middle-income countries are still available in the World Development Indicators database at http://databank. this edition of World Development Indicators includes new indicators to reflect the 169 targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. and an index of other indicators accessible online. a section about the data. key indicators have been selected to identify important trends and challenges and elicit discussion on measurement issues. People. Haishan Fu Director Development Economics Data Group World Development Indicators 2016 iii . but the structure of the book remains the same as in previous editions: World view. For each of the 17 goals. a global map of a key indicator. World Development Indicators will report on progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals. Economy. and higher frequency.and middle-income countries) and developed countries (defined in previous editions as high-income countries). World view retains the two tables showing progress toward the World Bank Group’s goals of eradicating poverty and promoting shared prosperity. Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals and measuring and monitoring progress toward them will require much more data than are currently available. A key aim is to bring different groups together to ignite a data revolution for development. Eradicating poverty. I want to acknowledge their efforts and thank them for their tireless work. and this edition expands coverage in the World view section. Environment. Two implications of this change are that a new aggregate for North America has been included in tables. better timeliness. Set out in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. which is at the heart of development and the fight to eradicate poverty and promote shared prosperity. Where possible. region. and many more.Preface In September 2015. an objective shared by the World Bank Group.org). The Sustainable Development Goals cover a broader range of issues. with more accuracy.worldbank.worldbank. the Sustainable Development Goals take over where the Millennium Development Goals before them left off—and in many cases aim to finish the job. and aggregates for Europe and Central Asia include countries of the European Union. showing trends by country. States and markets. as it did with the Millennium Development Goals. World Development Indicators is the result of a collaborative partnership of international agencies. and income level. a table. Regional groupings are based on geographical coverage rather than a subset of countries that were previously referred to as developing. are available at http://data. Unless otherwise noted. and Global links. this edition of World Development Indicators also introduces a change in the way that global and regional aggregates are presented in tables and figures. Each section includes a brief introduction. statistical offices of more than 200 economies. An accompanying set of dashboards.org/sdgs. leaders of 193 countries agreed on a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals to guide global action over the next 15 years. It remains the world’s greatest challenge.org/wdi. The institutions fundamental to this effort should be supported through strong and renewed global partnerships. there is no longer a distinction between developing countries (defined in previous editions as low. greater disaggregation. Motivated by the universal agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals. is a key element of this unfinished business.

The team also received substantial help. Tamirat Yacob Chulta. and Population. Leila Rafei. Poverty. Umar Serajuddin. Jomo Tariku. Public-Private Partnerships. Governance. Transport and Information and Communication Technologies. All work was carried out under the direction of Haishan Fu. Finance and Markets. and Janice Tuten from the World Bank’s Publishing and Knowledge Division oversaw printing and dissemination of the book. Environment and Natural Resources. Jewel McFadden. Azita Amjadi. Elysee Kiti. David Rosenblatt. Jean-Pierre Djomalieu. and Violence. Ugendran Machakkalai. Ramgopal Erabelly. Urban. and data from external partners. Jobs. and Diane Broadley. Social. . Rural. Shelley Fu. see Partners. Nacer Megherbi. Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu. Business and the Law. Valuable advice was provided by Carter Brandon. Emi Suzuki. Malvina Pollock. Peter Grundy. and Resilience. Hiroko Maeda. and Water. Cynthia Nyanchama Nyakeri. Parastoo Oloumi. Dereje Wolde. Fragility. Conflict. working closely with other teams in the Development Economics Vice Presidency’s Development Data Group. The choice of indicators and writeups on Sustainable Development Goals content was shaped through close consultation with and substantial iv World Development Indicators 2016 contributions from staff in the World Bank’s various Global Practices. of Peter Grundy Art & Design. Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery. Nutrition. Gytis Kanchas. Siddhesh Kaushik. Biokou Mathieu Djayeola. Karthik Krishnamoorthy. Education. Sun Hwa Song. Ana Florina Pirlea. Ying Chi. Peter Bourke. Poonam Gupta. Liu Cui. Energy and Extractives. and layout. Rubena Sukaj. Trade and Competitiveness. For individual acknowledgments of contributions to the book’s content. and Junhe Yang. and Malarvizhi Veerappan. Tariq Khokhar. Mahyar EshraghTabary. Health. Macroeconomics and Fiscal Management. Nora Ridolfi. of Broadley Design.Acknowledgments This book was prepared by a team led by Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili under the management of Neil Fantom and comprising Parul Agarwal. Evis Rucaj. Haruna Kashiwase. Elizabeth Purdie. Omar Hadi. Cross-Cutting Solution Areas. Masako Hiraga. Atsushi Shimo. Communications Development Incorporated provided overall design direction. Timothy Herzog. and other units: Agriculture. in addition to staff of the International Finance Corporation and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. Gender. guidance. Climate Change. Elaine  Wilson created the cover and graphics and typeset the book. led by Bruce Ross-Larson and Christopher Trott. William Prince. Saulo Teodoro Ferreira. For a listing of key partners. Rajesh Danda. and Jos Verbeek. Maja Bresslauer. Social Protection and Labor. World Development Indicators electronic products were prepared by a team led by Soong Sup Lee and comprising Prasanth Alluri. designed the report. Enterprise Surveys. see Credits. editing. Juan Feng.

and strong institutions SDG 17 Partnership for global development Cross-cutting issues Sustainable Development Goals and targets Map World view indicators About the data Online tables and indicators Poverty rates About the data Shared prosperity indicators About the data 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 41 46 48 53 55 56 60 62 64 Introduction Map Table of indicators About the data Online tables and indicators World Development Indicators 2016 v . and infrastructure SDG 10 Reduced inequalities SDG 11 Sustainable cities and communities SDG 12 Responsible consumption and production SDG 13 Climate action SDG 14 Life below water SDG 15 Life on land SDG 16 Peace. States and markets 111 6.Table of contents Preface iii Acknowledgments iv Partners vi User guide xii 1. Global links 125 Sources and methods 139 Credits 153 Introduction Sustainable Development Goals NEW! SDG 1 No poverty SDG 2 Zero hunger SDG 3 Good health and well-being SDG 4 Quality education SDG 5 Gender equality SDG 6 Clean water and sanitation SDG 7 Affordable and clean energy SDG 8 Productive employment and economic growth SDG 9 Industry. Economy 97 5. justice. World view 1 2. Environment 83 4. People 67 3. innovation.

All these contributors have a strong belief that available. Nongovernmental organizations and the private sector have also made important contributions. The indicators presented in World Development Indicators are the fruit of decades of work at many levels. gathering. their collaboration contributes to the World Bank’s efforts. web addresses are included for each listed organization. 2016. and standards fundamental to an international statistical system. We acknowledge our debt and gratitude to all who have helped to build a base of comprehensive. both in gathering primary data and in organizing and publishing their results. and to those of many others. and disseminating international statistics is a collective effort of many people and organizations. to improve the quality of life of the world’s people.Partners Defining. quantitative information about the world and its people. The addresses shown were active on March 1. And academic researchers have played a crucial role in developing statistical methods and carrying on a continuing dialogue about the quality vi World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide and interpretation of statistical indicators. classifications. For easy reference. More important. accurate data will improve the quality of public and private decision making. World view People Environment . The organizations listed here have made World Development Indicators possible by sharing their data and their expertise with us. from the field workers who administer censuses and household surveys to the committees and working parties of the national and international statistical agencies that develop the nomenclature.

giz.ornl.internal-displacement.ec.jrc.dhsprogram.org Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research International Civil Aviation Organization http://edgar.europa.eu/eurostat Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Food and Agriculture Organization www.de www.com www.healthdata.org The DHS Program Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre www.be www.emdat.europa.International and government agencies Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Eurostat http://cdiac.eu/ www.int Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 vii .org Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation www.gov http://ec.icao.fao.

unaids.Partners viii International Diabetes Federation Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS www.org www.org www.oecd.gov International Labour Organization The Office of U.iea.idf.org World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .org www.gov International Monetary Fund Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development www.nsf.org International Energy Agency National Science Foundation www. Foreign Disaster Assistance www.ilo.sipri.org www.usaid.int www.imf.itu.org International Telecommunication Union Stockholm International Peace Research Institute www.S.

org/esa/population United Nations United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations www.un.org www.unesco. Global Urban Observatory United Nations Educational.org/en/peacekeeping United Nations Centre for Human Settlements.org United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees www.un.org Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 ix .unctad.org United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Environment Programme www.un.unhabitat.unep.org www. Institute for Statistics www.org www.org www.Understanding Children’s Work United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.ucw-project.unhcr.org www.unicef. Population Division www. Scientific and Cultural Organization.uis.

unisdr.unodc.org United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction World Health Organization www.who.un.unido.org Upsalla Conflict Data Program www.se/research/UCDP x World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .wto.unwto.org United Nations Statistics Division World Trade Organization http://unstats.uu.pcr.org www.org www.wipo.int United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime World Intellectual Property Organization www.org http://data.org/unsd/ www.Partners United Nations Industrial Development Organization World Bank www.worldbank.org www.int United Nations Population Fund World Tourism Organization www.unfpa.

Private and nongovernmental organizations
Center for International Earth
Science Information Network

Standard &
Poor’s

www.ciesin.org

www.standardandpoors.com

DHL

World Conservation
Monitoring Centre

www.dhl.com

www.unep-wcmc.org

International Institute for
Strategic Studies

World Economic
Forum

www.iiss.org

www.weforum.org

Lloyd’s List

World Federation
of Exchanges

www.lloydslist.com/ll
/sector/containers/

www.world-exchanges.org

Netcraft

World Resources
Institute

http://news.netcraft.com

www.wri.org

PwC

www.pwc.com

Economy

States and markets

Global links

Back

World Development Indicators 2016

xi

User guide to tables
World Development Indicators is the World Bank’s premier
compilation of cross-country comparable data on development. The database contains more than 1,300 time series
indicators for 214 economies and more than 30 country
groups, with data for many indicators going back more
than 50 years.
The 2016 edition of World Development Indicators
offers a condensed presentation of the principal indicators, arranged in their traditional sections, along with
regional and topical highlights and maps.

3 Environment
Deforestationa Nationally
protected
areas

Economy

States and markets

million
metric tons

Per capita
kilograms of
oil equivalent

billion
kilowatt
hours

2011

2013

2013

% growth

2014

2015

2015

2013–14

2013

55

32

4.6

22

Albania

–0.03

1.9

9,294

95

93

1.7

16

4.7

800

7.0

Algeria

–1.59

7.5

289

84

88

2.8

19

121.8

1,246

59.9

0.00

8.6

..

100

63

0.2

..

..

..

..

0.00

100

100

% of total
population

% of total
population

12.3

19.5

4,336

–4.8

10

0.21

5.0

6,109

52

5.1

14

0.00

0.2

572

98

..

–0.8

16

0.5

..

..

0.99

5.4

6,794

99

96

1.2

9

190.0

1,895

139.2

18

Armenia

0.02

90

0.2

0.5

..

98

98

–0.2

..

2.4

..

..

0.21

29.0

20,963

100

100

1.7

6

369.0

5,586

249.0

28.4

6,436

100

100

0.8

15

65.2

3,918

64.5

Azerbaijan

–2.04

14.0

851

87

89

1.7

21

33.5

1,474

23.4

0.5

1,827

92

1.5

0.00

100

11

1.9

..

0.00

4.4

3

99

1.0

44

23.4

10,172

25.9

0.18

3.4

660

87

61

3.5

48

57.1

216

53.0

0.00

0.0

282

100

96

0.0

16

1.6

..

..

Belarus

–0.29

Belgium

–0.16

3,590

100

94

0.6

14

63.3

2,882

31.5

24.3

1,068

100

100

0.5

19

97.8

5,039

82.1

Belize

0.42

18.6

43,389

100

91

1.8

6

0.6

..

..

0.99

22.3

972

78

20

3.6

27

5.0

393

0.2

0.00

5.1

..

..

..

0.3

..

0.4

..

..

–0.38

47.3

101,960

100

50

3.4

28

0.6

..

..

24.8

28,735

90

2.2

11

0.2

14

50

100

1,081

96

63

2.4

10

4.9

1,098

0.9

20.4

27,470

98

83

1.2

16

439.4

1,438

570.3

Tables
The tables include all World Bank member countries (188),
and all other economies with populations of more than
30,000 (214 total). Countries and economies are listed
alphabetically (except for Hong Kong SAR, China, and
Macao SAR, China, which appear after China).
The term country, used interchangeably with economy,
does not imply political independence but refers to any
territory for which authorities report separate social or
economic statistics. When available, aggregate measures
for income and regional groups appear at the end of each
table.

Burundi

–2.63

Cabo Verde

Burkina Faso

World Development Indicators 2016

Front

?

User guide

17.5

0.29

29.7

20,364

..

..

1.8

9

9.7

7,393

4.4

–0.88

31.5

2,907

99

86

–0.1

16

49.3

2,327

43.1

0.96

15.5

711

82

20

5.8

29

1.9

930

76

48

5.8

17

0.2

–0.65

0.0

584

92

72

2.4

43

0.4

..

..

Cambodia

1.21

20.6

7,868

76

42

2.6

20

4.5

396

1.8

Cameroon

0.99

10.7

11,988

76

46

3.6

21

5.7

331

6.8

Canada

0.01

6.2

80,183

100

100

1.3

12

485.5

7,202

651.8

96

Cayman Islands

6.9

..
..

..
..

0.00

1.5

..

97

1.4

..

0.6

..

..

Central African Republic

0.07

18.1

29,349

69

22

2.6

19

0.3

..

..

Chad

1.53

17.8

1,104

51

12

3.8

31

0.5

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.8

..

..

..

..

Channel Islands
Chile

–0.80

China

6.9

49,824

99

99

1.3

18

79.4

2,201

73.1

–1.18

15.6

2,062

96

77

2.8

54

9,019.5

2,226

5,422.2

Hong Kong SAR, China

..

41.8

..

..

..

0.8

..

40.3

1,938

39.2

Macao SAR, China

..

0.0

..

..

..

1.7

..

1.2

..

..

17.4

1.3

669

64.7

Colombia

44,883

91

81

13

72.4

Comoros

1.19

2.4

1,558

90

36

2.7

7

0.2

..

..

Congo, Dem. Rep.

0.36
0.20

12.1

12,020

52

29

4.4

18

3.4

292

8.6

Congo, Rep.

0.07

31.8

49,279

77

15

3.1

14

2.2

556

1.8

World Development Indicators 2016

Front

?

User guide

World view

People

Data presentation conventions
• A blank means not applicable or, for an aggregate, not
analytically meaningful.
• A billion is 1,000 million.
• A trillion is 1,000 billion.
• Figures in green italics refer to years or periods other
than those specified or to growth rates calculated for
less than the full period specified.
• Data for years that are more than three years from the
range shown are footnoted.
• The cutoff date for data is February 1, 2016.

World view

1,688

8.1

9,299

29.2

0.35

Bulgaria

23.7

786

1.3

0.90

Brazil
Brunei Darussalam

95

16.1

0.00

Botswana

Aggregate measures for income groups

xii

..

Bermuda

0.59

8.6

100

Benin

Bosnia and Herzegovina

The aggregate measures for regions cover economies at
all income levels, unless otherwise noted.
The country composition of regions may differ from
common geographic usage. For regional classifications,
see the map on the inside back cover and the list on the
back cover flap. For further discussion of aggregation
methods, see Sources and methods.

7.7

Barbados

Bolivia

Aggregate measures for regions

969

Bangladesh

Bahrain

98

5.0

..
6.0

–0.05

Bahamas, The

2,282

655

Austria

0.00

24.8

29.7

..

..

Antigua and Barbuda

49

0.5

..

Argentina

Bhutan

Aggregate measures for income groups include the 214
economies listed in the tables, plus Taiwan, China, whenever data are available. To maintain consistency in the
aggregate measures over time and between tables, missing data are imputed where possible.

Energy use Electricity
production

1,491

Andorra

86

Carbon
dioxide
emissions

0.5

Angola

Global links

Ambient
PM2.5 air
pollution

2014

American Samoa

Environment

Access to
Urban
improved population
sanitation
facilities

0.00

Aruba

People

Access to
improved
water
source

2000–15

Afghanistan

Australia

World view

Internal
renewable
freshwater

b
Terrestrial and resources
marine areas
% of total
Per capita
territorial area cubic meters

Populationweighted exposure
micrograms per
cubic meter

average
annual %

People

Environment

Environment

Classification of economies
For operational and analytical purposes the World Bank’s
main criterion for classifying economies is gross national
income (GNI) per capita (converted into U.S. dollars using
the World Bank Atlas method). Because GNI per capita
changes over time, the country composition of income
groups may change from one edition of World Development
Indicators to the next. Once the classification is fixed for
an edition, based on GNI per capita in the most recent
year for which data are available (2014 in this edition), all
historical data presented are based on the same country
grouping.
Low-income economies are those with a GNI per capita
of $1,045 or less in 2014. Lower middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $1,046–$4,125.
Upper middle-income economies are those with a GNI per
capita of $4,126–$12,735. High-income economies are
those with a GNI per capita of $12,736 or more.

Environment 3
Deforestationa Nationally
protected
areas

Internal
renewable
freshwater
b
Terrestrial and resources

Access to
improved
water
source

marine areas
% of total
Per capita
territorial area cubic meters

% of total
population

% of total
population

Access to
Urban
improved population
sanitation
facilities

Ambient
PM2.5 air
pollution

Carbon
dioxide
emissions

million
metric tons
2011

Energy use Electricity
production

% growth

Populationweighted exposure
micrograms per
cubic meter

2000–15

2014

2014

2015

2015

2013–14

2013

Costa Rica

–1.07

3.1

23,751

98

95

2.4

9

Côte d’Ivoire

–0.05

14.9

3,468

82

23

3.8

20

6.4

605

7.6

Croatia

–0.13

23.7

8,895

100

97

0.1

14

20.6

1,814

13.3

Cuba

–2.09

5.0

3,350

95

93

0.3

11

35.9

1,031

19.1

..

..

..

..

..

1.2

..

..

11,801

0.9

average
annual %

Curaçao
Cyprus

–0.04

16

7.5

1,691

4.3

21.1

1,249

100

99

0.0

17

109.5

3,990

86.2

18.0

1,064

100

100

0.6

11

40.4

3,107

34.7

0.00

1.1

342

90

47

1.4

28

0.5

..

Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador

0.6

2,765

..

..

0.9

15

0.1

11.2

2,258

85

84

2.5

12

21.9

731

17.7

0.57

15.4

27,819

87

85

1.9

14

35.7

980

23.3

99

95

2.3

36

220.8

885

167.8

6.7

693

9.6

1.35

2.1

2,559

94

1.0

13

2.1

31,673

48

75

3.3

11

6.7

..

3.1

548

58

16

4.2

25

0.5

164

0.4

19.9

9,669

100

97

–0.4

9

18.7

4,623

13.3

18.4

1,258

57

28

4.8

18

7.5

507

8.7

0.67
0.28

Estonia

0.03

Ethiopia

0.59

Faroe Islands
Fiji

..

–1.58

Eritrea

0.00

20

..

..

0.57
–2.23

Equatorial Guinea

Finland

0.9

10.2

–0.08

Dominica

100

2013

–0.30

Dominican Republic

100

billion
kilowatt
hours

2013

1,029

Czech Republic

Ecuador

676

Per capita
kilograms of
oil equivalent

Denmark
Djibouti

2.0

7.8

75

0.0

..

..

0.4

1.0

32,207

96

91

1.4

0.07

14.1

19,592

100

98

0.6

7

54.8

6,075

71.3

–0.74

25.7

3,020

100

99

0.7

14

338.8

3,843

567.4

0.0

..

100

99

0.9

..

0.9

..
1,435

French Polynesia

–3.17

12.3

93

42

7

0.6
1.2

..
..

..
..

..

Gabon

–0.30

2.5

11

2.2

Gambia, The

–0.39

1.4

1,556

90

59

4.3

35

0.4

..

..

Georgia

–0.15

6.5

15,597

100

86

–1.0

16

7.9

1,032

10.1

–0.04

38.5

1,321

100

–1.2

15

729.5

Germany

97,175

..

..

–0.25

France

..

5.8

3,868

627.4

7.8

1,131

89

15

3.6

27

10.1

344

12.9

–0.84

8.6

5,336

100

99

–0.4

15

84.0

2,134

57.1

Greenland

0.00

22.4

..

100

100

0.1

..

0.7

..

Grenada

0.00

0.1

1,881

97

98

0.4

17

0.3

..

Guam

0.00

5.2

..

100

90

1.5

..

..

..

..

Guatemala

1.06

15.7

6,818

93

64

2.9

12

11.3

768

9.9

Guinea

0.52

20.3

18,411

77

20

4.0

27

2.6

..

Guinea-Bissau

4.1

30

Ghana

–0.32

Greece

99

2.4

..

0.47

10.4

8,886

79

21

Guyana

0.04

5.3

315,489

98

84

0.6

9

1.8

..

..

0.73

0.1

1,231

58

28

3.6

13

2.2

393

1.1

Honduras

1.88

7.8

11,387

91

83

2.5

9

8.4

662

8.1

..

–0.53

22.6

608

100

98

0.4

48.5

2,280

Iceland

–4.60

2.3

519,265

100

99

1.2

7

1.9

18,177

18.1

India

–0.54

3.1

1,116

94

40

2.4

47

2,074.3

606

1,193.5

0.56

6.0

7,935

87

61

2.7

15

564.0

850

215.6

1,644

2,960

270.4

Indonesia

–0.98

96

90

2.0

32

586.6

Iraq

–0.06

0.4

1,011

87

86

3.1

33

133.7

1,481

73.6

Ireland

–1.25

3.5

10,616

98

91

0.8

8

36.1

2,840

25.8

Israel

0.00

..

..

..

..

0.9

..

..

..

..

–0.52

8.6

91

100

100

2.0

26

69.5

2,971

59.9

Economy

States and markets

Global links

Back

Statistics

30.3

Iran, Islamic Rep.

Isle of Man

6.7

16

..

..

Haiti
Hungary

0.2

..

World Development Indicators 2016

87

Symbols
..

means that data are not available or that aggregates
cannot be calculated because of missing data in the
years shown.

0 or means zero or small enough that the number would
0.0 round to zero at the displayed number of decimal places.
/

in dates, as in 2013/14, means that the period of
time, usually 12 months, straddles two calendar years
and refers to a crop year, a survey year, or a fiscal year.

$

means current U.S. dollars unless otherwise noted.

<

means less than.

Economy

States and markets

Data are shown for economies as they were constituted
in 2014, and historical data have been revised to reflect
current political arrangements. Exceptions are noted in the
tables.
Additional information about the data is provided in
Sources and methods, which summarizes national and
international efforts to improve basic data collection and
gives country-level information on primary sources, census
years, fiscal years, statistical concepts used, and other
background information. Sources and methods also provides technical information on calculations used throughout the book.

Country notes
• Data for China do not include data for Hong Kong SAR,
China; Macao SAR, China; or Taiwan, China.
• Data for Serbia do not include data for Kosovo or
Montenegro.
• Data for Sudan exclude South Sudan unless otherwise
noted.

Global links

Back

World Development Indicators 2016

xiii

http://wdi.worldbank. mobile app. Each section of this book also lists the indicators World view People Environment . use the URL http://wdi. go to http://wdi .worldbank. To access the WDI online tables. How to access WDI online tables Statistical tables that were previously available in the World Development Indicators print edition are available xiv World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide online. and interactive dashboard for the Sustainable Development Goals.User guide to WDI online resources Visit http://data.org/products/wdi to see the many resources available for World Development Indicators.1 to view the first table in the World view section). To access a specific WDI online table directly.org/table/1.org/tables.worldbank.worldbank . online tables.org/table/ and the table number (for example. These reference tables are consistently updated based on revisions to the World Development Indicators database. including the time series database.

An interactive presentation of key indicators for assessing the Sustainable Development Goals is available at http://data.org/sdgs. To download DataFinder. see http://databank. and embedded as widgets on websites or blogs.worldbank. It has advanced functions for selecting and displaying data.TOTL to view a page for total population). saved.org/indicator/ and the indicator code (for example. All these reports can be easily edited. How to use DataBank DataBank (http://databank. Economy States and markets How to download DataFinder DataFinder is a free mobile app that accesses the full set of data from the World Development Indicators database.worldbank. and saved in a table. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 xv . How to monitor the Sustainable Development Goals The World Development Indicators database provides data on trends in Sustainable Development Goals indicators for countries and country groups.org/help.worldbank. Users can create dynamic custom reports based on their selection of countries. shared. compared. For more information. and Twitter. Data can be displayed. Facebook.worldbank . chart. downloading data. or map and shared via email.included by table and by code. use the URL http://data. performing customized queries.POP. and years. and creating charts and maps. indicators.worldbank.world bank. DataFinder works on mobile devices (smartphone or tablet computer) in both offline (no Internet connection) and online (Wi-Fi or 3G/4G connection to the Internet) modes. go to http://data.org/indicator/SP. http://data. To view a specific indicator online.org) is a web resource that provides simple and quick access to the World Development Indicators database and other collections of time series data.org /apps.

WORLD VIEW xvi World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .

Baselines and progress for few Sustainable Development Goal targets can be measured completely. prosperity. and in some cases data have Economy States and markets been used from published studies or reports. to ensure that all people can enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives and that progress takes place in harmony with nature. and use. An interactive presentation of key indicators for assessing the Sustainable Development Goals is available at http://data. which are also central elements of Sustainable Development Goals 1 (end poverty in all its forms everywhere) and 10 (reduce inequality within and among countries). to foster peaceful. known as the Sustainable Development Goals. For each goal. With a new. and indicators. are also included. Estimates of indicators of shared prosperity for 94 countries. A major change is that the estimates of global and national extreme poverty rates have been updated to the international poverty line of $1. and partnership. largely using indicators available in the World Development Indicators database and drawing on the specialist knowledge of World Bank staff. As in previous editions. Global links Back 1 World Development Indicators 2016 1 . At the same time. Both governments and development partners will need to continue investing in national statistical systems and other relevant public institutions.worldbank. the statistical community needs to strengthen partnerships with the private sector and other emerging actors for advancing new techniques of data collection. and inclusive societies free from fear and violence. the United Nations General Assembly formally adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. focused on the poorest and most vulnerable. and availability of relevant statistics. frequency. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 associated targets build on the 8 goals and 18 targets of the Millennium Development Goals but are far wider in scope and far more ambitious. including the growth rates of the average income of the bottom 40 percent. which replaces the assessment of progress toward the Millennium Development Goals in previous editions. World view also presents indicators that measure progress toward the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and enhancing shared prosperity in every country. where much of the data will continue to originate. This is the first edition of World Development Indicators to include a discussion of the Sustainable Development Goals. through strong global partnership. planet.90 a day per person. Countries have resolved to end poverty and hunger and ensure that all people can fulfill their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment. working closely with UN agencies and other stakeholders.On September 25. just. Measuring and monitoring progress against the Millennium Development Goals were major challenges and required substantial efforts on the part of national statistical agencies and others to improve the quality. World view presents recent trends and baselines against key targets. to protect the planet from degradation and take urgent action on climate change. peace. which sets out a new set of global goals. targets. and to mobilize the means to implement Agenda 2030. Some indicators have been added. They focus on five themes: people. in 2011 purchasing power parity terms. Along with the goals and targets.org/sdgs. analysis. broader set of goals. 2015. a global monitoring framework with more than 200 indicators is being developed by UN member states. the data requirements are even greater.

org/. PovcalNet/). World Bank.90 a day. The share of the population living in extreme poverty fell between 1990 and 2012 1a Share of population living on less than 2011 PPP $1. Eradicating extreme poverty Many countries have made dramatic progress in reducing extreme poverty. H. Methodology and Initial Results. In East Asia and Pacific the extreme poverty rate fell from 61  percent in 1990 to 7  percent in 2012. the Sustainable Development Goals recognize that poverty is defined differently by national authorities.90 a day if national growth rates for the last 10 years prevail (%) East Asia & Pacific 30 South Asia World 25 Latin America & Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa 40 50 20 World Middle East & North Africa a 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2012 Note: Regional estimates exclude high-income countries. Sustainable Development Goal 1 aims to halve poverty rates based on these national definitions (target 1.. and others. to increase access to basic services. F.1 Eliminating extreme poverty will require a step change from historical growth rates.worldbank. 13 percent of the world’s population lived below the international poverty line of $1. 50 75 2 If national growth rates for the past 10 years prevail for the next 15 years.DDAY). The Sustainable Development Goal target of eliminating extreme poverty in all its forms everywhere by 2030 is very ambitious. a drop of more than two-thirds since 1990. Based on national growth rates over the past 10 years. In contrast. Some countries define poverty rates using benchmarks based on income. World view People Environment . and to support people harmed by conflict and climate-related disasters. “A Global Count of the Extreme Poor in 2012: Data Issues. ? User guide Latin America & Caribbean Europe & Central Asia 0 2012 2030 Note: Regional estimates exclude high-income countries. Declines in all regions contributed to the early success of meeting the Millennium Development Goal target of halving extreme poverty globally. though the global totals tend to be dominated by reductions in the two largest countries. Washington.” Policy Research Working Paper 7432. Front South Asia 10 East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia World Development Indicators 2016 Reducing poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions Like the Millennium Development Goals. 2015. it will be around 6 percent. World Development Indicators database (SI.90 a day (%) Sub-Saharan Africa Eradicating extreme poverty by 2030 will be challenging 1b Share of population living on less than 2011 PPP $1. Source: Ferreira. Sustainable Development Goal 1 builds on this and proposes ending poverty in all forms by 2030. Estimates for 2009 onward are not shown because survey coverage is too low. Data for the Middle East and North Africa are unavailable due to low survey coverage.POV. a. SubSaharan Africa’s extreme poverty rate did not fall below its 1990 level until 2002. It also aims to ensure social protection for poor and vulnerable people. and in South Asia it fell from 51 percent to 19  percent (figure 1a). G. China and India. and if national growth rates for the past 20 years prevail.2).SDG 1 No poverty End poverty in all its forms everywhere In 2012. with variations across regions (figure 1b). down from 37 percent in 1990. DC. the global extreme poverty rate is estimated to be below 10 percent in 2015. the global extreme poverty rate will fall to 4  percent by 2030. Source: World Bank PovcalNet (http://iresearch.

F. The coverage gap is particularly acute in Sub. PER_LM_ALLLM.worldbank. Overall. some countries—such as Colombia and Mexico — have adopted measures that aim to capture the multidimensional nature of poverty by assessing the extent to which households are deprived in different ways (such as health. disability pensions. Ferreira.Saharan Africa and South Asia. such as cash transfers. where most of the world’s extremely poor people live. unemployment insurance. education. World Bank. Economy States and markets Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Middle East Latin East Asia Europe & North America & & Pacific & Central Africa Caribbean Asia More than one social protection benefit Only social assistance programs Only social insurance programs No transfer Source: World Bank Atlas of Social Protection Indicators of Resilience and Equity (http://datatopics. and social insurance and labor market programs.org/aspire/). 2015. G. DC.COV_POP_TOT). and targeted food assistance. Only one out of five people receives one or more types of social protection benefit in lowincome countries.worldbank. and others. Methodology and Initial Results. most recent year available during 2000–14 (%) 100 Labor market Social insurance Social assistance 75 50 40 25 20 0 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income Source: World Bank Atlas of Social Protection Indicators of Resilience and Equity (http://datatopics. Despite progress over the past decade. and 37 percent in upper middle-income countries. Note 1.. social assistance transfers are not large enough to close the poverty gap in the poorest countries.3). housing. H. compared with two out of three in upper middle-income countries (figure 1c). Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 3 . COV_POP_TOT.while  current data are sparse. World Development Indicators database (PER_SA_ALLSA. More recently.” Policy Research Working Paper 7432. such as old-age pensions. In Sub-Saharan Africa only 15 percent of people in the bottom income quintile have access to a social protection benefit (figure 1d). The coverage gap for social protection is acute in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia 1d Share of population in the bottom income quintile receiving social protection benefits. especially in low-income countries. Increasing social protection for those most in need Social protection programs include social assistance.org/aspire/). Washington. PER_SI_ALLSI. and wage subsidies. most poor people remain outside social protection Coverage of social protection is lowest in the poorest countries 1c Share of population receiving social protection benefits. most recent year available during 2000–14 (%) 80 60 systems. 21 percent in lower middle-income countries. in the last 15 years both Indonesia and Sri Lanka have halved their income based poverty rate. “A Global Count of the Extreme Poor in 2012: Data Issues. Improving coverage of social protection programs and targeting appropriate schemes to the poor and most vulnerable can further reduce poverty (target 1. school feeding. Average social assistance cash benefits account for only 10  percent of poor people’s consumption in low-income countries. and labor market opportunities). skills training.COV_POP_TOT.

especially in cereal yields. Improvements in food security and sustainable agriculture.STA. Sustainable Development Goal 2 aims to reduce the number of children under age 5 who are stunted by 40 percent by 2025 Undernourishment has declined globally but remains high in low-income countries 2a Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population) (target 2.STNT. and overweight (high weight for height) in children under age 5. but remains far higher in low-income countries than elsewhere (figure 2a). Efforts to end hunger by 2030 (target 2. But they have seen benefits Prevalence of child stunting is falling but is close to 40 percent in low-income countries 2b Prevalence of child stunting (% of children under age 5) 50 60 Low income Low income 40 Lower middle income 40 30 World Lower middle income 20 World 20 Upper middle income 10 Upper middle income 0 1991 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Note: Data refer to the middle year of three-year intervals. Improving nutrition Consistent with the World Health Assembly’s Global Nutrition Targets 2025.3 and 2. achieving this involves both reducing the number and the prevalence of stunted children. Levels and Trends in Child Malnutrition. The prevalence of undernourishment. and promote sustainable agriculture Over the past 25 years the share of the world’s population suffering from hunger has fallen. World Development Indicators database (SH. World Development Indicators database (SN. In periods of stagnant agricultural productivity growth.1 Sustainable Development Goal 2 focuses on both childhood malnutrition and the nutritional needs of adolescent girls and pregnant women.2). New York.SDG 2 Zero hunger End hunger. are common indicators of nutrition. poor people saw little improvement in wealth and nutritional health. Supporting food security and sustainable agriculture Raising the agricultural productivity of poor households will be central to ending hunger by 2030 (targets 2. data for 2005 are the estimate for 2004–06. as experienced by low-income countries from 1990 to 1999.1) will not be successful if current trends continue. The prevalence of child stunting has declined in all income groups since 1990 but remains close to 40 percent in low-income countries and above 30  percent in lower middle-income countries (figure 2b). World view People Environment . achieve food security and improved nutrition. and World Bank.ZS). including stunting (low height for age). wasting (low weight for height). 4 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide High income 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 Source: United Nations Children’s Fund.4). In countries where the number of children under age 5 is likely to grow. from 19 percent to 11 percent.ITK. For example.ZS). can help. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization Food Security Indicators database. World Health Organization. has been almost halved globally.DEFC. 2015. along with older people (target 2. In low-income countries changes in poverty and undernourishment have been closely related to changes in agricultural productivity — and in particular to changes in cereal yields. Anthropometric indices.2). where food intake does not meet continuous dietary energy requirements.

000 10 0 1.AGRI. These are also the regions where agricultural productivity is lowest (figure 2d) and where vulnerability to climate change is high. Between 2000 and 2012 the average annual growth rate of cereal yields in low-income countries was 2.KD. World Development Indicators database (EA.000 30 3.CREL. 2013 (kilograms per hectare) 40 5.int/nutrition /global-target-2025/). particularly in low-income countries.xls). SP.who. World Development Indicators database (AG.ZS. though the proportional impacts vary. World Bank PovcalNet database (www . Increased agricultural productivity correlated with a decline in poverty and undernourishment Low income Average annual growth rate. A similar directional pattern exists for lower and upper middle-income countries.000 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income Source: United Nations Population Division (http://esa.CREL. 2015–30 (%) 2d Cereal yields. to raise poor people’s incomes and feed growing populations. population growth.DDAY). 2000–12 (%) 2c Lower middle income Upper middle income 5 5 5 0 0 0 –5 –5 –5 –10 –10 –10 –15 –15 –15 Agricultural value added per worker Poverty headcount ratio at 2011 PPP $1.ITK. Note 1. Further gains in agricultural productivity and climate resilience are needed. By 2030.YLD. Food and Agriculture Organization Production Yearbook and data files.000 4.  World Health Organization Global Targets 2025 (www.KG.6 percent.000 20 2.DEFC.org/unpd/wup/CD-ROM/WUP2014_XLS_CD_FILES/WUP2014-F05-Total_Population.KG.7  percent a year (figure 2c). and hence food demand.PRD. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 5 . is projected to increase the most in the poorest parts of the world.YLD.POP.POV.org/PovcalNet/). AG.TOTL).90 a day Cereal yields Prevalence of undernourishment Source: World Bank national accounts files. over the same period both poverty and undernourishment fell 2.un. SI. Food and Agriculture Organization.during more productive periods.worldbank. SN. Population growth is projected to be highest where agricultural productivity is lowest Projected population change.

SDG 3 Good health and well-being
Ensure healthy
lives and promote
well-being for
all at all ages

In low-income countries more than half the population dies from communicable diseases or maternal, prenatal, or nutrition conditions. In middleand high-income countries the pattern is different: More than two-thirds
die from noncommunicable diseases. Sustainable Development Goal 3
focuses on improving well-being, especially at the most vulnerable stages
of life, providing health services, and improving imbalances between
poorer and richer countries.
Targeting a range of health impacts
The Millennium Development Goals focused on
improving health conditions in low- and middleincome countries, covering maternal mortality,
child mortality, infectious diseases, and sexual
and reproductive health. Sustainable Development Goal 3 introduces additional targets for
noncommunicable diseases, mental health,
substance abuse, injuries, universal health coverage, and pollution.1
Reducing maternal mortality
The global maternal mortality ratio declined dramatically between 1990 and 2015, from 385
maternal deaths per 100,000 live births to 216
(figure 3a). Despite this 44  percent decline,
the Millennium Development Goal target of
reducing the maternal mortality ratio by threequarters was not met. The decline will need to
The maternal mortality ratio
has fallen in all regions

3a

Maternal mortality ratio
(deaths per 100,000 live births)

accelerate considerably for the global maternal
mortality ratio to fall below 70 per 100,000 live
births by 2030 (target 3.1).
Providing mothers with skilled attendants
at delivery and access to hospital treatments
is key to treating life-threatening emergencies.
Worldwide, the proportion of births attended
by skilled health staff increased from 60 percent in 2000 to 68 percent in 2011. However
only half of births are attended in low-income
countries.
Providing universal access to sexual and
reproductive health care
Sustainable Development Goal 3 aims to
ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services (target 3.7). One
indicator for this is the fertility rate of adolescent women (ages 15–19), as women who give
The adolescent fertility rate
remains high in low-income countries
Adolescent fertility rate
(births per 1,000 women ages 15–19)
150

1,000

750

Low income

Sub-Saharan Africa
100

South Asia

500
World

Europe & Central Asia
East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income
World

Middle East & North Africa
250

50

Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

High income
0

High income
1990
1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Note: Regional estimates exclude high-income countries.
Source: World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, United
Nations Population Fund, World Bank Group, and United Nations Population
Division, 2015, Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015, Geneva; World
Development Indicators database (SH.STA.MMRT).

6

World Development Indicators 2016

3b

Front

?

User guide

0

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2014

Source: United Nations Population Division, 2015, World Population
Prospects: The 2015 Revision, New York; World Development Indicators
database (SP.ADO.TFRT).

World view

People

Environment

birth at an early age are likely to bear more
children and are at greater risk of death or serious complications from pregnancy. The adolescent fertility rate has been declining worldwide but remains high in low-income countries,
at 98 births per 1,000 women ages 15–19
(figure 3b).
Ending preventable childhood deaths
In 2015 the global under-five mortality rate in
2015 was less than half the rate in 1990, falling just short of the Millennium Development
Goal target of a two-thirds reduction (figure 3c).2
Sustainable Development Goal 3 aims to end
preventable deaths of newborns and children
under age 5 and to reduce the under-five mortality rate in every country to below 25 deaths
per 1,000 births (target 3.2). For this to happen, progress needs to accelerate especially
in many low-income and lower middle-income
countries.

In 2015 the global under-five mortality
rate was less than half the rate in 1990

3c

Under-five mortality rate
(deaths per 1,000 live births)

Reducing noncommunicable diseases and
injuries
Sustainable Development Goal 3 also aims to
reduce deaths and adverse consequences of
noncommunicable diseases and injuries (target 3.6). Traffic injuries caused 27 deaths per
100,000 people in low-income countries in
2013, three times more than in high-income
countries (figure 3d).
There are challenges for monitoring nearly all
the targets. Gaps exist because the key data
sources, such as civil registration and vital
statistics systems, are weak in many low- and
middle-income countries, as are health information systems.
Notes
1. World Health Organization, 2015, Health in 2015: From MDGs Millennium
Development Goals to SDGs Sustainable Development Goals, Geneva. [www
.who.int/gho/publications/mdgs-sdgs/].
2. United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. 2015.
Levels & Trends in Child Mortality. Report 2015. [http://childmortality.org/].
New York.

Deaths caused by traffic accidents are
more likely in low-income countries

3d

Mortality caused by road traffic injury, 2013
(per 100,000 people)
30

200
Sub-Saharan Africa
150
South Asia
100

50

World
Middle East & North Africa
East Asia & Pacific
Latin America & Caribbean

0

20

10
Europe & Central Asia

High income

1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
Note: Regional estimates exclude high-income countries.
Source: United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation,
Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2015; World Development
Indicators database (SH.DYN.MORT).

Economy

States and markets

0

Low
income

Lower
Upper
middle income middle income

High
income

World

Source: World Health Organization, 2015, Global Status Report on Road
Safety 2015; World Development Indicators database (SH.STA.TRAF.P5).

Global links

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World Development Indicators 2016

7

SDG 4 Quality education
Ensure inclusive
and equitable
quality education
and promote
lifelong learning
opportunities
for all

Progress has been made toward universal education, with 92 percent of
children worldwide completing primary education and 74 percent completing lower secondary education. But the gross tertiary enrollment ratio
remains around 30 percent. Increased access to higher education is
needed to achieve a productive, talented, and diverse labor force and an
empowered citizenry. Sustainable Development Goal 4 also focuses on
education quality, proficiency in key subjects at various ages, and access
to modern education facilities.
Attending and completing school
Considerable progress has been made since
1990 as more students enroll and finish primary school (target 4.1). The primary completion rate increased from 81 percent in 1990 to
92 percent in 2013 worldwide, and East Asia
and Pacific and Europe and Central Asia have
achieved or are close to achieving universal primary education. Sub- Saharan Africa still lags
behind the rest of the world, despite a substantial increase in the region’s primary completion
rate to 69 percent in 2013 (figure 4a).
While many children enroll in school, some
never attend, attend intermittently, or start
but drop out entirely. In 2013, 59  million primary school–age children were not in school,
a substantial decrease from the 102 million in
1990 (figure 4b). This reflects great progress
A larger share of children are
completing primary school

4a

Primary completion rate
(% of relevant age group)

75

Assessing the quality of education
One challenge of Sustainable Development
Goal 4 is how to measure the quality of education and assess learning outcomes. Many types
Over half of out-of-school children
are in Sub-Saharan Africa

4b

Primary school–age children out of school
(millions)
125

125
100

considering the number of primary school–
age children increased 14  percent over the
same period, which placed further pressure on
national education systems.
Gross enrollment ratios at all levels of education have risen globally, but wide variations
remain between rich and poor countries. For
example, children in high-income countries
were almost five times more likely than children
in low-income countries to have entered preprimary school in 2013 (target 4.2; figure 4c).
The trend is similar for tertiary gross enrollment
(target 4.3).

Latin America & Caribbean
Europe & Central Asia

Middle East & North Africa

Europe & Central Asia
North America

East Asia & Pacific
100
South Asia

Middle East & North Africa

East Asia & Pacific

Latin America & Caribbean

75

Sub-Saharan Africa
50

50

25

25

0

0

South Asia

1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2013
Note: Data for North America are unavailable.
Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Institute for Statistics; World Development Indicators database (SE.PRM.
CMPT.ZS).

8

World Development Indicators 2016

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?

User guide

Sub-Saharan Africa
1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2013

Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Institute for Statistics; World Development Indicators database (SE.PRM.
UNER).

World view

People

Environment

Source: World Bank EdStats database. 2007 TIMSS (grade 4 reaching the low international benchmark). Assessments of adolescents’ learning outcomes have shown that around 30 percent of students worldwide fail to achieve minimum mathematics proficiency.1 and 4. SACMEQ is Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality. but different methodologies and coverage of ages.6).ENRR.ENRR). Conférence des ministres de l’Éducation des États et gouvernements de la Francophonie (www. World Development Indicators database (SE.org). The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study showed that around 80 percent of grade 4 students in mainly Europe and Central Asia and Middle East and North Africa achieved the low international benchmark for mathematics. 2011 PISA (15-year-olds above level 2). which stipulates “by 2030. for employment. Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. PASEC is Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems. 2011 0 25 50 75 100 Global links 2030 TIMSS is Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. 2006–10 SACMEQ (grade 6 above basic numeracy). including technical and vocational skills. Students’ understanding of core subjects is fundamental to well functioning education systems (targets 4.” Countries will need to define relevant skills suitable for their own job market structure and economic situation and set up robust and timely data collection systems to populate these indicators. Economy States and markets Addressing data challenges While many indicators and proxies exist to monitor many of the education targets under Sustainable Development Goal 4. 2012 TIMSS (grade 8 reaching the low international benchmark).bc. Different assessments report varying basic knowledge in mathematics 4d Students achieving basic knowledge benchmarks in mathematics (%) PASEC (grade 5 above the knowledge base rate). and though not wholly comparable. SE. regional assessments shed light on countries’ achievements in these areas. There is a conceptual challenge in developing global indicators for target 4. substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (www. 2012 of learning assessments are available.edu).sacmeq. Students who do not achieve the lowest level of proficiency by age of 14 or 15 are unlikely to master the skills by the end of schooling and therefore may not be ready for work. PISA is Program for International Student Assessment. and years make comparisons across countries difficult.org /pisa/).4.Not all children have the same opportunities to enroll in school Tertiary 75 75 50 50 25 25 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income 2012–13 100 1990 100 High income 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income 2012–13 Pre-primary 1990 Gross enrollment ratio (%) 4c High income Source: United Nations Educational. and TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center (http://timssandpirls.oecd.PRE. subjects. Back World Development Indicators 2016 9 .TER. decent jobs and entrepreneurship.org). The Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems assessment in SubSaharan Africa showed that only half of grade 5 students achieved the minimum learning goal in mathematics. Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (www. according to the Programme for International Student Assessment and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study for grade 8 students (figure 4d).confemen . more are needed.

Many countries do not guarantee an equivalent position after maternity leave 5a Number of countries. World view People Environment . or allows women to perform the same jobs as men.WORK. eliminating all forms of violence and harmful practices. Empowering women’s economic opportunities Increasing women’s income-earning opportunities and their access to productive assets provides a direct pathway out of poverty. Washington.ZS.SDG 5 Gender equality Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Despite much progress toward gender equality in recent years. On top of limited economic opportunities. Half of women are economically active. While women and girls usually bear the direct costs of inequalities. compared with over three-quarters of men. allowing them to balance work and household responsibilities.FAM. World Development Indicators database (SL. and the Law 2016: Getting to Equal. improving economic empowerment and access to productive assets and technologies. almost half do not guarantee mothers an equivalent position on their return. and women often occupy less secure and lower paying jobs than men or choose jobs that offer flexible hours. women often have restricted agency—their ability to make decisions about their lives and to act on those decisions. 2016.WORK. DC. Fewer women than men are economically active. Identifying obstacles to equality Sustainable Development Goal 5 explicitly recognizes gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls and sets ambitious targets for ending all forms of discrimination against women and girls. reducing the pace of development. FE. Source: International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market database. 2015 Law does not mandate paid or unpaid maternity leave 6 Legal frameworks that protect men and women equally are an important first step toward gender equality. most recent year available during 2005–14 (% of employed) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: World Bank. critical gaps between men and women persist. gender bias has a cost to all. 10 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide Female Law mandates paid or unpaid maternity leave and equivalent position is guaranteed after maternity leave 96 Male Law mandates paid or unpaid maternity leave but equivalent position is not guaranteed after maternity leave 71 Low incomea Lower middle income Upper middle incomea High income a. While almost all countries mandate maternity leave. Women. Around 60  percent of countries lack legislation that ensures equal opportunities in hiring practices. and enhancing the female voice and decision-making power beyond the Millennium Development Goal’s focus on education. but discriminatory laws persist. And more women than men are contributing family A larger share of women than of men are in unpaid family work 5b Contributing family workers.ZS). discriminating against women who become pregnant and want to come back to work after the birth of a child (figure 5a).MA. requires equal remuneration for work of equal value. Economic empowerment can also give women voice and agency to manage their own money and make decisions for themselves and their family. SL.FAM. Business. Covers less than 66 percent of the population.

83  percent of firms have a man as a top manager. 2014. early. These jobs are often insecure. compared with 64 percent of men.FEMO.FRM. an estimated one in three women has experienced physical or sexual violence or both at Firm ownership and management are dominated by men 5c 1. World Bank Gender Statistics database (SP. one in four women ages 20–24 is married by age 18. allowing women to borrow and save to start a business.workers (figure 5b). a lack of documentation to prove identity.FEMM. But in many countries women face more barriers than men do in opening a bank account. the hands of a husband.3. DC. Child marriage pushes girls into adulthood before they are mature3: Young brides often drop out of school. United Nations Statistics Division. 2. early. All this leads to a lack of voice and agency.ADO. World Bank. World Development Indicators database (IC. World’s Women 2015: Trends and Statistics.org/child-protection /child-marriage. 3. and lack of information. and 66 percent of firms have no female participation in their ownership (figure 5c). “Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs.2024. or partner.000 women ages 15–19) 100 250 Niger 200 75 Mali 150 Without women Man 50 Chad 100 Central African Rep. face higher health risks during pregnancy and childbirth. such as the need for a male family member’s permission. Eliminating child.FRM. Economy States and markets 0 25 50 75 100 Share of women who were first married by age 18. Worldwide. cope with economic shocks. Firm ownership and management are also dominated by men. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision. World Development Indicators database (SP. 50 25 0 With women Woman 0 Firm ownership by sex Firm top manager by sex Source: World Bank Enterprise Surveys. Access to financial services is another vehicle of economic empowerment. and forced marriage is a focus of target 5. and invest in their family’s future. 2014.ZS. most recent year available during 2010–14 (%) Source: Demographic and Health Surveys. do not provide any contractual security or benefits.unicef.2 calls for eliminating all forms of violence against women and girls.FE. have more children (figure 5d).2 Reliable statistics are hard to collect.ZS). most recent year available during 2010–16 (%) Adolescent fertility rate. 2014 (births per 1. Although child marriage is prohibited by law in the majority of countries. boyfriend. DC. regardless of income or education level.1 Rates of violence vary widely across countries. “Voice and Agency: Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity.” Washington. New York. 2015. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 11 .html]. Young brides have more children 5d Share of firms.ZS).4 Notes Ending violence against women and girls Target 5. but such violence occurs in all regions. Worldwide. and suffer more barriers to obtaining a higher paid job and gaining financial independence.TFRT). World Bank.” Washington. 57 percent of women held their own account at a financial institution in 2014. and offer limited opportunities for career advancement and higher wages. and forced marriage Eliminating child. New York. United Nations Children’s Fund [http://data.M18. 2015. 4. and rates are often underestimated. IC. Worldwide. United Nations Population Division.

water resources management. Easing access to drinking water Sustainable Development Goal 6 encompasses a call for drinking water for all (target 6. However. 12 Millennium Development Goal target for lower middle-income countries World Lower middle income Urban Rural 0 Upper middle income Front ? User guide Low income 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Source: World Health Organization–United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Rural dwellers in Sub-Saharan Africa have the lowest access to an improved source of water 6a food security.H2O. compared with just over half in lower middle-income countries. disaster resilience. More than $250 billion in GDP is lost every year in low. World Development Indicators database (SH. In 2015.and middleincome countries because of inadequate water supply and sanitation services.ZS).ACSN). human health.1). 91 percent of the world’s population had access to an improved water source. and water quality. water scarcity.1 Sustainable Development Goal 6 recognizes that sustainably managing water goes beyond simply providing a safe water supply and sanitation to include the environment. more than 660  million people still lack access to clean water.H2O. it is intrinsically linked with climate change. Just over a quarter of people in low-income countries have access to an improved sanitation facility.2 Only 68 percent of the world’s population has access to improved sanitation facilities 6b Share of population with access to an improved source of water. service is often inadequate or unsustainable.SAFE. and ultimately economic growth. 2015 (%) Share of population with access to improved sanitation facilities (%) 100 100 High income 75 75 50 50 25 Europe & Central Asia World Development Indicators 2016 Millennium Development Goal target for low-income countries 25 East Asia & Pacific South Asia Middle East Latin Sub-Saharan World & North America & Africa Africa Caribbean Source: World Health Organization–United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. predominantly in Sub-Saharan Africa (figure 6a). and water from an improved source can still be unsafe to drink.STA. SH. Although 2. exceeding the Millennium Development Goal target of 88  percent. dwindling supplies of safe drinking water remain a global problem. World view People 2015 Environment . Ensuring access to an improved water source and improved sanitation facilities In many countries.6 billion people have gained access to an improved water source since 1990.SDG 6 Clean water and sanitation Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all Despite halving the number of people worldwide without access to an improved water source over the past 25 years. the poorest countries are struggling to sustainably provide safe water and adequate sanitation to all. Delivery of water supply and sanitation is not just a challenge of service provision. World Development Indicators database (SH. economic and population growth as well as urbanization have increased water demand while supply has remained unchanged or even decreased due to climate change.SAFE.RU. Even for those who have access to water. the majority of them in rural areas.ZS.UR.

Improving access to sanitation facilities
Only 68 percent of the world’s population has
access to improved sanitation facilities, falling
short of the Millennium Development Goal target of 77 percent (figure 6b). Sustainable Development Goal 6 aims to ensure adequate sanitation for all and to end open defecation (target
6.2), which contaminates water and spreads
diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, and dysentery. Around 842,000 people a year die from
diarrhea as a result of unsafe drinking water,
sanitation, or hygiene.3 Seven out of ten people
who lack access to safe and hygienic toilet facilities live in rural areas, mostly in Sub- Saharan
Africa and South Asia.

Climate change is expected to exacerbate the
situation by raising water stress in arid regions
and increasing the frequency and magnitude
of extreme weather events. In 2030 half the
world’s population is projected to live in high
water-stress regions.4
Increasing water withdrawals for agriculture
and energy generation will exacerbate competition for water use. The agricultural sector
accounts for over 70  percent of global freshwater withdrawals (figure 6d). By 2050 feeding
a planet of 9 billion people will require a 15 percent increase in water withdrawals for agriculture.5 Similarly, water withdrawals for energy
generation are projected to grow 20 percent.6

Balancing water demand with available
resources
Many countries face the threat of water scarcity, prompting calls for efficient water use (target 6.4). Demand for water continues to grow,
while global per capita freshwater supplies
have been nearly halved over the past 50 years.
Today, the Middle East and North Africa and
South Asia are classified as water stressedregions, with less than 1,700 cubic meters of
water available per year per person (figure 6c).

Notes

Middle East and North Africa and South
Asia are the most water-stressed regions

6c

Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita, 2014
(thousands of cubic meters)

1. World Health Organization, 2012, Global Costs and Benefits of DrinkingWater Supply and Sanitation Interventions to Reach the MDG Target and
Universal Coverage, Geneva.
2.  United Nations Children’s Fund, 2015, “The Millennium Development
Goal (MDG 7) Drinking Water Target Has Been Met, But Marked Disparities
Persist,” UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women.
[http://data.unicef.org/water-sanitation/water.html].
3. World Health Organization, 2015, “Drinking-water”, Fact Sheet 391.
[www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs391/en].
4.  United Nations, 2014 “International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’
2005–2015.” [www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml].
5.  World Bank, 2013, “Water Resources Management: Sector Results
Profile.” [www.worldbank.org/en/results/2013/04/15/water-resources
-management-results-profile].
6.  International Energy Agency, 2012, World Energy Outlook 2012, Paris.

Agriculture accounts for more than
70 percent of water use in most countries
Share of freshwater withdrawals, 2014
(%)

25

100

20

75

15

6d

50

10
25
5

Water stress (1,700 cubic meters per capita per year)
0

0

Middle East
& North
Africa

South
Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

East Asia
& Pacific

Europe
& Central
Asia

Latin
America &
Caribbean

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization; World Development Indicators
database (ER.H2O.INTR.PC).

Economy

States and markets

South
Asia

Agriculture

Middle East Sub-Saharan
Latin
& North
Africa
America &
Africa
Caribbean
Industry

East Asia
& Pacific

Europe
& Central
Asia

Domestic

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization; World Development Indicators
database (ER.H2O.FWAG.ZS, ER.H2O.FWIN.ZS, ER.H2O.FWDM.ZS).

Global links

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World Development Indicators 2016

13

SDG 7 Affordable and clean energy
Ensure access
to affordable,
reliable,
sustainable,
and modern
energy for all

Between 1990 and 2013 worldwide energy use increased about 54 percent, more than the 36 percent increase in the global population. Access
to energy is fundamental to development, but as economies evolve, rising
incomes and growing populations demand more energy. Meeting Sustainable Development Goal 7 will require increasing access to electricity, the
take-up of clean fuels and renewable energies, and energy efficiency.
Achieving universal access
Universal access to affordable, reliable, and
modern energy services is critical to sustainable development (target 7.1). Energy, especially electricity, is crucial to improving the
standard of living for people in low- and middleincome countries. It is key to providing reliable
and efficient lighting, heating, cooking, and
mechanical power; to delivering clean water,
sanitation, and healthcare; and to operating
well functioning transport and telecommunications services. Modern energy services are central to the economic development of a country
and to the welfare of its citizens. Without such
services, businesses stagnate, and the potential of people to live healthy, productive lives is
diminished.
Improvements over the past two decades
led to 85 percent of the world enjoying access
to electricity in 2012. Nevertheless, around
Access to electricity
is higher than ever

7a

Access to electricity
(% of population)

1.1  billion people are still without. In SubSaharan Africa only 35 percent of the population has access to electricity, the lowest among
all regions (figure 7a). Almost 40 percent of the
world’s population relies primarily on wood,
coal, charcoal, or animal waste to cook their
food, breathing in toxic smoke that causes lung
disease and kills nearly 4 million people a year,
most of them women and children.1
Using renewable energy
While the share of energy use from alternative,
cleaner sources has increased since 1970 in all
income groups, fossil fuels account for around
81 percent of the world’s energy use. Countries
need to substantially increase the share of
renewable energy in the global energy mix (target 7.2) from its current small share of 18 percent (figure 7b). The largest share of renewable
energy comes from traditional uses of biomass
Renewable sources of energy account
for a small share of global energy use

7b

Energy use, 2010
(% of total)

100

75

Other

50

25

0

Renewable

50

Solar
Geothermal

25
Traditional biomass

1990
2012

0

North Europe & Latin
Middle
America Central America & East &
Asia Caribbean North
Africa

East
Asia &
Pacific

South
Asia

SubSaharan
Africa

World Development Indicators 2016

Front

?

Modern bioenergy

User guide

Hydropower
Wind
Other renewables

World

Source: Sustainable Energy For All Global Tracking Framework database;
World Development Indicators database (EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS).

14

100

75

25

0

50

75

100

Source: Sustainable Energy For All Global Tracking Framework database;
World Development Indicators database (EG.FEC.RNEW.ZS).

World view

People

Environment

(such as wood and charcoal). Modern biomass
and hydropower are important modern renewable energy sources, each accounting for
3–4 percent of total final energy consumption.
Other modern renewables (such as biomass,
geothermal, wind, and solar) — currently around
1 percent of total consumption — have substantial potential for growth. The share of renewable energy varies widely across the globe. It
is falling in lower income regions as they switch
from traditional biomass to more modern fuels
for cooking and heating. By contrast, higher
income regions are gradually shifting toward
renewable energy sources, albeit from a low
base (figure 7c).
Increasing energy efficiency
Sustainable Development Goal 7 calls on
countries to collectively double the global
rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and
technological progress and a shift away from

The share of renewable energy
consumption is uneven across regions

7c

Renewable energy consumption
(% of final energy consumption)

Note
1. Sustainable Energy for All (www.se4all.org).

All income groups are using energy
more efficiently now than in 1990

7d

Intensity of primary energy
(megajoules per 2011 PPP $ of GDP)

80

20

60

15

40

10

20

South
Latin
East Europe & North
Asia America & Asia & Central America
Caribbean Pacific
Asia

Middle
East &
North
Africa

World

Source: Sustainable Energy For All Global Tracking Framework database;
World Development Indicators database (EG.FEC.RNEW.ZS).

Economy

States and markets

0

2012

SubSaharan
Africa

1990

5
1990
2000
2012

0

energy-intensive activities can support this (target 7.3). The energy intensity level of primary
energy — the ratio of energy supply to GDP in
purchasing power parity terms — indicates
energy efficiency, or how much energy is used
to produce one unit of economic output. A
lower ratio indicates that less energy is used
to produce one unit of output. Between 1990
and 2012 the ratio declined 27 percent globally as energy efficiency improved in all income
groups (figure 7d), which helped keep total final
energy consumption a third lower than it would
otherwise have been. The coverage of energy
efficiency regulations in industry, buildings, and
transport has nearly doubled, from 14 percent
of the world’s energy consumption in 2005 to
27 percent in 2014. Still much more needs to
be done.

Low
income

Lower
Upper
middle income middle income

High
income

World

Source: Sustainable Energy For All Global Tracking Framework database;
World Development Indicators database (EG.EGY.PRIM.PP.KD).

Global links

Back

World Development Indicators 2016

15

KD.3) requires a strong and thriving private sector. In low. and in informal sectors (figure 8d). In many lower income countries a large share of working-age adults is not part of the formal labor force. 23 are classified as fragile by the World Bank. and medium-size enterprises. and decent work for all Jobs are the bedrock of both economic and social development.1). The formal private sector remains underdeveloped and weakly competitive in many low. There is a strong correlation between country income and the density of new formal firms. sustainable jobs (target 8. The fragility of a country impacts its growth: Between 2000 and 2014 GDP growth in countries in fragile or conflict situations averaged a little under 4 percent a year.GDP.PCAP. inclusive.SDG 8 Productive employment and economic growth Promote sustained.KD. Micro. Increasing growth in the least developed countries Of the 48 UN-classified least developed countries in 2015. Creating jobs — led by the private sector Creating high-quality. both within sectors and by Increased growth is required to meet the target of 7 percent GDP growth 8a Average annual growth. Some 600 million new jobs need to be created by 2030. account for the largest share of new jobs. Variation among sectors is higher in countries with low labor productivity.1 Sustainable Development Goal 8 aims for higher economic productivity and at least 7 percent annual GDP growth in the least developed countries.MKTP. employers. And growth drives development. leading to increased inequality. with the number of formal wage jobs less than the number of new entrants joining the labor force each year. and the economy.and middle-income countries the private sector accounts for up to 90  percent of jobs. and many more were underemployed in low-productivity informal sector jobs. and sustainable economic growth. After the World view People Environment . including agriculture. full and productive employment. Gender inequalities persist across regions and sectors: Women make up a smaller share of employment in all regions and are disproportionately employed in lower productivity sectors. International efforts to bring peace to countries in fragile or conflict situations and reforms in other least developed countries are needed to achieve at least 7 percent annual GDP growth (target 8. highlighting the importance of the informal sector and the challenge of raising the productivity and quality of such livelihoods. NY.ZG. just to keep pace with the rising population. individuals and households have a sustainable pathway out of poverty.ZG) 16 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide shifting to sectors that generate higher value added and that yield benefits to workers. 2000–14 (%) 8 Sustainable Development Goal target 6 4 2 0 GDP GDP per capita Countries in fragile and conflict situations Least Developed Countries Source: World Development Indicators database (NY. By leveraging labor.and middle-income countries. especially in services and agriculture. compared with almost 6 percent in the least developed countries as a whole (figures 8a–8c). Enhancing economic productivity and value added for labor-intensive sectors Sustained economic growth is achieved through higher productivity.GDP. Yet more than 200 million people were unemployed in 2015. small.

Tuvalu 0. Economy Least Developed Countries Least Developed Countries that are in fragile. Rep.0 Source: World Development Indicators database (NY. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 17 . Comoros Kiribati Haiti Comoros Kiribati Yemen. Dem. or conflict situations Eritrea … and 3.Over 2000–14 the least developed countries averaged 5.5 5.0 7.GDP. Haiti Eritrea Yemen. Rep. Madagascar Guinea Gambia.ZG). 2000–14 (%) Least Developed Countries Least Developed Countries that are in fragile.GDP. Niger Mauritania Malawi Djibouti Mauritania Nepal São Tomé and Príncipe Burkina Faso Sudan São Tomé and Príncipe Least Developed Countries average Least Developed Countries average Congo. The Guinea-Bissau Guinea Madagascar Burundi Togo Liberia Gambia. violence. The Togo Vanuatu Guinea-Bissau Liberia Benin Burundi Niger Senegal Senegal Benin Vanuatu Nepal Tuvalu Lesotho Mali Djibouti Malawi Mali Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Congo.5 10.PCAP. Dem.8 percent GDP growth … 8b Average annual GDP growth. Rep.ZG). violence. or conflict situations Central African Rep. 2000–14 (%) Central African Rep.KD.0 8c Average annual per capita GDP growth.KD. Lesotho Bangladesh Timor-Leste Timor-Leste Tanzania Burkina Faso Uganda Tanzania Sierra Leone Uganda Sudan Lao PDR Bangladesh Sierra Leone Mozambique Zambia Zambia Mozambique Chad Rwanda Rwanda Cambodia Afghanistan Bhutan Bhutan Chad Lao PDR Afghanistan Cambodia Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Ethiopia 2. Rep.MKTP.3 percent per capita GDP growth States and markets –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Source: World Development Indicators database (NY.

Source: International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.BUS. including reduced earnings. most recent year available during 2005–14 (%) 80 10 East Asia & Pacifica 8 60 6 Middle East & North Africaa 0 South Asia 2002 2005 2010 a. The share of women in wage jobs is lowest in Sub. most regions — particularly East Asia and Pacific — have seen an uptick in recent years (figure 8e). where many jobs are in the informal sector. The Middle East and North Africa and South Asia have the largest shares of young people not in employment. Source: World Bank Doing Business database. Half of low. their lower access to credit. or training represent a missed opportunity and a loss of productive engagement that can have lifelong impacts. Note: Excludes high-income countries. Source: International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.000 people ages 15–64) 55 percent of men are in wage jobs. figure 8g). Note: Excludes high-income countries.SDG 8 Productive employment and economic growth decline in business registration across regions due to the 2008 global economic crisis. compared with 44 percent of women. Almost two-thirds of people who work in Europe and Central Asia have wage jobs.Saharan Africa and South Asia are the least likely to be in wage work 8f Wage and salaried workers as a share of the labor force.5 and 8.Saharan Africa (14  percent).5).and middle-income countries in Europe and Central Asia legally mandate that women receive equal pay for work of equal value (target 8.and middleincome countries in other regions and only one country in South Asia (Bangladesh. and the share of men in wage jobs is lowest in South Asia (22 percent). education. The Middle East and North Africa has the largest gender gap: Nearly Women are disproportionately employed in lower productivity sectors 8d Labor force status. Data cover less than 66 percent of the population. compared with a third of low. 18 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide 2014 0 Female 20 Europe & Central Asiaa 2 Male 4 40 Latin America & Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africaa Europe Latin Middle East East Asia Sub-Saharan South & Central America & & North & Pacifica Africaa Asia Asia Caribbean Africa a. Data cover less than 66 percent of the population. World Development Indicators database (IC.ZS).NDNS. most recent year available during 2005–14 (% of population ages 15 and older) East Asia & Pacific Female Male Europe & Central Asia Female Male Latin America & Caribbean Female Male Middle East & North Africa Female Male South Asia Female Male Sub-Saharan Africa Female Male Employed in agriculture Unemployed 25 0 Employed in industry Not in the labor force 50 75 Employed in services 100 Note: Excludes high-income countries. Thus youth unemployment rates can be double those of adults. or training (figure 8h). World view People Environment . Workers in Sub. including young people (targets 8. compared with around a fifth in South Asia. education.6). and their more limited networks that can help identify an employment or entrepreneurial opportunity. Most regions have seen an increase in business registration since 2008 8e New business registrations (per 1. Young people not in employment. Achieving full and productive employment and decent work for all and equal pay The share of people employed in wage jobs varies by region and gender (figure 8f). Empowering young people to work Sustainable Development Goal 8 focuses on providing opportunities for all. Young people often face greater challenges in finding employment due to their lack of experience.

young people may be engaged in subsistence agriculture and informal sector activities by necessity. or training. most recent year available during 2010–14 (%) 40 30 20 10 0 Middle East South Europe Latin East Asia Sub-Saharan & North Asia & Central America & & Pacifica Africaa Africa Asia Caribbean a. Data cover less than 66 percent of the population. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 19 . 2015 (%) 8g Ratio of minimum wage to value added per worker. as in Sub. India. Nigeria. Workers should be able to share in higher productivity.NEET. Regulating the labor market To address the overall goal of productive employment and decent work for all.8). however. DC. Note: Excludes high-income countries. World Development Report 2013: Jobs. 2015 (%) Paid annual leave for a worker with five years of tenure.Countries differ considerably in which labor protections and regulations they emphasize Share of countries with legal framework for equal remuneration for work of equal value. Source: International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market database. 2015 (days) 0 0 East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 0 20 40 60 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 Note: Excludes high-income countries. Brazil. or training is relatively low. Where the share of young people not in employment. 2012. education. 8h Share of young people not in employment. Mexico.Saharan Africa. For Bangladesh. more jobs are needed.UEM. There are considerable variations in working conditions and types of benefits across regions (se figure 8g). education.ZS). and a minimum wage ensures a basic level of income. World Bank. World Development Indicators database (SL. Labor market regulations can help address market failures Labor market challenges for young people are large but uneven across regions and secure social protection for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups (target 8. and Pakistan data refer to the largest city. Washington. Source: World Bank Doing Business database. too high a minimum wage can discourage the creation of wage jobs. benefits. Indonesia. China. and productivity— and more inclusive. Good working environments are influenced by many factors. Note 1. and they need to be better — in terms of working conditions.

In the short term enhancing rural road connectivity reduces transport costs and improves access to markets and social facilities such as schools and hospitals. and foster innovation Building sustainable and robust infrastructure Limited access to decent roads can isolate farmers from markets and restrict agricultural production to subsistence levels. to 100. 2010 (0. It also impacts the ability of rural businesses and enterprises to compete with others in less remote areas. high) 0–10 21–29 51–60 11–20 30–50 Urban area Primary road Source: World Bank estimates based on WorldPop and government road data. high) 0–20 41–60 81–100 21–40 61–80 Urban area Primary road Source: World Bank estimates based on WorldPop and government road data.5 million rural residents lack access (figure 9a). and infrastructure Since 1990 over $2.2 It also helps strengthen the resilience of rural populations to natural and human-made shocks and disasters by facilitating the movement of people and supplies for faster recovery. innovation. Driving economic growth through industrialization The industrial sector is vital to economic development. but advances in digital technology allow better assessment of Rural access to good roads is limited in Mozambique … 9a Rural Access Index. … but higher in Kenya 9b Rural Access Index. The share of the rural population living within 2 kilometers of a road in good condition is measured through the Rural Access Index3 and is a useful indicator for governments planning their transport infrastructure (target 9. Build resilient infrastructure. to 100.5 trillion has been invested in private infrastructure projects around the world. World view People Environment . promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization. and roads form the foundations for industrialization. formal job creation. and increased productivity. 20 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide population distribution and transport infrastructure location and quality. East Asia and Pacific has historically had the highest share. business profitability. and the technology and innovation needed for productivity growth. Data availability is limited.5 million rural residents lack access (figure 9b). In the longer term it elevates agricultural productivity. and employment. the share declined from 19 percent in 1997 to 16 percent in 2013 (figure 9c). electricity. and manufacturing is key to long-term structural change. which means that about 14.1 Investments in telecommunications. low.1). In Kenya an estimated 57 percent of the rural population lives within 2 kilometers of a good road. Manufacturing value added as a share of GDP captures the role of manufacturing in an economy. low. innovation. In Mozambique only an estimated 19 percent of the rural population lives within 2 kilometers of a good road. about 13.SDG 9 Industry. 2009 (0. Worldwide. though it declined from 27  percent in 1990 to 22  percent in 2013.

9 percent in 2007 to 0.0 percent in 2013. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 21 .worldbank. Between 1990 and 2014 the share increased slightly. while Bangladesh registered a larger increase.IND. North America had the biggest decline in the share. Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics.org). In the Middle East and North Africa the share was relatively constant between 2001 and 2007. from 13 percent to 17 percent. in India.7 percent in 2012. Asia was the first to recover. and in Europe and Central Asia.MANF. 2015. World Development Indicators database (NV.1 percent in 2007 to 1.5 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. World Development Indicators database (GB. Conversely.2  percent in 2012 in Brazil — or stagnant— around 0.8 percent in 2007 and 2011 in India. RSDV.with China averaging 32 percent and Thailand averaging 28 percent. Notes 1.0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Source: United Nations Educational. Paris. A.worldbank. Economy States and markets Russian Federation Brazil India South Africa 0. and A. Diehl. www.org/transport/transportresults/headline/rural-access.0 0. In other emerging economies the rise was slower—from 1.ZS). 4.5 Latin America & Caribbean Europe & Central Asia 20 South Asia East Asia & Pacific China World North America Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa 10 2. averaging around 1. World Bank Private Participation in Infrastructure database (http://ppi . United Nations Educational. averaging 12  percent. from 16 percent to 17 percent. from 21  percent in 1991 to 15 percent in 2014. measured as Worldwide. Iimi. SubSaharan Africa has the lowest share. 3.4 despite the period’s global financial crisis. Washington.7 percent in 2013. The share has also been declining in Latin America and the Caribbean. from 22 percent in 1991 to 15  percent in 2014. manufacturing value added as a share of GDP is declining 9c Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) expenditure on research and development as a percentage of GDP.ZS). DC: World Bank. it was about 17 percent in 2014.6 percent in 2007 to 1. 2. The Russian Federation maintained research and development intensity at pre-crisis levels. South Africa saw a substantial drop. from 15  percent in 1990 to 11  percent in 2014. from 17 percent in 1997 to 12 percent in 2013. which has been declining over the past 25 years.0 1. in particular China’s research and development intensity grew from 1.1  percent between 2007 and 2013. Worldwide. In South Asia the share has remained fairly constant since 1990.” Transport and ICT Connections 23.XPD. Scientific and Cultural Organization.GD. it increased slightly from 1.. World Bank national accounts data.5 1. from 0. Expenditure on research and development is slowly rising in some countries 9d Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) 30 2. UNESCO Science Report: Towards 2030. “A New Measure of Rural Access to Transport: Using GIS Data to Inform Decisions and Attainment of the SDGs.4 percent in 2007 to 2. Promoting innovation and research and development One measure of innovation is the intensity of research and development. 2015. html.

religion.and middleincome countries the income of the poorest 40 percent grew faster than the national average. SI.ZG). Thus.SPR. Another group of In some countries the poorest 40 percent are achieving faster growth 10a Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income. 9 still experienced negative growth (group A in figure 10a).SDG 10 Reduced inequalities Reduce inequality within and among countries The targets of Sustainable Development Goal 10 focus on reducing inequality in a variety of contexts: income inequality within a country and inequality by gender. by 2030. This echoes the World Bank’s goal of promoting shared prosperity.ZG). which does not set a specific target for each country but aims to foster income growth among the poorest 40 percent in every country. poorest 40 percent. race. Of those 56.SPR. In these cases the Sustainable Development Goal target would not have been met. ethnicity. Reducing inequality within countries Sustainable Development Goal 10 aims to progressively achieve.SPR. World Development Indicators database (SI. Millennium Development Goal 8 focused on the need for high-. national. sustained income growth among the poorest 40  percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average in every country (target 10. 2007–12 (%) China Vietnam Group A Group B United Kingdom Guatemala Greece 0 5 Source: World Bank Global Database of Shared Prosperity. including high-income countries (the United Kingdom and the United States) and middle-income countries (Guatemala and the Kyrgyz Republic). and opportunity. middle-.ZG. in around two-thirds of low. and international aid. World Development Indicators database (SI.and middle-income countries than of high-income countries met the target.PC40.ZG. 2007–12 (%) Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is greater than the national average Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is less than or equal to the national average 22 75 25 –5 –10 –10 In low. In 56 out of 94 countries with data for 2007– 12 the per capita income of the poorest 40 percent is growing faster than the national average (countries above the diagonal line in figure 10a). SI. a larger proportion of low. compared with half of high-income countries (figure 10b). and low-income countries to work together to create Share of countries meeting the shared prosperity target for growth over 2007–12 (%) 15 5 countries experienced relatively strong growth (above 3 percent) over the same period for both the poorest 40  percent and the total population. disability. World view People Environment . higher growth among the poorest 40 percent does not necessarily lead to prosperity.PCAP.1). class.PC40. Front ? User guide 10 Low income (11 countries) Lower Upper middle income middle income (22 countries) (25 countries) High income (36 countries) Total (94 countries) Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is greater than the national average Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income for the poorest 40 percent is less than or equal to the national average Source: World Bank Global Database of Shared Prosperity. age.PCAP. even though people on average were better off. Among countries with data.and middle-income countries growth 10b has been faster for the poorest 40 percent 100 10 0 Reducing inequality across countries International aid. but in some cases the growth rate for the bottom 40 percent was lower than the national average (China and Vietnam. It also tackles inequality among countries in terms of voice. group B in figure 10a).SPR. World Development Indicators 2016 50 0 –5 Annualized growth of per capita real mean consumption or income. Specifically. migration.

b).3 percent from 2013. Economy States and markets 0.c (figure 10d). to care for their family. which accounts for around 75 percent of total net official development assistance. The Sustainable Development Goals continue this focus. encouraging official development assistance and financial flows to countries where the need is greatest (target 10. World Development Indicators database (SI.ODA. For instance.and middle-income countries.0 Target for 2030 50 2. Official development assistance to Sub.5 Sub-Saharan Africa Least Developed Countries 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development– Development Assistance Committee.org. The trend was driven primarily by a drop in bilateral aid channeled directly by donors. Increases in inflows to the poorest countries have not kept pace with those to middle-income countries.an environment where rapid sustainable development is possible. personal remittances were estimated at $583  billion in 2014 — $436  billion (75  percent) of which went to low. The cost of sending the equivalent of $200 averaged 8  percent in 2014. Over 2009–14. Bilateral official development assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa also fell 5 percent in nominal terms from 2013 to 2014. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 23 . But meeting target 10.0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: World Bank Remittance Prices Worldwide database (http://remittanceprices.worldbank.0 All recipients 150 7. Many migrants remit money back to their country of origin. down from 10 percent in 2008 but still above the 3 percent called for by 2030 in target 10. World Development Indicators database (DT. Migration. including better employment opportunities and higher wages.RMT.5 100 5.ZS). nominal inflows of official development assistance grew 27  percent to $161  billion (figure 10c).b may require a change in current trends. and official development assistance to the least developed countries increased only 9 percent. and the amount of such payments is large and has been increasing. a decline explained only partially by the sharp drop in debt relief to Myanmar. up 4.ODAT.COST. People migrate for many reasons. bilateral aid to the least developed countries fell 16  percent Total official development assistance has been 10c rising—but not where aid is needed most between 2013 and 2014. The average cost of sending remittances has been declining 10d Net official development assistance inflows ($ billions) Average cost to send the equivalent of $200 in remittances (%) 200 10. But it is not cheap to send money across national borders.Saharan Africa increased just 4  percent between 2009 and 2014.CD). Worldwide.

World Development Indicators database (EN. Other Sub. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. the United Nations Human Settlements Programme estimates take into consideration the proportion of urban population living in dwellings that lack access to an improved drinking water source. declining air quality in fast-growing regions is placing a growing burden on people’s health (target 11.ZS) World view People Environment .POP. or security of tenure. Although there is no consistent definition of slum areas. In those countries poor people move from rural areas to cities in search of greater opportunity but often end up even more entrenched in poverty. New York. both An estimated 60 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas by 2030 11a the Central African Republic and Mozambique have seen the number of slum dwellers rise since 1990 (figure 11b). safe. sufficient living area. 24 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 Source: United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Countries that have faced civil war report the highest rates: In the Central African Republic. South Sudan. from 94  percent of its urban population to 56 percent. and sustainable. In Sub. 7.Saharan countries have made extraordinary progress in reducing their urban slums. and Sudan more than 90 percent of the urban population lives in slums. Mali also saw a large decline.5 75 Mozambique Rwanda Mali Urban 11b Sub-Saharan Africa 50 5. and most of the expected 1 billion increase in urban dwellers between 2015 and 2030 will occur in Africa and Asia. Reducing the environmental impact of cities As the world urbanizes.0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Source: United Nations Population Division. improved sanitation facilities. resilient. Rwanda lowered the proportion of its urban population living in slums from 96  percent in 1990 to 53 percent in 2014. and political futures of individuals everywhere.UR. A large share of urban dwellers in Sub-Saharan Africa live in slum conditions World population (billions) Share of urban population living in slums (%) 10.Saharan Africa more than half the urban population lives in slum conditions. resilient. inclusive. Moreover.0 100 Central African Rep. environmental. in addition to slum upgrading.SLUM.0 2.SDG 11 Sustainable cities and communities Make cities and human settlements inclusive. and sustainable An estimated 60 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas by 2030 (figure 11a). This demographic transformation will affect the economic.6). Cities are complex systems in which every component affects every other. safe. and affordable housing and basic services. durable structure. is critical to sustainable cities (target 11. Improving the quality of housing Access to adequate. Sustainable Development Goal 11 focuses on making cities and other human settlements safe. social.1). 2014.5 25 Rural 0.

Regional. including maps of builtup areas derived from imagery and radar data from satellites.PM25. GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators.5 microns in diameter (micrograms per cubic meter) 50 40 30 20 0 1990 2013 10 South Asia East Asia Middle EastSub-Saharan Europe Latin & Pacific & North Africa & Central America & Africa Asia Caribbean North America Source: Brauer. B. Average pollution levels are estimated by combining satellite observations of airborne particles with models of atmospheric chemistry. While each country’s national definition may be well suited to its national context. While there is no substitute for ground-level monitoring. and others.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter [PM2. Economy States and markets Measuring the impact of urbanization Measuring progress toward the Sustainable Development Goal 11 targets in a consistent way across all countries will be a challenge. “Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Estimation for the Global Burden of Disease 2013.M3). Other targets call for monitoring land consumption and open space. and Metabolic Risks or Clusters of Risks in 188 Countries.According to the 2013 Global Burden of Disease study. World Development Indicators database (EN.5]) is responsible for 2. For example. “Global. which requires global data on built-up areas. this can help provide a global picture of the scope and nature of the urbanization challenge and help make cities inclusive. yielding objective and comparable measures of urbanization. about one every 10 seconds.” Lancet.000 people. Outdoor air pollution is increasing in East Asia and Pacific and South Asia 11c Mean annual concentration of particles less than 2.5 have increased from their 1990 levels. and Occupational. making comparison of trends in urbanization across countries problematic.5 levels are highest in East Asia and Pacific (40 micrograms per cubic meter in 2013) and South Asia (45 micrograms per cubic meter.9 million deaths per year. figure 11c).ATM. Environmental.” But how large or dense does a settlement need to be in order to be considered a city? Do certain kinds of economic activity need to be present for an area to be considered urban? On the outskirts of a city. so remote sensing technologies such as those used for the Global Burden of Disease study continue to be a powerful tool for measuring large-scale exposure to air pollutants. In turn. 1990–2013: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. 2015. An even more fundamental challenge is that there is no universal agreement on the definitions of “urban” and “city. the target on transportation systems requires monitoring the proportion of the population with convenient access to public transport. which are calibrated against ground-level air quality monitoring data from nearly 3.” Environmental Science & Technology 50(1): 79–88. This requires a much more precise understanding of where people live than is currently available. resilient. Note 1. 2016. and sustainable. Fortunately. particularly in densely populated urban areas. global analysis based on these data can be consistent across countries. exposure to outdoor air pollution (as measured by levels of particles less than 2. In both regions the levels of outdoor PM2. The satellite-based estimates cover both cities and rural areas. where precisely does the urban area end and the rural area begin? Each country defines and measures its urban areas differently. safe..1 Outdoor PM2. new and innovative forms of data can help monitor progress toward Sustainable Development Goal 11. and National Comparative Risk Assessment of 79 Behavioral.400 locations and 79 countries. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 25 .MC. more than four times the guideline value recommended by the World Health Organization. large swathes of the globe still do not have this monitoring infrastructure.” Several Sustainable Development Goal targets use terms such as “urban population” and “cities of over 100.

or is otherwise neglected and not eaten. NY. 500 250 Liberia 0 Guinea 0 10 20 30 40 50 Average resource rents.GNP. from the point at which it is harvested or made to the point it is eaten. NY. Front ? User guide 60 Low income Lower Upper middle income middle incomea OECD high income 2006–11 Algeria Bhutan 0 World Development Indicators 2016 High-income countries generate the most hazardous waste per capita 2001–05 Philippines China Nepal Indonesia 25 26 Reducing food loss and waste Meeting the food needs of a growing global population while reducing food loss and waste (target 12. Rep. the equivalent of more than 1.MKTP. United Nations Statistics Division Environmental Indicators database (http://unstats.SVNX. Positive savings form the basis for building wealth and future growth.htm). Saving a quarter of this lost food would be enough to feed 870 million people.ADJ.int/Countries/NationalReporting /StatusCompilations/tabid/1497/). 2010–14 (% of GNI) 12b Hazardous waste (kilograms per capita per year) Qatar 750 Brunei Darussalam Kazakhstan Trinidad and Tobago –25 Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Mongolia Angola Iraq Mauritania Oman Congo. Excludes Kazakhstan. but a third of food that is produced is lost or wasted.1 Sustainable consumption and production by countries—in essence doing more and better with less — means meeting basic needs of people and promoting a better quality of life while cutting harmful waste and pollution. and pollution damage.2). Negative savings rates suggest declining wealth and unsustainable development.basel. Adjusted net savings takes into account investment in human capital.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en &pcode=tsdpc250&plugin=1).TOTL.CD). Food loss is defined as a decrease in quantity or quality of food at any stage of the food supply chain.MKTP. By contrast. Low. European Commission’s Eurostat database (http://ec. Non-OECD high income a.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.un.3) poses a serious challenge. such as through education.GDP. It measures the difference between national production and consumption — the change in a country’s wealth. Adjusted net savings is especially useful for gauging whether countries that depend heavily on natural resources are balancing the depletion of their natural resources by investing rents in other forms of productive capital.GN. mostly through food waste. In the high-income countries of North America and East Asia and Pacific.RT. Source: Basel Convention (www.org/unsd/environment/hazardous.500 calories of food per person per day is lost. 1996–2000 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns A third of the world’s energy is consumed by the food sector. in SubSaharan Africa the equivalent of 414 calories 1. depletion of natural resources.and lower middle-income countries with the highest level of Countries dependent on natural resources tend to have lower savings rates 12a Average adjusted net savings. 2010–14 (% of GNI) Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income: non-OECD High income: OECD Source: World Development Indicators database (NY.GDP. Dem.CD.000 50 –50 resource dependence also tend to have lower savings rates (figure 12a). is thrown away.europa. depreciation of fixed capital. The extent of food loss varies greatly by income group and region.SDG 12 Responsible consumption and production Managing natural resources efficiently Adjusted net savings is an indicator of efficient use of natural resources (target 12.ZS. Food waste occurs when edible food reaches the consumer but expires. NY.ZS. World view People Environment .

High-income countries provide the most fossil-fuel subsidies 12c Fossil fuel subsidies. DC. 3.per person per day is lost. but also the environmental and social costs of local pollution.3 Per capita generation of hazardous waste nearly doubled worldwide between the late 1990s and the late 2000s. Shang. Paris. New York. Parry. Subsidies as a percentage of GDP are highest in upper middle-income countries (nearly 14  percent).. Fiscal Affairs Department. Reforming fossil fuel subsidies Sustainable Development Goal 12 calls for rationalizing inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies (target 12. International Monetary Fund. Washington. Lipinski.000 toxic sites around the world found that the health of as many as 200 million people living near these sites may be affected.4). Sears. 2015. 2013. high-income non–Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries continue to generate the most hazardous waste. 4. In middle-income countries per capita hazardous waste generation rose from 17 kilograms between 1996 and 2000 to 42 kilograms between 2006 and 2011.org/save-food /resources/keyfindings/en/].000 5 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income OECD high income Non-OECD high income 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income OECD high income Non-OECD high income Source: Coady. International Energy Agency. 2013 ($ per capita) Fossil fuel subsidies. I. World Resources Institute. SAVE FOOD: Global Initiative on Food Loss and Waste Reduction. A partial inventory of more than 3. handling.000 15 2. The International Monetary Fund provides a comprehensive estimate of subsidies by including not only the difference between the final price consumers pay and international market prices. 2013. and climate change (figure 12c). Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 27 . L. DC. Key Findings. D. followed by lower middleincome and non–Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development high-income countries (11 percent). Washington. Global Alliance on Health and Pollution. and storage. 2013 (% of GDP) 3. World Energy Outlook 2015.” Working Paper. Excludes Kazakhstan. [www. The Poisoned Poor: Toxic Chemicals Exposures in Low. B.000 10 1. mostly during the process of production.3) though there is some debate over how this should be measured. and B.. Notes 1.4 However.7 tons of hazardous waste per capita in 2010.fao. and others. before food reaches the market. 2. which reportedly generated 40. “How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies?” Working Paper. “Reducing Food Loss and Waste.and Middle-Income Countries. road traffic. 2015. 981 kilograms per capita between 2006 and 2011 (figure 12b). Food and Agriculture Organization.2 Minimizing the impact of chemical waste Sustainable Development Goal 12 aims to reduce the release of chemicals and wastes into the environment and to minimize their adverse impacts on human health (target 12. Hazardous waste generation by low-income countries was 7 kilograms per capita over the same period.

rising sea levels. countries have shown steady progress in addressing disaster risk 13b Share of countries reporting a given score for priority 4 under the Hyogo Framework for Action blueprint for disaster risk reduction (%) 50 Maximum Low income 40 Minimum 30 Middle income 28 0. which provided a global blueprint for a range of disaster risk reduction efforts for 2005–15. Source: World Bank Climate Knowledge Portal (http://sdwebx.and middle-income countries. and planning is critical (target 13. droughts. awareness-raising.1) and take early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. improved climate-related education. intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. possibly leading to more extreme weather-related disasters and associated economic losses. ecosystems. and capacity building. Integrating climate change measures into national policies. strategies. Climate change is already affecting every country on every continent through changing seasons and weather patterns.5 Note: Data are the median estimate of general circulation models.0 or more (more progress) Source: PreventionWeb (http://preventionweb. Under the framework.0 0.0 to less than 4. and climate change).worldbank . energy security. according to the World Meteorological Organization. food. integration of climate change measures into national planning. cites climate change as one of the primary factors increasing the severity of future disasters. and more extreme weather events. Changes in temperature and precipitation pose substantial risks for agriculture. World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide 0 2013–15 * Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international.0 4. Understanding the impacts of climate change Sustainable Development Goal 13 calls for stronger resilience and capacity to adapt to climate-related hazards and natural disasters. Temperatures are projected to rise significantly by 2050 13a Estimated minimum and maximum temperature increases by 2050 from average for 1961–2000 (degrees Celsius) Addressing climate change Countries must take steps to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards (target 13.SDG 13 Climate action Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts* Globally.0 1.org/climateportal/).2). and tropical storms have risen. World view People Environment . water supplies. and mobilization of sustained resources to address the needs of low. The Hyogo Framework for Action.2 The December 2015 Paris Overall.5 2. 2015 was the hottest year on record.5 1. the share of countries reporting a score of 4 or higher rose from 13 percent in 2009–11 to 27 percent in 2013–15 (figure 13b). countries used a 1–5 scale to assess progress on 22 indicators in five areas. Under area 4. Since 1980 both the occurrence and economic impact of weather-related natural disasters such as floods. which addressed underlying risk factors (including weather.1 Global climate models indicate that by 2050 low. 2011–13 10 High income 2009–11 20 Less than 3.0 (less progress) 3.net).and middle-income countries are more likely than high-income countries to experience higher temperature increases because of geographic location (figure 13a). environment. and infrastructure.0 2.

KT). in particular the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change goal of committing $100  billion a year by 2020 to 2. 3. Mobilized climate finance increased $9. especially in lowincome countries. 2013. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 29 . address the needs of low. Economy States and markets 0 2013 Bilateral public finance Multilateral public finance 2014 Export credits Private co-finance Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Carbon dioxide emissions are at unprecedented levels 13c Notes 1.3 The Paris Agreement calls for these contributions to be reviewed and strengthened every five years.4 which is likely to be enhanced by multilateral development bank commitments to increase support for climate change and disaster risk management. Gitay.” 21st Session.. 160 nationally determined contributions from 188 countries have been submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. These commitments include measures to reduce emissions (mitigation). “Synthesis Report on the Aggregate Effect of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. and others. As of December 2015. better manage the impacts of change climate on socioeconomic systems and ecosystems (adaptation). and others. H.a).6 billion in 2011 and contributed to an increase of about 0.6 billion between 2013 and 2014 13d Mobilized climate finance ($ billions) Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel (billions of metric tons) 80 40 60 30 High income 40 20 20 Upper middle income 10 Low income 0 Lower middle income 1990 1995 2000 2005 2011 Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.CO2E. 2015. 4. as well as export credits. DC: World Bank. the World Bank includes climate change risks and opportunities in the country partnership frameworks that specify major development challenges in countries and areas of support from partners. Financing the response to climate change Sustainable Development Goal 13 also looks at climate finance. DC: World Bank. Global emissions of carbon dioxide —a major greenhouse gas and primary driver of climate change—increased from 22.ATM. “2014 Joint Report on Multilateral Development Banks’ Climate Finance.2 billion metric tons in 1990 to 34. up from $52. 2013. World Bank. Gitay. Washington. 2015.8  billion in 2014. Washington. Development is moving toward climate-resilient and low emission pathways in many low. and support national policies and planning. Building Resilience: Integrating Climate and Disaster Risk into Development: The World Bank Group Experience. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development data show climate financing from public and private sources.and middle-income countries (adjusting for multilateral sources) to be approximately $61.and middle-income countries. Climate Policy Initiative. H. 30 November–11 December. Washington. World Development Indicators database (EN.and middle-income countries and mobilizing the Green Climate Fund (target 13.Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to hold increases in global average temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to reach peak global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible. Building Resilience: Integrating Climate and Disaster Risk into Development: The World Bank Group Experience.2 billion in 2013 (figure 13d)..8 degree Celsius in mean global temperature above pre-industrial times (figure 13c). Paris. For example. from high-income to low. DC.

East Asia and Pacific dominates capture fisheries and aquaculture production. including Small Island Developing States and countries in Sub.Saharan Africa. Monitoring progress toward the sustainability of these resources is paramount but creates substantial challenges. Increasing the economic benefits of fish production Fish production accounts for a substantial share of economic activity in many economies.1 Ensuring the effective regulation of fish harvesting along with stopping overfishing  and illegal.ZS). Based on data for 54 countries and the high seas. Sustainably capturing and farming seafood Capture fisheries have dominated the seafood market until recently.3 Target 14. and unregulated Capture fisheries have stagnated. and biodiversity. and many governments have implemented subsidy schemes to protect local fish supplies and employment in the sector. and marine resources are essential to the food security of much of the world’s population. while aquaculture has increased 14a fishing practices (target 14. seas. ? User guide World view People Environment . unreported.MRN. which now accounts for nearly half of seafood production (figure 14a). The livelihoods of approximately Marine protected areas increased between 1990 and 2014 14b Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters) Production (millions of metric tons) 20 100 Capture fisheries 15 75 10 50 Aquaculture 5 0 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Source: Food and Agriculture Organization.PTMR.5  billion a year.7 looks to increase the economic benefits to producers from the sustainable use of marine resources. shellfish.4) can support the sustainability of the fishing industry. reducing revenues to legal fishers $10–$23. illegal and unreported fishers catch 11–26  million tons a year.SDG 14 Life below water Conserve and sustainably use the oceans. Average worldwide fish consumption is about 20 kilograms per person per year. driving continued fishing despite decreasing catch value and profitability.2 Low. where it accounts for over 90 percent of output. Subsidies to fisheries total approximately $10  billion a year. 30 World Development Indicators 2016 Front 2012 1990 2014 25 South Asia Middle East Sub& North Saharan Africa Africa Europe & Latin Central America & Asia Caribbean North America East Asia & Pacific Source: World Development Indicators database (ER. Yields from the planet’s oceans. and seaweed farming). aquatic habitats. Since the 1980s there has been a rise in aquaculture (fish. Capture fisheries have generally stagnated since the early 1990s. and marine resources for sustainable development Fish is the main animal protein for more than 1 billion people. seas.and middleincome countries with weak regulatory and enforcement capacity are most at risk from illegal fishing.

Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 31 . most of which employ fewer than 10 people. Dead zones now rank alongside overfishing. 2.4 Fisheries and aquaculture are dominated by small scale. Report 66469-GLB. 25–27 March. J. 2008. Diaz. Kelleher.60  million full. and R. affecting an area of 95. Rosenberg. Science 321(5891): 926–29. World Bank. The number of dead zones — areas of ocean with too little oxygen for most marine life — has increased by a third between 1995 and 2007. 2014. 2008. largely as the result of nutrient pollution. and others. 5. “Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems. family operations. “Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems. J. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Bridgetown. habitat loss. R. “Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing.sciencemag. with various levels of actual control of access.DC1 for supporting material for zone-specific information.” Presentation at High-Level Roundtable on International Cooperation for Sustainable. Rome. 3.. Protecting and conserving the oceans Marine protected areas can help rebuild depleting stocks and act as sanctuaries for biodiversity.. The distribution of dead zones matches the global human footprint 14c Global distribution of 400-plus systems that have scientifically reported accounts of being eutrophication-associated dead zones Human footprint 80 60 40 20 Hypoxic system IBRD 42222 Note: See http://science.5891. J. 2012. Source: Diaz. almost all of them in low- and middle-income countries and half of them women. DC. “World Bank Activities in Fisheries. There are some 405 dead zones in coastal waters worldwide (figure 14c). 2008. and harmful algal blooms as key stressors of marine ecosystems. The Sunken Billions: The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform.5 Target 14. K. Hidden Harvest: The Global Contribution of Capture Fisheries.. of at least 10  percent of coastal and marine areas. and R. United Nations Environment Programme–World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the International Union for Conservation of Nature..926.000 square miles.org/content/suppl/2008/08/14/321. As of 2014. But all regions have achieved at least some progress over the previous two decades (figure 14b). Rosenberg. According to the country-level data available. 6. Food and Agriculture Organization.6 Notes 1. Science 321(5891): 926–29. Washington. R. by 2020. Agnew. The condition of marine biodiversity and of the global environment is closely connected with the level of ocean pollution and acidification.” PLoS ONE 4(2): e4570. Washington. approximately 2  percent of the global oceans are designated as marine protected areas. 4.and part-time workers depend on marine capture fisheries. World Bank. 2009. by 2014 South Asia had the lowest share of marine protected areas in its territorial waters. 2009. DC. D.5 seeks the conservation.

Degradation in the drylands —zones naturally Degradation correlates with loss in net primary productivity 20 25 15 0 10 –25 5 –50 0 –100 Europe Latin & Central America & Asia Caribbean North Middle East America & North Africa South Sub-Saharan Asia Africa Source: Food and Agriculture Organization. and land degradation affects vast swathes of the world’s poor. “The Economics of Desertification. ? User guide Indo-China. and arable land is being lost at 30–35 times its historical rate. many of whom depend on agriculture for their livelihoods and nourishment. Protecting forests Crucial to the health of the planet.” Report 2008/01.Saharan Africa has lost 83  million hectares (figure 15a). Land Degradation. and Sub.FRST. Restoring land and soil (target 15. desertification. and have further impoverished already vulnerable communities. energy. Pressures on forests will continue as the world’s population grows. 1990–2015 (millions of hectares) Minimizing desertification and land degradation The loss of potential and existing agricultural land to drought. Wageningen. ISRIC–World Soil Information. restore. 1. and others. 2 on which 20  million tons of grain could have been grown. Despite numerous international engagements to protect forest areas. Z. and deforestation.SDG 15 Life on land Protect. combat desertification. The impact of human activity on the environment directly affects the world’s poorest communities. Center for Development Research. and the current rate of loss is 2 million hectares a year. Drought and desertification have led to losses of 12  million hectares. World Development Indicators 2016 Area affected by land degradation Net primary productivity lost Africa. 1981–2003 (%) 50 –75 32 urbanization accelerates. Germany. despite efforts to protect them. 2008. and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss Forests cover 30 percent of the Earth’s land but.1 forests contribute to long-term economic growth. and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems. and Drought Toward an Integrated Global Assessment. Soil degradation affects 52 percent of agricultural land. and to the livelihoods of a fifth of the human population. The loss of forest area in two regions has been barely offset by gains elsewhere 15a Change in forest area.K2). and demand for food.LND. and minerals increases. as adapted by E. and Indonesia South China Australia The Pampas Source: Bai. and environmental stability.2). Latin America and the Caribbean has lost 97  million hectares since 1990.” Discussion Paper on Development Policy 150. While some regions have steadily increased forest coverage. Netherlands. social inclusion. “Global Assessment of Land Degradation and Improvement. around 13 million hectares vanish each year. World Development Indicators database (AG. Bonn. World view People Environment . Over 16  percent of Brazil’s original Amazonian forest has disappeared. 2011.3) helps keep land degradation in check. national and regional afforestation and reforestation efforts need to accelerate in order to ensure the sustainability of forests (target 15. fiber. Nkonya and others. Myanmar. floods. to its diverse species.. sustainably manage forests. Identification by Remote Sensing. south of equator East Asia & Pacific Front 15b Change. and loss of biodiversity all pose major challenges to future sustainable development. Between 1990 and 2015 the world lost more than 129 million hectares— over 3 percent of its forest area.

 www.THRD. overfishing. Economy States and markets Latin SubAmerica & Saharan Caribbean Africa East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia South Asia Middle East North & North America Africa Source: United Nations Environmental Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre. poaching. the rate at which vegetation fixes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (figure 15b). The total area of protected land has nearly doubled since 1990 15c National protected area (% of land area) Substantial gains have been made in conserving biodiversity (figure 15c).NO.ZS).predisposed to high aridity and water scarcity — is causing the desertification of 3..org/sustainabledevelopment/biodiversity/.5).org). Implementing sustainable and integrated land and water management practices will help the areas and populations most impacted.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2012/05/forest-peoples-numbers-across -world-final_0. EN. the highest number of threatened fish are in Sub-Saharan Africa.3 Degradation and concurrent loss of vegetative cover also lead to a loss in net primary productivity. and freshwater ecosystems disappear.THRD.. and D. 2015 8. drylands. R. Threatened species are found throughout the world Number of threatened species.BIR. Action to protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species and their habitats will help reverse this (target 15. and 22 percent are on the brink of extinction. Froese.NO.” Moretonin-Marsh.NO. Asia.000 25 Plants Fish 20 6. pollution. Among assessed species. eds.fishbase. the highest number of threatened plants are in Latin America and Caribbean. 2..PTLD. Pauly.000 15 4. as compiled by the World Resources Institute.6  billion hectares.000 10 Mammals Birds 2. World Development Indicators database (EN. International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species.FSH. and the highest number of threatened mammals and birds are in East Asia and Pacific (figure 15d). 2008.columbia. and populations throughout Africa. EN. www.based medicine to help meet their healthcare needs. FishBase database (www.THRD. Of the 8.edu/docs/002-217/002-217.NO). “Forest Peoples: Numbers across the World. Notes 1.THRD. Plants provide humanity with 80  percent of the human diet.HPT.ciesin.300 animal breeds known to humans. 2012.html.un. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 33 . United Kingdom: Forest Peoples Program. and habitat degradation. Safeguarding natural habitats and biodiversity As forests. Chao.MAM.pdf]. World Development Indicators database (ER. so does the world’s biodiversity. with roughly 12 percent of global forests now designated as protected areas. [www. EN. Many species are under threat of extinction due to climate change. S. and Latin America use traditional plant.000 5 0 1990 2014 0 15d Latin East SubEurope Middle East North South World America & Asia & Saharan & Central & North America Asia Caribbean Pacific Africa Asia Africa Source: United Nations Environmental Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre.LND.forestpeoples . 8  percent are extinct. 3.

conflict.000 people) 2014. 23 per 100. but homicide rates vary across and within regions. unjust laws. One monitoring tool is the proportion of the population that has experienced a dispute. 20 Afghanistan 15 Ukraine 10 Pakistan Iraq Nigeria South Sudan 5 0 Israel Yemen. 34 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide Somalia 0 10. and build effective. While global coverage is not yet available.PSRC. Latin Sub-Saharan North America & Africa America Caribbean South Asia Middle East Europe & North & Central Africa Asia East Asia & Pacific Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. and close to 12. and feels the process was just. with citizens and their daily lives compromised by fear. Intentional homicide occurs in every country.3). 2014 25 Syrian Arab Rep.000 40. many states are in fragile situations. World view People Environment . However. the most of any country (figure 16b). informal.000 60.000 Source: Uppsala Conflict Data Program. 2012 (per 100. Sub-Saharan Africa had 14 homicides per 100.BTL. Reducing violence and related deaths Protecting the lives of people is one of the most important obligations of states (target 16.1). East Asia and Pacific had the lowest: 2 homicides per 100. keeping governments accountable to citizens. accessed a formal. The success of the Sustainable Development Goals in such areas depends on achieving livable and calm communities supported by reliable and accountable institutions. and strong institutions Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development. alternative. In the same year. accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels Peaceful nations governed with fairness and transparency provide the optimal platforms for implementing development strategies and programs. provide access to justice for all. More than 54.000 people — almost four times the global average of 6 per 100. justice.250 people were killed in Afghanistan. Latin America and the Caribbean had the highest homicide rate in 2012. World Development Indicators database (VC. Escalation of several conflicts.IHR. Rep.000 people were killed in Syria in battle-related deaths in Latin America and the Caribbean had the highest homicide rate in 2012 16a Intentional homicides.DETH). Promoting justice Strong justice and rule of law systems provide mechanisms for resolving land and natural resource disputes.000 people.000 people (figure 16a).000 were killed in Iraq. World Development Indicators database (VC. about 12. or traditional dispute resolution mechanism. coupled with the extreme violence in the Syrian Arab Republic. and opaque governance.000 20.SDG 16 Peace. appropriate survey methodology has been developed over the past The majority of battle-related deaths occurred in three countries during 2014 16b Battle-related deaths.000 50. resulted in 2014 having the highest number of battled-related deaths since 1989. and giving businesses the confidence to enter into and enforce contracts (target 16.000 30.P5). One measure of peace is the absence of conflict-related deaths.000 people.

more than a tenth of countries deviated by more than 15 percentage points. L. Securing the right to information A citizen’s “right to know” reflects a country’s commitment to widespread.REG. most recent year available during 2006–15 (%) 40 a crucial tool in a wide range of public policies and programs in health. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 35 . Measuring both the quality of laws and legislative guarantees and their levels of implementation will be necessary to measure progress toward target 16. 2011 (%) 100 30 75 20 50 25 10 0 0 Less than 5 percent 5 percent to less than 10 percent 10 percent to less than 15 percent 15 percent or higher Source: Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Program (www .10. Economy States and markets Europe Latin World South Sub-Saharan & Central America & Asia Africa Asia Caribbean Source: United Nations Children’s Fund. implementation and enforcement of such guarantees and mechanisms are difficult to measure. marriages. and deaths.two decades and has been used by national statistical offices in more than 25 countries across all regions. In seeking legal identity for all. S. “Right to Information: Identifying Drivers of Effectiveness in Implementation. and transparent sustainable development (target 16. social protection. However. and V. such systems can provide Public expenditure was within 10 percent of the budget in two-thirds of countries 16c Share of countries surveyed. In Sub-Saharan Africa fewer than half of births are registered 16d Share of children under age 5 whose births were registered. 2014.” Right to Information Working Paper 2. Establishing legislative guarantees and mechanisms for public access to information safeguards fundamental freedoms and facilitates public input and review. fair. Providing legal identity for all Effective civil registration and vital statistics systems capture key life events. many births go unregistered. Washington. and in Sub-Saharan Africa fewer than half were registered (figure 16d). State of the World’s Children 2015: Reimagine the Future. and accountable public spending. In 2011 only 72 percent of children under age 5 had their births registered.9).10). including full birth registration by 2030 (target 16. food security. and labor and employment. World Development Indicators database (SP.1 Note 1. However. The Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Program assesses how close 144 national governments come to meeting their proposed targets. birth registration is nearly universal in Europe and Central Asia. water and sanitation. and around half of those were within 5 percentage points (figure 16c). E.pefa. effective. Over the past 10 years nearly two-thirds of participating countries were within 10  percentage points of their original budgets. Comparing actual primary government expenditure with the original approved budget is one way of analyzing how well government budgets are planned and public financial management is executed. Strengthening institutions Building stronger institutions requires efficient. DC. 2014. New York. Globally. education. World Bank. In contrast.BRTH. Trapnell.ZS). Lemieux..org). such as births.

Exports from the least developed countries are highly concentrated: In 2014 Angola. on a par with 2013 17a Net official development assistance. only marginally less than the net inflows of debt and foreign direct investment combined. Supporting the most vulnerable countries The world’s 48 least developed countries. In 2014 international remittances totaled $528  billion. The United States was the largest donor by volume: $32 billion in 2014. An estimated 232 million people.and middle-income countries’ export earnings. Bangladesh. to $137 billion in 2014. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development Increasing aid flows Official development assistance from members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) have increased 66 percent in real terms since 2000.25 e To ta Ne l DA C w Ze ala nd Au str ali a Au str ia Ca na da Ice lan d Un Jap a ite n d St at es Po rtu ga l Ita ly Sp ain Ko re Sl a o Cz ec ven i h Re a pu bli c Gr Sl ov ee ak ce Re pu bli c Po lan d d nc Fra Ire lan um an y lgi rm Be Ge d d lan er itz ds lan Sw lan Fin er Ne th rk om gd nm a Kin De d Un ite g ay rw No ur bo Lu x em Sw ed en 0. This was equivalent to 1.29 percent. Net official development assistance as a share of DAC countries’ combined gross national income (GNI) was 0.and middleincome countries (figure 17b).00 Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development–Development Assistance Committee.2 percent of the world’s population.29 percent. international remittances totaled $70 billion in 2014.SDG 17 Partnership for global development Coordinated global macroeconomic policies.and middleincome countries and high-income countries.75 0. home to 1 billion people.and middle-income countries are key to achieving development goals. Five DAC members exceeded the UN official development assistance target of 0. 36 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . the world’s largest recipient. account for only 3 percent of low. 3. increased aid flows for the poorest countries. 2014 (% of GNI) 1. and domestic resource mobilization in low.4 percent of GNI.1 International remittances. Humanitarian aid rose 22 percent in real terms in 2014 and accounted for 10 percent of net official development assistance flows.7 percent of GNI.25 1. or 3. have a profound impact on economic outcomes. or 0. in the form of personal transfers and compensation of employees. and Myanmar accounted for Net official development assistance as a share of Development Assistance Committee countries’ combined gross national income was 0.70 0. Enabling development through remittances International migration has an important role in economic relations between low. 72  percent ($378 billion) of which went to low. For India.19 percent of GNI. effective public-private partnerships. on a par with 2013 (figure 17a).50 0.00 United Nations target 0.7  percent of these countries’ combined GNI and close to two and a half times the level of official development assistance from DAC donors. live and work outside their home country.

2013. 11 September. investment commitments for public-private partnerships in infrastructure remain low.un. on a par with the 65 percent increase in those of other low. United Nations. [www.PWKR. to a record $158  billion.TOTL.and middle-income countries received commitments of $1.TRF.CD. In 2014 least developed countries’ export earnings fell 13 percent. and primary income ($ billions) 250 200 Other Least Developed Countries 150 Myanmar 100 Bangladesh 50 Angola 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: International Monetary Fund. Economy States and markets 2014 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 a.and middle-income countries. only half the level recorded prior to the Asian financial crisis.54 percent (figure 17c). copper. 1990 = 100) 1.DT). and 96 percent for water. World Development Indicators database (BX. services. Two expansions. and buoyant global economic conditions sparked a recovery (figure 17d). Exports were dominated by commodities.pdf]. and natural gas. 166 percent for transport.org/en/ga/68/meetings/migration/pdf /UN%20press%20release_International%20Migration%20Figures. World Development Indicators database (BX.800 infrastructure public-private partnership projects. Using public-private partnerships to finance infrastructure Public-private partnerships have a crucial role in improving efficiency in the delivery of public services and helping governments address infrastructure gaps. Exports from the Least Developed Countries are highly concentrated 17c Exports of goods. New York.” Press release. notably oil.6 percent. Source: World Bank Private Participation in Infrastructure Database (http://ppi.6  percent increase in other low. Commitments have been flat since 2012. at 0. Predicted based on the first semester of 2015. Over this period commitments rose 414 percent for energy. one contraction in publicprivate partnership investment since 1990 17d Investment commitments for public-private partnerships in low.2–0. 72 percent of personal remittances 17b went to low- and middle-income countries Personal remittances (personal transfers and compensation of employees) ($ billions) 600 increased sevenfold from 2005 to 2012. Between 2009 and 2013 strong global commodity prices drove the least developed countries’ export earnings up 63 percent. In relation to GDP.worldbank. From 1990 to 2014 low.44 trillion to finance more than 6.GSR.and middle-income countries (index. But the least developed countries’ lack of diversified export base leaves them vulnerable to global economic trends. favorable macroeconomic policies. compared with a 2. Commitments In 2014. gold. “232 Million International Migrants Living Abroad Worldwide– New Un Global Migration Statistics Reveal. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 37 . reflecting a slowdown in key emerging markets. The pattern of commitments has been uneven.250 Expansion Expansion 1.and middle-income countries.CD). with strong growth prior to the 1997 Asian financial crisis followed by sharp declines before structural reforms.000 Absolute total Other low and middle income 400 750 500 200 India 250 Share of GDP High income 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Source: International Monetary Fund. Note 1.org).

location.Cross-cutting issue Statistical capacity Data and statistics High-quality data and statistics underpin national decision-making processes.18 and 17. and segments of society. Calculated since 2004 using publicly available information. Of the 10 countries with the highest overall indicator value for 2015. will be required. Notable improvements were a new base year and weights for the consumer price index. economies.Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa have the lowest average. and civil society. Statistical capacity has improved in all regions SC2 Average Statistical Capacity Indicator (0. low. Ghana has seen a steady increase in its overall average score. from 51 to 66. to 100. high) 100 75 40 50 20 1991 1995 2000 2005 2010 2012 Source: World Development Indicators database (SI. income group. and policy formulation. The composite indicator combines a variety of different measures to illustrate general trends. 3 were in Latin America and the Caribbean. and better estimates of vaccination coverage. Source: World Development Indicators database (IQ. For most indicators the best ways to improve data availability are to invest in national statistical capacity and to develop stronger partnerships among international agencies. program design. For example. but Sub. age.POV. rebased national accounts. 38 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide 2015 0 0 2004 25 Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean East Asia & Pacific South Asia Middle East Sub-Saharan & North Africa Africa Note: Excludes high-income countries. The World Bank’s Statistical Capacity Indicator is one tool for comparing statistical capacity across countries and over time. and 7 were in Europe and Central Asia. The average of the Statistical Capacity Indicator has increased in all regions over the last decade (figure SC2). The need for improvements are explicit in targets 17. These investments work: Data availability has steadily improved over the last two decades. For instance. Agenda 2030 pledges that no one will be left behind and that the goals and targets will be met by all countries.NAHC). guiding resource allocation. it measures low. World view People Environment . governments.OVRL). people. but the components can help identify specific areas where progress is being made and where improvements are still needed. and societies.SCI.19 and are a foundation for Agenda 2030: Reliable data are needed to measure progress and support implementation of every one of the Sustainable Development Goals. Major investment in appropriate The availability of poverty incidence estimates has improved SC1 Number of countries with estimates of poverty headcount ratios 60 instruments.and middle-income countries’ ability to collect and disseminate statistics about their populations. such as household surveys and civil and vital registration systems. the number of countries with enough estimates of poverty incidence to measure a meaningful trend increased from just 2 in 1991 to 53 in 2012 (figure SC1). and other dimensions of development takes on new importance. This pledge places new demands on data and statistics and means that disaggregation by sex. private sector investment. because of better statistical methodologies.

and 9. Between 2010 and 2014 the number of automated teller machines rose quickly FI2 Number (per 100. 2014 (%) scarce. 2. Between 2011 and 2014.Cross-cutting issue Financial inclusion Access to financial services enables individuals and firms to manage sudden changes in income. Economy States and markets 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: International Monetary Fund Financial Access Survey. But around 2 billion adults worldwide do not have such an account. In a select group of 10 low. use of. Financial inclusion means having access to a full range of affordable formal financial products and services.TOTL. The physical infrastructure of the financial system has been improving. and quality of services.P5. While the number of bank branches per adult remained more or less unchanged worldwide between 2010 and 2014. relevant data have been Small and medium-size enterprises have financial accounts but do not obtain loans FI1 Share of firms with 5–99 employees. a large share of small and medium-size enterprises have an account at a financial institution. reported using mobile money services. 700  million adults became new accountholders. 3.P5).BRCH. Important aspects are access to. and make productive investments. Improving access to financial services is a cross-cutting target of the Sustainable Development Goals and is explicitly recognized in Sustainable Development Goals 1. Moreover.ATM. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 39 .CBK. Financial inclusion is a complex concept and is difficult to measure. 8. Financial inclusion is an important enabler of development. World Development Indicators database (FB. and the share of adults with an account at a financial institution increased from 51 percent to 61 percent. It promotes better use of resources and better access to essential services and enables a higher quality of life. and many small businesses cannot access the financial instruments they need. adults need access to an account or an electronic instrument to securely store money. One measure of access to financial services is account ownership. delivered responsibly by sustainable institutions. 5. though recent efforts are improving the situation. the number of automated teller machines rose quickly (figure FI2). smooth cash flow. To manage their financial lives. accumulate assets.and middleincome countries with data for 2014. while not having an account at a financial institution. Another 1 percent. And innovative ways of accessing financial services are making brickand-mortar branches less relevant in many cases. send payments. and receive deposits. but only a small share obtains financing through loans (figure FI1). FB.000 adults) 60 Sudan Automated teller machines Namibia Burundi 40 Mauritania India Malawi Senegal 20 Branches Nigeria Afghanistan Myanmar 0 20 With a loan or line of credit With an account at a financial institution 40 60 80 100 Source: World Bank Enterprise Surveys.

POP. Fragility.5  million refugees. conflict. and violence. progress toward each Sustainable Development Goal will be severely impacted in regions affected by fragility. Sustainable Development Goals 4 (quality education). The two regions also lead the world in granting asylum to refugees. These failures affect the economy by discouraging investments and causing capital flight. Episodes of unrest can reverse development efforts and rapidly dismantle achievements built over a long time. The number of forcibly displaced persons — which includes internally displaced people. 8 (productive Most refugees are from the Middle East and North Africa and Sub. SM. conflict. and violence often lead to a paradoxical surge in birth rates. UN Women: Gender Equality. their children will need to be educated. or violent situation. 2014 (millions) 10 By region of origin By region of asylum 8 6 4 2 0 Middle East SubSouth East Europe & Latin North & North Saharan Asia Asia & Central America & America Africa Africa Pacific Asia Caribbean Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Statistical Online Population Database.4 million (figure FCV1). 40 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide employment and economic growth). fragility. In 2014 the Middle East and North Africa was the region of origin for 4.and middle-income countries absorb refugees. conflict. increasing pressure on already strained education and health systems. and Sub-Saharan Africa was the region of origin for 4.org/womenwatch/daw/followup/session /presskit/fs5. and the rogue exploitation of mineral and natural resources often finances and fuels conflicts. trust between citizens and governments. Sustainability means that refugees will need to find decent work. In fragile. Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century.POP. rule of law. refugees. www. around a fifth of the world’s population is estimated to be in a fragile.un. and asylum seekers — is estimated to be 60 million. impacting behavioral codes and trust in government and aggravating ethnic or religious friction. and their surroundings become dangerous. along social. Fact Sheet 5. conflict. 87 percent of whom came from the Syrian Arab Republic. conflict. conflict. and human rights fail when countries become fragile or are affected by conflict or violence. and 10 (reduce inequalities) will be directly impacted as low. Impacting lives and livelihoods In fragile.OR. Fragility. the highest since World War II. and violent situations shadow economies tend to flourish. REFG. World view People Environment .1 Combined with the erosion of women’s education and rights (including access to reproductive health services). Overall. and the numbers of internally displaced persons and refugees increase. spanning the 35 countries on the World Bank’s Harmonized List of Fragile Situations as well as pockets of violence in other countries. and violence damage the social fabrics and social contract of countries. and violence often disproportionately affect the health and safety of women and children.REFG). Note 1.Saharan Africa FCV1 Number of refugees. and violence While Sustainable Development Goal 16 is dedicated to promoting peaceful societies. conflict. and violent situations individuals and their day-to-day lives are threatened. People flee. justice. and physical dimensions.Cross-cutting issue Fragility. and the conflicts and poverty in their home countries will need to be resolved. political economy. conflict. World Development Indicators database (SM.htm. Eroding institutions and political economy Governance. The influx of refugees to host countries presents challenges.

that help maintain ecosystems. cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species. and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change.b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries.3 By 2030. agricultural research and extension services. technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries. flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality 2. vocational and tertiary education. quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all 3. double the agricultural productivity and incomes of smallscale food producers.2 By 2030. in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations.2 By 2030. care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education 4. substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air. in particular the poor and the vulnerable. ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production. especially in least developed countries and small island developing States 3. currently measured as people living on less than $1. access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe. tuberculosis. in particular developing countries. based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies. including infants.2 By 2030.000 live births 3. in particular women. in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round Economy States and markets Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information. natural resources. in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health. water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases 3. including university Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 41 . other productive resources and inputs. malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis. regional and international levels. ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical. including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national. including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol 3. end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age. including on food reserves. women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions 1. financial services. in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries. pastoralists and fishers. extreme weather. risk reduction and management of national and global health risks Goal 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 4. for early warning. pregnant and lactating women and older persons 2. in order to help limit extreme food price volatility Goal 3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages 3.1 By 2030.1 By 2030. and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable 1.a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries.Sustainable Development Goals and targets Goal 1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere 2. the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age. nutritious and sufficient food all year round 2. family farmers. reduce by one third premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being 3. training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries.9 By 2030. end the epidemics of AIDS. appropriate new technology and financial services. maintain the genetic diversity of seeds. water and soil pollution and contamination 3. drought.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national. including through secure and equal access to land. ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development. ownership and control over land and other forms of property. including for family planning. including financial risk protection. provide access to medicines for all 3. with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1. as internationally agreed Increase investment. indigenous peoples. in rural infrastructure.4 By 2030.000 live births 3.6 By 2020. equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes 4. including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect. effective. halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents 3. markets and opportunities for value addition and nonfarm employment 2. regional and international levels. in particular least developed countries Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets.25 a day 1.c 1.5 By 2030. in particular. end all forms of malnutrition.4 By 2030.2 By 2030.1 By 2030. information and education. ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services.4 By 2030. including achieving. as well as access to basic services. including through enhanced development cooperation. to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions 1. eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere. reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries. by 2025.7 By 2030. provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines. and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes 3. which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on TradeRelated Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health. achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture 2. ensure that all men and women. including microfinance 1.b By 2020. have equal rights to economic resources. as appropriate 3.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources. including through enhanced international cooperation. development. to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions Goal 2 End hunger. and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls. and.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse.c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment.a 2.3 By 2030.5 2. inheritance. end hunger and ensure access by all people. build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic.8 Achieve universal health coverage. knowledge.3 By 2030.000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1. ensure that all girls and boys complete free. to safe.1 By 2030. reduce at least by half the proportion of men.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all. in particular least developed countries. social and environmental shocks and disasters 1. including floors.

with developed countries taking the lead 5.4 By 2030. wetlands. reliable and modern energy services 7.3 Eliminate all harmful practices. indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations 4. substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere 5. promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence.a By 2030.2 By 2030.2 By 2030. in particular least developed countries. non-violent.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities. rivers. for enrolment in higher education. entrepreneurship. reliable.4 Improve progressively. full and productive employment and decent work for all 5.c By 2030. gender equality. through 2030. to promote the empowerment of women 5.a 42 Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources. technological upgrading and innovation. paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations 6. in developed countries and other developing countries 4. creativity and innovation. including water harvesting.b By 2020. among others. decent job creation. energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology. ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults. engineering and scientific programmes. recycling and reuse technologies 6. for employment. including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation 5. implement integrated water resources management at all levels. aquifers and lakes 6. achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all 6. at least 7 percent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries 8.Sustainable Development Goals and targets (continued) 4.5 By 2030.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services. technical.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences 8.b Enhance the use of enabling technology. expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water.5 By 2030. desalination. as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property. global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation.3 By 2030. and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology 7. including technical and vocational skills. halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally 6. and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-. forests. inclusive and effective learning environments for all 4. improve water quality by reducing pollution. including renewable energy. eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable. enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology. achieve literacy and numeracy 4. substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries.1 By 2030. in accordance with their respective programmes of support 5. in accordance with the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production. including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries.7 By 2030. including mountains. both men and women. especially least developed countries and small island developing States Goal 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 6. substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills. through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles. small island developing States and landlocked developing countries. including vocational training and information and communications technology. in particular least developed countries. sustainable and modern energy for all 7. smalland medium-sized enterprises. wastewater treatment. ensure universal access to affordable. ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development. such as child. increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix 7. protect and restore water-related ecosystems. inclusive and sustainable economic growth.a By 2030.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management Goal 7 Ensure access to affordable. economic and public life Goal 8 Promote sustained. substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 6. including persons with disabilities. including.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres.b By 2030. human rights. eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials. including through access to financial services 8. water efficiency. in particular. decent jobs and entrepreneurship 4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child. including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors 8. infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate 5.c Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and.3 By 2030.4 By 2030. early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation 5. in accordance with national laws 5.6 By 2030.6 By 2020. double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency 7. including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate 6.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification. in particular information and communications technology. expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries. achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation. disability and gender sensitive and provide safe.and sanitation-related activities and programmes. small island developing States and African countries. financial services. inheritance and natural resources. global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development 4.1 By 2030.

accountable and legitimate institutions 10. in particular in developing countries.c By 2030. resilience to disasters.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises. education or training 10. reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities. race. regular and responsible migration and mobility of people. upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable.4 Adopt policies. including affordable credit. substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion. older persons and persons with disabilities 11.a Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries.2 By 2030. significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective. in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements 10. including.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers. to States where the need is greatest. by 2030. including through the implementation of planned and wellmanaged migration policies 10. persons with disabilities and older persons 11. especially fiscal. technological and technical support to African countries.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome. landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 9.1 By 2030. in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials Goal 10 Reduce inequality within and among countries 10. resource efficiency. in line with national circumstances. policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation. with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all 9. in particular least developed countries.1 Develop quality. accessible and sustainable transport systems for all. inclusive and accessible. policies and action in this regard 8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking. origin. notably by expanding public transport.1 By 2030. in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.6 By 2030. improving road safety. green and public spaces. with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations 11. provide universal access to safe. including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to least developed countries 8. in accordance with their national plans and programmes 10. significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and. insurance and financial services for all 8. sex.a Enhance scientific research. in particular least developed countries. to support economic development and human well-being.4 By 2030. women. empower and promote the social. least developed countries. irrespective of age. including by eliminating discriminatory laws.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations 10. reliable. mitigation and adaptation to climate change. economic and political inclusion of all. and double its share in least developed countries 9. affordable. safe.8. including regional and transborder infrastructure. enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory. and progressively achieve greater equality 8. integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries 11.b By 2020. and their integration into value chains and markets 9. with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes.6 By 2020. promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation 9.5 By 2030. achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men. religion or economic or other status Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 43 . in particular for women and children.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows. including for young people and persons with disabilities. in particular women migrants.7 By 2030. in particular least developed countries.7 Facilitate orderly. and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms 10. industrial diversification and value addition to commodities 9. with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities 9. with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations.3 By 2030. provide access to safe.c Support least developed countries. to financial services. resilient and sustainable 11. research and innovation in developing countries. including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management 11.2 By 2030. safe. upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries.a Support positive economic. ensure access for all to adequate. including migrant workers. substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment. credible. reduce to less than 3 percent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 percent 8. progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average 10.b Support domestic technology development. peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning 11. encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial. including foreign direct investment. and develop and implement.b By 2020. including water-related disasters. including through financial and technical assistance.5 9. small island developing States and landlocked developing countries. wage and social protection policies. African countries. disability. ethnicity. develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization Goal 9 Build resilient infrastructure. holistic disaster risk management at all levels 11. inter alia. and equal pay for work of equal value 10. end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour. including recruitment and use of child soldiers. and those in precarious employment 8.9 By 2030.5 By 2030. devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products 8. including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020 Goal 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries. in particular developing countries. safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums 11. children. social and environmental links between urban. by 2030. sustainable and resilient infrastructure.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage 11.

conserve at least 10 percent of coastal and marine areas.2 12. restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems. in accordance with agreed international frameworks. impact reduction and early warning 13. including marine debris and nutrient pollution 12.3 By 2030. in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible. illegal. consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information 14. recycling and reuse By 2020. aquaculture and tourism 12. protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species * Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international.4 By 2020. especially large and transnational companies.a 12.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification.1 Implement the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns. in particular forests.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries 13. all countries taking action. mountains and drylands. and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss 15.2 By 2030. combat desertification. taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries 14. halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains. wetlands. including by strengthening their resilience.6 12. in line with obligations under international agreements 15. drought and floods. and significantly reduce their release to air. 44 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . develop research capacity and transfer marine technology. including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies. and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans 14. in accordance with national circumstances.3 Improve education.5 By 2030. including land affected by desertification. where they exist. combat desertification. substantially reduce waste generation through prevention.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate changerelated planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States.6 Encourage companies.2 By 2020. promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests.4 12. sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats. in particular from land-based activities. adaptation. eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.3 By 2030. youth and local and marginalized communities Goal 15 Protect. halt the loss of biodiversity and.5 12. water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment 14. restore degraded land and soil. ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems. unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans. sustainably manage forests. in particular small island developing States and least developed countries 14.4 By 2030.7 By 2030. achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle. as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want” Goal 13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts* 13. to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle By 2020. ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature By 2020.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies. ensure the conservation. reduction. including focusing on women. taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology. with developed countries taking the lead. including their biodiversity. effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing. at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics 14. including post-harvest losses By 2020.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable. prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds. in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development 15. achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources 14. by 2020.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production 14. taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities Increase scientific knowledge. halt deforestation. increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources. awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions. prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing. including through sustainable management of fisheries. restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services.8 By 2030. to reflect their environmental impacts.1 By 2020.Sustainable Development Goals and targets (continued) Goal 12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns Goal 14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets 14.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible 13. and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world 15. intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies. in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products 14. which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources. seas and marine resources for sustainable development 12. in accordance with national policies and priorities 12. restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally 15. including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels 12. strategies and planning 13. recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation 12.1 By 2025.

15 to 0. complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere 16.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments. including for conservation and reforestation 15. in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020 17. in particular at the United Nations level. ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0. and contribute to facilitating market access 17. enhance capacity-building support to developing countries.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development 17.19 By 2030.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing. in particular in developing countries.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources. strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime 16.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries. building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships 17.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms 16.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries 17. migratory status. to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection 17.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all 16. rules-based. including through international cooperation.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science. participatory and representative decisionmaking at all levels 16. debt relief and debt restructuring. including on concessional and preferential terms. including through North-South.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals.16 Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development. and through a global technology facilitation mechanism 17.18 By 2020. transfer. as mutually agreed 17. gender. dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species. including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda 17.6 Enhance North-South.17 Encourage and promote effective public.6 Develop effective. accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 16.9 By 2030. as internationally agreed 15. timely and reliable data disaggregated by income. geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts Economy States and markets 17. South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science. including for least developed countries and small island developing States.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization.7 Promote the development.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development 17. provide access to justice for all and build effective.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development 17. South-South and triangular cooperation 17. including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management.2 End abuse. including through international support to developing countries. disability. non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization. to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime 16. open. poverty reduction strategies and accounts 15.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries. in accordance with national legislation and international agreements 16. ethnicity. in particular developing countries Goal 17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development 17. including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple. and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress 17. including birth registration 16. for building capacity at all levels.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms. consistent with World Trade Organization decisions. trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children 16. age. race.7 Ensure responsive. technology and innovation and enhance knowledge-sharing on mutually agreed terms. exploitation. including through policy coordination and policy coherence 17. to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries. technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology.15. technology and financial resources. introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species 15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems 15.4 By 2030. including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities Goal 16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development. inclusive. build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product. in particular information and communications technology 17.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products 15. provide legal identity for all. expertise.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries. integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning.a Strengthen relevant national institutions. accountable and transparent institutions at all levels 16. and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 45 .3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources 17. public-private and civil society partnerships.9 By 2020.8 By 2020. including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0. as appropriate. development processes.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance 16.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries 17. significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows. to increase significantly the availability of high-quality.10 Promote a universal.

S.) Dominica Martinique (Fr. This map shows the country-level poverty estimates used to generate the 2012 regional and global poverty estimates. Vincent and the Grenadines R.S.) Paraguay Antigua and Barbuda U.90 a day poverty line is the average poverty line of the 15 poorest countries in the world. The PPP 2011 $1.0–24.90 a day is the share of the population living on less than $1.) St. estimated from household surveys conducted by national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervision of government or international agencies. estimates for those countries are based on the 2005 PPP $1. Cambodia. 2012 (%) 50. (U.B.0–49. de Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago IBRD 41450 46 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .) Sint Maarten (Neth.0 or more Canada 25.) Caribbean Inset Puerto Dominican Rico.K. Cabo Verde.K. The 2012 Poverty Greenland (Den.) Argentina St.S.B.9 Less than 2. U. Kitts and Nevis Chile Guadeloupe (Fr.) Uruguay Barbados St.) Haiti Honduras Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica R. Lucia Curaçao (Neth. It is also referred to as the extreme poverty rate. Income and consumption data used for estimating poverty are also collected from household surveys.9 2. Martin (Fr.) Mexico The Bahamas Cuba Jamaica Belize Turks and Caicos Is.) Ecuador Kiribati Brazil Peru Samoa Fiji American Samoa (U.) St.90 a day in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Republic Tonga Bolivia Anguilla (U.estimates are the latest comprehensive update and draw on more than 2 million randomly sampled households. representing 87 percent of the population in 131 low- and middle-income countries (as defined in 1990). The poverty headcount ratio at $1. de Panama Venezuela Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana (Fr.S.K. Because 2011 PPPs for Bangladesh. Lao PDR.9 10.) Share of population living on less than 2011 PPP $1.25 a day poverty line.0 United States No data Bermuda (U.) French Polynesia (Fr.0–9.90 a day. Virgin Islands (U. and Jordan require further investigation.

Between 1990 and 2012 the number of people living on less than $1. China Myanmar Lao PDR Eritrea Rep.Rep.of Korea Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Georgia AzerRep.People’s Rep.) Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia Madagascar Botswana La Réunion (Fr. Armenia baijan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Greece Turkey Bulgaria Tunisia Morocco Algeria Libya Niger Chad Senegal The Burkina Gambia Faso Guinea GuineaBenin Bissau Central Nigeria CôteGhana Sierra Leone African d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Liberia Togo Equatorial Guinea São Tomé and Príncipe Sudan China Afghanistan Islamic Rep. The share of people living in extreme poverty is projected to fall below 10 percent for the first time by 2015.25 a day) in the world’s poorest 15 countries. Burundi of Congo Tanzania Hong Kong SAR.) Russian Federation Iceland Finland Norway Sweden Estonia Latvia United Kingdom Denmark Lithuania Ireland Germany Poland Belarus Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Liechtenstein Switzerland Ukraine Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Romania France Dem. of Yemen Djibouti South Ethiopia Sudan Japan Nepal Pakistan Singapore Nauru In d o n esi a Papua New Guinea Seychelles Zambia Malawi Tuvalu Mauritius Mayotte (Fr.S. of Egypt Western Sahara Czech Republic Slovak Republic Austria Fiji New Caledonia (Fr. of Iran Saudi Arabia Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Bhutan Bangladesh United Arab Emirates Oman India Thailand Guam (U.) Swaziland South Africa Kiribati Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Angola Lesotho Europe Inset Vanuatu Poland Germany Mali Jordan Arab Rep.The new poverty line of 2011 PPP $1. from nearly 2 billion to 897 million.90 a day was more than halved.of Korea Ukraine Spain Monaco Portugal Andorra New Zealand FYR Macedonia Albania Greece Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 47 .) Vietnam Cambodia Uganda Kenya Rep.90 a day in the world fell from 37. of Gabon Congo Rwanda Dem.) Australia Hungary Slovenia Romania Croatia San Marino Bosnia and Serbia Herzegovina Italy Montenegro Kosovo Bulgaria Cabo Mauritania Verde Syrian Arab Rep. Mariana Islands (U.) Federated States of Micronesia Palau Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Philippines Brunei Darussalam Sri Lanka Somalia Comoros N. Iraq Cyprus Lebanon Israel West Bank and Gaza Malta Rep. Greenland (Den.7 percent in 2012. The share of people living on less than $1. China Macao SAR.S.0 percent in 1990 to 12.90 a day preserves the real purchasing power of the previous line (2005 PPP $1.

4 . .350 2.140 4.0 7. Rep. .5 159.840 40.515.1 37.4 5.. .3 700 28.6 16.8 94 44 9.5 207.8 14.097.3 Cameroon 22.3 6.350 67.3 0. .3 181.910 4..4 207 24 1..7 4. Andorra 0.8 650 9.8 4.840 1.e .7 4 82 1.880 3.200 6.6 1.364.190 0.8 1.8 5.2 0.1 0.0 15 44 1.098.4 0.0 –1.5 890 21.0 40.450 3.9 47.340 166.4 6.. ..430 2.5 1.3 9.1 World view Population Afghanistan Population density Urban population Gross national income millions thousand sq.5 3.450 3.9 104 66 423.8 1.3 16.3 3.5 22.8 0.5 86.0 7.6 790 1.0 29.3 15.610 1.1 –0.700 2.9 3.3 72.1 0.140 –0.4 43.0 –0.790 3.1 7.5 7.0 1. 64. .4 659 32 4. .0 Bolivia 10.1 24 89 264.780.e 1. Cabo Verde 35..9 4.6 1.290 1.380 0.030 4.984.8 421 12 2.330 6.6 10 68 30.6 274.400 17.5 4.0 f 19.0 87 21 15.5 –2.7 380 48..b 1.320 1.600 161.2 –0.4 680 Albania 2.6 3.920 2..304 100 6.0 67 74 55. .080 529.170 7.1 2.c Austria 8.290 5.2 3..3 Bulgaria 7.490 540.7 Bahamas.6 47 76 69.5 4.8 1.3 –1.600 4.284.060 50.6 0.560 –2.209..4 120.1 76.1 148. –0.3 2.8 1.0 11 22 13.3 10..8 10.1 Colombia 47.8 1.6 1.7 1.720 23.3 2..5d –0.8 37.1 0. 17.0 128 65 1.9 106.8 623.020 47.7 . km % of total population $ billions Per capita $ $ billions 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 Atlas method Purchasing power parity 63.4 –2.4 206.680 4.2 1. China 0.3 247 100 .980 2..2 13.3 0.9 28.246.8 Barbados 0.562. Congo..6 652.0 20.590 3.8 38.5 3.5 83.3 Canada 51. 1.320 409.7 43 76 381.2 1.3 24. .7 Hong Kong SAR.8 756.9 21.1 Burkina Faso 17.0 ..966.7 16 70 213.7 Macao SAR.970 616..090 1.7 19 43 .020 Aruba 0.0 5.9 0.516.344.0 13..5 3. 0.0 8 40 1.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.2 857 31 .9 3.0 Burundi 10.5 Cambodia 15.5 1.480 Armenia 3.769 89 28. China 7.6 320 2..2 111.2 6. .4 7.9 145 54 10.270 .600 404.9 600 1.. .6d 25.5 4.2 1.1 6.5 4.1 0.240 495.4 Benin 10.9 48 26 21.600 1.2 Australia .8 3.1 –0.7 21.9 Belize 0.2 581..9 38 83 8.5 155 86 3.5 Belgium 11.4 5.310 4.9 414 28 0.1 Belarus 9.6 2.5 3.9 2.8 2.1 4.3 0.4 8.550 1.8 25 85 2..200 2. .3 1.0 –0. .2 44.6 114...141..3 66.2 575 42 .9 49.4 23.5 9.1 1.4 20 38 1.4 2.630 1.1 Botswana 2..5 44.576.4 13.5 371 98 530..2 64 29 12..1 4.8 3.4 74.897 100 292.6 16.1 0. Rep.9 12.000a 31.2 2..1 Cayman Islands 0.8 1. 48 Surface area World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .4 Azerbaijan 9.9 270 8. 23.190 –2.620 121.570 0.8 –3.8 79 77 15. .6 1.. Central African Republic 4. km people per sq.2 30.1 1.1 5.7 Brazil Brunei Darussalam 0.4 Bahrain Bangladesh 1.835.4 48 54 30.2 Congo.381.0 2.c .4 1.950 5.350 2.7 4 57 16.980 8.8 American Samoa 0.1 8.370 5.6 7.3 770 4.2 277 87 .5 13.1 0.270 69.6 7..2a Gross domestic product Per capita $ % growth Per capita % growth 2014 2013–14 2013–14 2.9 13.5 7.4 2.020 6.8 106 56 12.3 .4 21.2 13.222 34 171.910 378.370 4.450 31.7 11.240 35.8 Bermuda Bhutan 0.870 66. .7 56.8 27.741. .3 980 28.0 0.4 16 92 579.300 Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina .6 115 54 72.1 44.320 29.4 15.073 100 44.0 13 65 12.570 2.5 1.2 2.8 0...8 475.070 7.6 47.2 75 40 18.080 7.049.8 Chad Channel Islands Chile China .7 106 63 12. ..6 Comoros 0.8 1.3 Algeria 38.b 43.9 33 42 28.1 4.6 1. The 0.280 5.5 342. Dem.8 0.0 7. .429.9 2.3 15.2 3 89 1.8 51..8 17.e .

0 4 28 3.104. Islamic Rep.1 0.1 21.3a 6.1 93 76 48.190 g .3 6.380 2.9 140 53 923.5 5..0 1. .570 3.7 Iran.0 88.2 10...8 384 57 8. . .2 0.590 104.3 67 63 214.950 2.5 6.5 0.287.2 273.2 47. Arab Rep.9 93. .5 41.800 1.9 40.6 0.9 149 51 55.3 42.8 51.0 550 2.5 118 53 42.0 1.100 0.410 6.8 96 69 0.5 3.2 11.. Israel 8.630 2.0 89.3 Honduras 8.2 38 77 .5 2.3 125 67 Cuba Czech Republic 22.3 78 250.592.3 3.7 7 87 16.7 820 1..0 357. .330 264. km % of total population $ billions 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 Atlas method Purchasing power parity Per capita $ $ billions 2014 2014 Gross domestic product Per capita $ % growth Per capita % growth 2013–14 2014 2013–14 4.910 –0. .1 7.830 5.1 0..0 Greenland 0. .8 61...7 Djibouti 0.3 6.. .5 78.2 16.210i 14.4 18 84 264.450 69.5 90 43 287.280 2..7 Equatorial Guinea 0.7 1. .9 6.853.6 Greece 84 22.200 4.530 525.320 Back World Development Indicators 2016 49 .0 17.600 7.6 153 52 .1 27.9 3.120 68.190 3...730 2..590 4.9 –2.350 13.6 Economy States and markets Global links .4 64 64 96.j .420 3.0 3.900 4. .843.7 267.4 Dominica .520 197..0 19. . . .7 215 78 62. 2.e .9 256.960 3.295.810 296. Indonesia 78.1 12..World view 1 Population Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Surface area Population density Urban population Gross national income millions thousand sq.3 Finland 5.920 48.6 70.0 1..930 0.2 80 69 227.630 7.3g –1..480 3.0 Iceland 0. Gabon 1.7 42.6 43.6 15.4g 1.1 12.9 10.8 France 66.9 1.350 302. 0...2 31 68 25. Cyprus 1.9 23.6 20.0 3.6 33.0 108.7l 69..5 1. . km people per sq. .8 Isle of Man 0.3 –3.130 8...1 10.b .080l 4.580 0.940 5.0 4. .4 3..430 116.6 550 145. .9 8.745.3 245.7 5.2 4.010 36.720 Germany 81.6 27.0 7.m 33. .4 351 89 .8 238.2 Eritrea 5.280.370 g 24.4 48.3 436 32 2.4 0.5n Grenada 0.0 11.590 3..5 8..5 28..5 17..8 10.6 3.8 36..1 1.490l..5 70 53 32.0 76 56 .0 109 71 131.1 2.4 109.270 36.8 28.250 4.870 7.2 Faroe Islands 0.940a 5.2 22..9 50 37 5.4 4.570 7.090 178..6 51 22 . .4 35 42 .8 6. The 1.2 322.050 0.1 29 40 8. ...490 2..7 1.7 2..655.0 1..0 3 94 15.1 64 49 1.9 10. 6.120 1..1 86 .292..0 Ireland 4.8 0o 0.910 .9 Dominican Republic 10.2 1. 3.6 Hungary 9.9 136 73 193.6 14.0 11. Estonia 1..2 2. .7 10.0 India 254.9g 29.8 0.3 191 59 0..8 470 13. –2.e 9.2 0.9 107 77 .910.0 Guinea . .7 1.660 –0.4 10.1 –5. .001.1 410.3 97 19 53.7 1.6 47. .1 Guyana 0.190 5.0 295 66 23.1 1.100 –2.5 338.9 18.3 10.6 27.1l .0 112.3 103.5 1.1 117.630 –0.6 3.8l 6..6 48.1 Ecuador 15.740 2.9 11.e 7.1 18.9 12.340 236.... .5 71 54 18.9 6.7 3..2 Ethiopia 97.440 221.0k .844..460 1.5g 26.2 232 75 3. .1 Guam 0. .3 23.7 4.3 4.0 Gambia.1 121 79 2.4 29.7 2.7 3.3 Guinea-Bissau 1.6 13.5 1.8l 9.6 76 59 55. 313 36 0.130 0.9 3.2 56.7l 4.1 380 92 290.000 2.300 2.e 35.h 0.0 46.8 435.2 549.2 El Salvador 6.0 Iraq 34.500 10.1 Egypt.980 4.3 6.4 Haiti 18.2 –0.3 3.3 French Polynesia 0.3 45.5 310 94 .850 1.e Fiji 0. 49 53 4.1 133 88 345..6 1.2 9.e ..720 5.8 215. 1.2 48 73 549.3 7.3 2.0 1.040 131.7 46.0 Denmark 5.4 –0.0 1.2 4.2 46.5 .3 Georgia 3.210 920.5 Curaçao 0. Guatemala 16.3 4.7 79l 53 16.9 132..1 0.9 460 3.4 –2. .1 Ghana 26.4 22.028.5 40. .8 5..

7 38.250 13..4 100.4 824.4 50 58 11.8 46 64 446. .630 22.6 23.1 2 71 12.300a 1.6 Luxembourg 0.500p Mexico Moldova 3. km people per sq.250 46.7 236.4 125. People’s Rep.3 3 46 13.697.990 Kuwait 3.8 Mauritius 1.7 3.5 10.910 3.3 36.8 1.290 q 16.4 65 79 1.3 47 67 45.7 Libya 6.2 .9 45 9.0 Netherlands 16.3 41 34 10..220 3.1 1.7 –1..4 3.7 2.3 517 82 1.. Fed. .2 4.150 27.6 3..270 .4 3.1 0.4 15.846.5 9.5 177 16 4.6 2.5 19.e 100.2 14 39 11.6p .9 Marshall Islands 0.560p 19. .070 q 251..330 6.7 Malaysia 29.9 1.2 16.2 34.5 2. 5.5 Kyrgyz Republic 5.870 2..200 3.1 0.9 1.3 2. 8.1 378.9 167 . Rep.6 9.9 299.6 10..150 3.8 199.2 4.0 64.9 330..200 0.6 3.810 6..6p 33.e 0.4 3.4 0.0 1.8 5.030.1 700 0.9 2.3 Lebanon 4.6 2.0 49.. .1a 16.9 Korea. 32.3 2.4 440 33.950 3. FYR 2.120 7.6 –5.6 15 70 .7 2.8 136 44 0.8 29 38 11.3 18.9 9.9 1.5 267.8 11.8q 7.3 1.0 4.0 –1.300 Jamaica Japan Jordan Kiribati 2014 Gross domestic product 60.700a –1.410 5..1 1.9 18.0 120.790 4.570 4.0k 0.3 1.9 Micronesia.360 2.7 1.5 8.120 7.0a 17..8 Italy 0.6 82 34 2. .5 501 90 874.0 0.7 5.640 0.3 207 69 2.2 Mauritania 4..9 Kosovo 1.710 4.1 Macedonia.6 370 3.410 77.3 0.964.630 23.337 44 2.2 41.8 1.0 7.1 30..960 36.6 Namibia 4.8 Kazakhstan 17.8 Latvia 2.5q 7.267.1p Monaco 0.336 95 8.812 100 .580 2.850 375.120 –0.1 6.1 World view Population Population density Urban population millions thousand sq.6 27.3 2.030 80.4 79 25 58.5 .2 0.390 2.850 –1.3 1. .4 –3. 25.2 0.j .4 35 32 Myanmar 53.759.237.564.3 2.7 17 86 185.650 3.8 5.0 33. .1 9.1 1.250 18.1 42. .6 .4 10.4 676.5 208 61 .6 587.340a 3.. .7 118.5 32 67 30.7 79.5 5.3 3.5 65.9 21.2a 33.8 211 98 185.2 35.0 130. 0.5 15.7p .1 1.0 621 40 12.4 Maldives 0.660 33.3 2.3 74 83 34.5 6.8 24.8 Lesotho 2.5 4 78 49. 50.2 Malta 0.820 –24.8 10.6 76 60 Mozambique 27.160 78.240.3 .3 75.8 2.8 1.9 30 36 7. . Dem.1 5.000 11.590a –3. New Zealand 4.400 3.0k 0.724.450 –0. 7.7 4 59 5.390 4.6p 5.3 68.0 –23.0 349 93 5.270 14.1 1.3 13.8 3.9 Morocco 50 Surface area 1.4 1.5 7.0q 1.2 197 18 20. .4 Liberia 4.6 23.860 1.2 233 14 .365.150 23.2 294 72 0.2 250 13.7 82 57 10.9 6 53 204.060 7..8 27.339.590a 2.2 799.4 26.8 410 17.4 0.7 149 22 0.4 910 6..102.5 4.4 a 3.6 215 90 42.5 127.5 Madagascar Malawi 16.3 1.4 a 17.0 1.7 3.8 4.410 4.9 2.e World view People Environment .4 11.150 3.1 25. km % of total population 2014 2014 Gross national income Atlas method $ billions Purchasing power parity Per capita $ $ billions Per capita $ % growth Per capita % growth 2014 2013–14 2013–14 2014 2014 2014 2014 301.0 650 25.0 251 55 14..070 163.1 0.770 6.5 11..6 89.2 790 5.840 2. Mongolia 2.9 580.9 65..4 2.6 51.510 7.4 46 49 1.8 1.7 0.2 147.9 Kenya 44.940 5.000a .0 3. Korea. 15.280 4.0 1.1 Mali 17.7 11. .4 600 30.1 0.4 –1.4 4. .320 4.1 0.4 111.0 15 18 7.870 28.8 17.9 41.090 1.120 740.0 f 18.3 21.6 6.3 3. Lithuania 2.9 Liechtenstein 0.4 69 27 2.290 131.4 2.0 0.155.5 444 88 45.4q 1.5 Nepal 28.111.7 11.0a 9.. Sts.000 4.4 4.1 New Caledonia 0.6 730 68..6 0.3 1..390 3..5 Montenegro 124p 4.170 3.860 824.0 1.0 5.710 6..6 3. 0.920 6.7 Nicaragua Niger World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide 105.8 3..8 91 74 332.6 Lao PDR 6.1 48.

.3 7.360 354.2 24 78 196.1 16.6 19..4a 1.080 Back World Development Indicators 2016 51 .930 6.060 San Marino 0.7 Sri Lanka 20.4 82 Serbia 86. .0 29.5 2.1a .6 Sint Maarten 0.0 1.3 759.6 301 18 1.580 62.3 26. 344.0 134.4 Singapore 5.9 1.1 0.300 4.3 103.4 22s 34 Suriname 0.5 5...1 4. .2 8.5 2.0 13.1 300.5 Poland 38.9 –5.6 970 Spain 46.3 Nigeria Oman Pakistan Gross domestic product $ billions Per capita $ % growth Per capita % growth 2014 2014 2013–14 2013–14 1.7 84.2 6...040 1..950 9.5 0.5 8.770 4.3 17..7 1.6 0.4 46.5 1.240 20.870 2.960a Qatar 2...9 644.. Norway 5. .4 22.680 928.098.140 4.8 0.3 55. Vincent & the Grenadines 0.4 1. .2 22.1 1.8 17.880 2. 2.4 Switzerland 8.440 214.790a 8.6 0.8 3.540 0.930.700 1.5 55 41.0 24 86 596. .920 3.280a 8.6 1..4 1.7 67.3 Global links .1 580 .5 2.5 3.8 14. .2 185.9 5.600 6.0 0.220 3. 19 11..1 88.6 67.6 28. Kitts and Nevis 0..0 10. .550 10.0 1.3 460 28 7.470 4.9 21 4.4 49.4 1.8 –1.5 14 77 65.8 a 2.800 685.9 20 22 1.500 837.450 6.5 –0.0 332 44 347.2 2.710 6.4 –0.7 2.9 75.0 7.1 11.630 7.2 11.0 Philippines 99.2 0.0 7.9 185.0k 0.3 87 40 4.3 1.9 61.3 3. .5 637.5 505. São Tomé and Príncipe 0.1 0. .090 4.6 21.710 154.2a 1.3 14.3 92.7 292.7 3. 6.4 74 Sweden 9.5 Somalia 10.3 .020a 3.3 72.9 10.5 3.610 1..4 24.440 2.400 55.9 6.6 3.h 1.2 309.5 1.0k 0.8 3 66 Swaziland 1..6 30.. 59 27 8..3 211 32 0.4 3.2 11.490 1.0 312.9 2.1 28.9 93 79 1.7 76 43 7.5 163. 1.160 1.8 16 13 16.8 51.3 Saudi Arabia 30.0 4..8 16 59 28.2 11.5 201 54 1.879.549.1 19.4 3.520 397.7 4.6 406. St.260 1.013.1 18.0 80.8 4.e .. . .300 4.6 331 18 71.150 439.810 3.2a 2.556.720 484.0 1.3 1.9 1. .6 187 99 200.830 .World view 1 Population Surface area Population density Urban population Gross national income millions thousand sq. .870 131.120 2..8 68 19 0.7 39.1 21.7 7..2 114 63 222.7 12.9 0. .1 20.4 92.2 4.6 –1.7 124 61 520.6 33.3 Seychelles 0.8 4.5 5.5 923.4 Portugal 10.9 400 94 69.0 796.2 41.108 100 .3 102 50 48.1 240 38 258.366.7 121 57 .1 385..6 Sierra Leone 6.9 5.690 2.3 Peru 31..370 0...360 Solomon Islands 0.3 24.160 0.3 Paraguay 6.3 22.3 142..6 2..1 2...e .970 .040 –1.2 1.670 0.7 5.4 700 11.620 4.400 941.9 700 Samoa 0.800a South Sudan 11.8 195 47 526.5 119 89 .2 17.270 2.6 23.9 238. .1 13.3a Panama 3.1 5.1 527 94 . Slovak Republic 5.570 454.4 11.9 22.5 Puerto Rico 3. km % of total population $ billions Per capita $ 2014 2014 2014 2014 Atlas method Purchasing power parity 2014 2014 177.5 8.0 2.e Palau 0.5 46 86 0. . .5 0.920 1. .4 59.8 65.5 Northern Mariana Islands 0..4 19.0 f 1.6 14.2 10.6 St. .237.5 6.4 87 54 189.610a 1.7 447.e 1. .0k 0.7 2.7 196.360 295.750 148.1 Papua New Guinea 7.219.6 8. . km people per sq.0 3..149.100 2.3 207 74 693.6 .5 27.200 Romania Russian Federation Rwanda –0.130 77.5 3.1 0.0 194 65 0.110 0.2 1.3 25.j .0k 0.2 143.310 23.3 15.950 2.730 0.285.6 13.0 113 54 96.050 33.5 462..7r 14 83 Senegal 14. Martin 0.0 19.6 33.4 9.4 52 66 43.2 14 80 532..3 3.140 1.410 Slovenia 2. Lucia 0.4 1.5 St.7 17 39 .1 45 64 367.1 0.4 280 50 0.3 9 74 1.3 St.5 –0..9 1..6 Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Economy States and markets .737 100 301.3 1.430 3.820 93.5 .5 9.420 4.660 6.2 17.8 2. South Africa 54.2 0.320 3.390 1.1 0..2 1..

1 24.6 267 82 2.8 1.754 2.291.7 752.9 t .9 14.878.7 1. .001.160 2.370.731 33.3 1.1a . Rep.5 25.3 6.7 1.3 20. 26. Data are for the area controlled by the government of Cyprus.1 39.510 t 7.0 1.9 3. l. Estimated to be lower middle income ($1.2 17.2 14.9 58 62 18.8 –0.942 w 3.3 0.4 33 71 22.406.2 8.000.7 Turkmenistan 5.4 57.9 Virgin Islands (U.6 188 16 25.5 35 81 17.4 176.0 4.7 High income 1.4 54.583.6 243.712. .125).4 10. the International Monetary Fund (IMF) issued a declaration of censure and in December 2013 called on Argentina to implement specific actions to address the quality of its official GDP data according to a specified timetable.4 a 0.002 5.230 121.136.3 2.452.7 5.6 14. b.2 1.6 78 69 152.900 2.9 .8 3.126–$12..020 2.5. Excludes Transnistria.) 0. 2015.3 488.. Data series will be calculated once ongoing revisions to official statistics reported by the National Statistics and Censuses Institute of Argentina have been finalized.8 41.3 31 80 6.735).270a 2.2 Latin America & Caribbean 626.0 1.8 37 64 3.455.2 5.3 318.020 14.4 298 95 .6 5.8 United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu 9.3 3.2 38. Greater than 0 but less than 50.226 1.8 1.721.5 43.827 1. 52 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .090 8.1 264 9 27.5 55.9 Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia 974.220 3.6 Low income 622.060 21.5 2.961.2 390.6 21 40 26.4 5.0 36 92 .264.290 5. West Bank and Gaza 4.1 20.1 3.6 4.720 4.1 41 37 1.0 163.425.7 0.3 628 977. the IMF Executive Board recognized the material progress in remedying the inaccurate provision of data since 2013 but found that some actions called for by the end of February 2015 had not yet been completely implemented.3 179. c. Includes Former Spanish Sahara.0 713 75 13.267.830a 3.4 1.3 6. 5.1a . Covers mainland Tanzania only.032.1 133 49 1.5 3. .5 4.650 4. t..046–$4.300 93.3 142 39 5.5 5. Estimated to high income ($12. .2 2. Estimated to be low income ($1. 2013.0k 1. Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.2 Middle East & North Africa 417.3 670 65.9 Europe & Central Asia 902.600 615.4 603. Estimated to be upper middle income ($4.260 Trinidad and Tobago 1. 3..575.3 12. km people per sq. Greater than 0 but less than 50. RB 30.399.7 15.890 485. m.207.7 0.e 10.4t Thailand 67.807.1 83.9 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.2 20.0 4.825.9 0.7 17.6 109 85 405.500 2.5 4. s.3 25 81 53. f. 2016.9 2.535. Included in the aggregates for lower middle-income economies based on earlier data.496 9.1 Yemen.3 12.1 5.6 54.1 t 1.275.5 9.477.725.0 40.1 56.8 147 24 0.571 6.7 912.3 90.6 99 73 822.7 331.5 8.0 50 34 33.5 9.8 Uganda 37.741.5 1.879 19.680 57.325. The IMF Executive Board will review this issue again by July 15.0k 0.5 19.309.3 8.045 or less).1 1.230 17. On February 1.700 –4.2 20 95 55.8 241.398.500 i 535.3 Vietnam 1.1 0. 0.4 1.560 366.018 17.1 35 89 373.2 21 26 0.7 s 134.1 6.5 Ukraine 45.425 26.5 11.722 7. others are extrapolated from the 2011 International Comparison Program benchmark estimates.5 3. g.118.0 28.611.485. r.4 72 36 64.8 131 39 4.9 82 32 Togo 7.2a 5.6t 391.070 Timor-Leste Gross domestic product 6.e Tuvalu 0.870 0. Includes South Sudan.4 1.0 570 Tonga 0. p.9 16. Provisional estimate.410a .350 69. k.561.9 Tanzania 51.748 2. Greater than 0 but less than 0.970 Tunisia 11.0 –5. h.3 24.2 5.0 Venezuela. j. d.9 9. Included in the aggregates for high-income economies based on earlier data.4 1.3 3. Data are officially reported statistics by the National Statistics and Censuses Institute of Argentina.2 14.0 2.2 528.816.396 4.9 783.006. km % of total population $ billions Per capita $ $ billions Per capita $ % growth Per capita % growth 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 Atlas method Purchasing power parity 2013–14 2013–14 920 t 126.523.390 2. o.912 9.350 6.690 6.2 44. n.8 947.5 –4.2 361 33 2..801.2 55.2 11.5 Zambia 15.8 a 5.823.S.8 0.8 47 30 390.3 s 39 33 56 w 53 w 12.1 World view Population Surface area Population density Urban population Gross national income millions thousand sq.8 28.2 19 81 19.603.680 7.926 33.7 513..5 w 1.5 3. e.3 w 2.4 1..520a 10.298 6.8 840 25.2 19.560 –6.8 15. On June 3.360.0 14.903 3.8 447.2 8..3 59 31 46. .9 1.736 or more).732 1.6 3.620. i.6 71 67 46.0 t 3.7 Upper middle income 2.1 11 50 42...5 0.7 Turkey 75.0 f 330 59 0.7 1.570.3t 2.460.3 0.1 0.000 –1.0 64.5 North America 354.5 2.030a 0.4 4.080a 9.4 43.259.780 1.3 a. Based on regression.8 78.2 1. 2.9 5.3 1.0 1.3 67.5 20. Refers to area free from ice.3 31.6 7.646 3.720 77..2 2.301 56.932.650 14.1 30.830 1.799 w 108.225 4.0 293 33 171.1 Lower middle income 2.2 Zimbabwe World East Asia & Pacific 7.2 93 56 22.6a 5.6 2.720 4.550.3 3..560 2.831. q.

Most countries use an urban clas- Population estimates are usually based on national population cen- sification related to the size or characteristics of settlements. Some suses.World view 1 About the data Population.) ponent method—a standard method for estimating and projecting Because exchange rates do not always reflect differences in price population—requires fertility. There is no consistent and universally accepted standard for distinguishing urban from rural areas. income (as measured by gross national activity. When calculating GNI in U. For definitions of the income groups in World Development quality.income countries errors may be substan- are based on national definitions of what constitutes a city or met- tial because of limits in the transport. mortality. PPP rates provide a standard measure allowing modeling and so are susceptible to biases and errors from short- comparison of real levels of expenditure between countries. dollars to clas- census and the availability of complementary data from surveys or sify countries for analytical purposes and to determine borrowing registration systems are important indicators of demographic data eligibility. which may include offshore territo- estimates incorporate new price data collected since 2011. For the rial waters. about 93 percent of the estimated world an industry after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate population has been enumerated in a census. Innovations in satellite mapping and computer databases income.income coun- currencies. As of December 2014 (the end degradation of natural resources.S. interpolations to obtain annual data or single age struc- of similar goods and services among a large number of countries. which excludes bodies isation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). in administrative arrangements. which can be small or limited capita estimates into international dollars using purchasing power in coverage. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident tion procedures. vide a broad indication of actual and potential resources and are therefore used throughout World Development Indicators to normal- Urban population ize other indicators. In the most recent round of price surveys by the International Comparison Program (ICP) in 2011. PPP of water. in part because of the wide variety Population of situations across countries. survey year and for the completeness of registration. 177 countries and territories fully Surface area participated and 22 partially participated. GNI is calculated without More countries conducted a census in the 2010 census round deducting for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and (2005–14) than in previous rounds. see User guide.S. Moreover. It is particularly important for understanding an econo- remaining 2011 ICP economies PPP rates are extrapolated from my’s agricultural capacity and the environmental effects of human the 2011 ICP benchmark results. GNI). communications. The quality and reliability of official demographic data are also affected by public trust in the government. and other ropolitan area. just as comings in the model and in the data. Value added is the net output of of the 2010 census round). collec- dent sources. definitions. PPP rates for 47 high- and Surface area includes inland bodies of water and some coastal upper middle-income countries are from Eurostat and the Organ- waterways and thus differs from land area. In the UN estimates. and output (as measured by gross domestic product. using a three-year average of exchange rates to smooth the mates for countries with census data are provided by the United effects of transitory fluctuations in exchange rates. The cohort com- cussion of the World Bank Atlas method. the table also converts GNI and GNI per often collected from sample surveys. Because the estimates in the table some low- and middle.and post-census esti- method. ture may not reflect actual events or age composition. and services. The currentness of a inputs. They also pro- areas. because conventional price indexes allow comparison of real values over time. levels between countries. confidentiality and protection GNI measures total domestic and foreign value added claimed by against misuse of census data. Population estimates are derived from demographic parity (PPP) rates. land area. not included in the valuation of output. and estimation methods used by national statisti- producers in the economy plus any product taxes (less subsidies) cal agencies and other organizations that collect the data. The World Bank uses GNI per capita in U. cross-country comparisons should be made with resources required to conduct and analyze a full census. see Sources and methods. have resulted in more precise measurements of land and water GDP) are basic measures of the size of an economy. (For further dis- Nations Population Division and other agencies. Estimates for the years before and after the census are define urban areas based on the presence of certain infrastructure interpolations or extrapolations based on demographic models. caution. and census agencies’ independence residents. GNI comprises GDP plus net receipts of primary income from political influence. And other countries designate urban areas based on Errors and undercounting occur even in high-income countries. and from gross area. which account for relative price Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 53 . the five-year age group is the cohort unit and five-year period data PPP rates are calculated by simultaneously comparing the prices are used. comparability of population indi- (compensation of employees and property income) from nonresi- cators is limited by differences in the concepts. See Sources and methods for the most recent census or Indicators. the World Bank follows the World Bank Atlas conversion tries that lack recent census data and pre. government commit- Size of the economy ment to full and accurate enumeration. dollars from GNI reported in national Current population estimates for low- and middle. and net migration data.

• Population density is midyear population accounts data collected by World Bank staff during economic mis- divided by land area. • Gross national income per capita is GNI pects: The 2014 Revision.org/unpd/wpp/]. which are from the Food and Agriculture Organization.un. The United Growth rates of GDP and GDP per capita are calculated using Nations Population Division (2015) is a source of the demographic constant price data in local currency.S. • Gross domestic product is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. [http://esa. World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide York. New York.d.oecd. GNI per capita. • Gross national income. Population and Vital Statistics Report.un. Data are generally considered part of the population of their country of on urban population shares are from United Nations Population origin. [http://stats. including areas under inland bodies of water and capita growth are estimated by World Bank staff based on national some coastal waterways.S.S. dollar United Nations Population Division. which gathers these counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship—except data from national agencies through annual questionnaires and for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum. Other important sources are census reports and Growth rates in the table are annual averages (see Sources and other statistical publications from national statistical offices. Constant price U. dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI that a U. is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any data collected by the ICP. 2014.worldbank. and GDP per country’s total area. The values shown are midyear estimates.eu/eurostat/]. GDP growth. purchasing power parity. Euro- methods). n. most of them low- and middle- series are used to calculate regional and income group growth rates. product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees References and property income) from abroad. • Surface area is a Division (2014).europa. 2015. Population database. • Urban population is the midyear popula- sions or reported by national statistical offices to other interna- tion of areas defined as urban in each country and obtained by the tional organizations such as the OECD. dol- Eurostat. • Gross domestic product per capita is GDP divided by midyear population. income countries. Various years. • Gross national income. Data are in current U. [http:// esa. Atlas estimates by Eurostat/OECD and by World Bank staff based on method. 54 Luxembourg. For coun- Data sources tries that did not participate in the 2011 ICP round. PPP rates are The World Bank’s population estimates are compiled and produced imputed using a statistical model. PPP conversion factors are United Nations Population Division. An international n. operational staff. and country offices.1 World view changes between each economy and the United States. Data on surface and land area • Population is based on the de facto definition of population. World view People Environment . New divided by midyear population.S. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Paris. GNI.d. and the U. the United Nations Statistics Division’s Population and Vital Statistics Report. New York. OECD. [http://ec. Global Practice. United Nations Statistics Division. More information on the results by its Development Data Group in consultation with its Health of the 2011 ICP is available at http://icp. stat’s Population database. Growth is calculated from constant price GDP data in local currency.org/]. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision.org/unpd/wup/]. World Urbanization Pros- has in the United States. ———. dollar data for more than half the countries. Bureau of the Definitions Census’s International Data Base. lars converted using the World Bank Atlas method (see Sources and methods). who by analyzing the results of national agricultural censuses. is GNI converted to international dollars using PPP rates.StatExtracts database.org.

MC.P5 SE.DYN. Male Wage and salaried workers.FE.ACSN Access to electricity EG.STA.POP.CMPT.ZG 1.2 Global goals: ending poverty and improving lives Share of poorest quintile in national consumption or income SI.CD Purchasing power parity gross national income.ZS SL.PARL.TBS.STA.TL.worldbank. Female SL.CONS Data disaggregated by sex are available in the World Development Indicators database.World view 1 Online tables and indicators To access the World Development Indicators online tables. and the Debt Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries.KD.M18.worldbank.AIDS.3 Global goals: promoting sustainability Access to an improved water source 1. Female SL.ADJ.ZS Ambient PM 2.GEN.DNST EN.H2O.GNP..WORK.org example.KD.CD Intentional homicides (per 100.STA.PRM.ZS Research and development expenditure Economy This table provides data on net official development assistance by donor.EMP.1).RNEW.FE.USER.ZS States and markets .STNT. a.GDP.ZS Female part-time employment SL.CD Gross national income per capita.TRAF.SAFE.GN.POP.5 Women in development Life expectancy at birth. least developed countries’ access to high-income markets.PP.CD Gross domestic product NY. Female SP. http://data.FEC.K2 Population density EN.TLF.M3 Adjusted net savings NY.PCAP.EMP.MORT Under-five mortality rate Prevalence of HIV SH.TOTL Surface area AG.TOTL).PTD.GD.org/table/1. b.ELC.ZS Wage and salaried workers.LE00.GDP. To view a specific /indicator/SP.PP.org/table/ and the table number (for and the indicator code (for example.ZS Contributing family workers.ZS GDP per person employed.ACCS.IN SP.MKTP. Male Account at a financial institution.WORK.worldbank. Male Contributing family workers.CO2E.worldbank.DYN.1 Size of the economy Urban population living in slums Population SP.FRST.DYN.ZG Gross domestic product.MMRT SH. Available online only as part of the table. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 55 .ZS NY. http://wdi.IHR.ATM.. Derived from data elsewhere in the World Development Indicators database.FE.RSDV.MA.TOTL.FRM.UR.ZS Prevalence of stunting Maternal mortality ratio.IN Life expectancy at birth.2 WP_time_01.DYN.LSOM.GNP.ZS Nondiscrimination clause mentions gender in the constitution SG.MKTP.SRF.XPD.GNP.NET.STA.WORK.ZS Firms with female participation in ownership Female legislators.org/indicator/ the URL http://wdi.FE.3 SL. Female Women ages 20–24 first married by age 18 Account at a financial institution.POP. GB.ZS Carbon dioxide emissions per capita EN.5 air pollution EN.20 SH.b 1. Male SP. % growth .PART. Atlas method Nationally protected terrestrial and marine areas ER.000 people) VC.ZS Women in parliaments 1.PC Gross national income.GEN.INCD Mortality caused by road traffic injury Primary completion rate SH. use the URL http://data.2024. and managers IC.GNP.SVNG.4 Global goals: strengthening partnership SG.ZS Renewable energy consumption EG. senior officials.FAM. not as an individual indicator. use indicator online.PCAP.PM25.a SH. Per capita NY.ZS Incidence of tuberculosis SH.POP.P5 Internet users IT. 1.ZS SG.WORK.LE00.ATM.FEMO.ZS WP_time_01.PSRC.TOTL.ATLS.FAM.ZS Access to improved sanitation facilities SH.NOD.DST.P2 Purchasing power parity gross national income NY.MA.PCAP. Per capita NY.FE. Atlas method NY. Modeled estimate SH.SLUM.MA.

7 Burkina Faso 422.6 2010h 11.0 830.3f 2012c 2.2 9.0 26.90  at $1.0 <0.3 96.2 5.0 <0.9 1.0 <0.7 68. The Guinea 56 2011 Albania Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap below $1.1 0.3 64.8 2006 77.8 11.9 20.1 23.5 2010 <2.2 2.9 Costa Rica 653.4 3.3 689.0 3.90 a day $3.0 <0.6 Argentina Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus 31.0 1.5 2002 53.9 2004 36.113.7 27.0 7.7 2012 <2.8 2002 29.1f 1992c 33.1 4.1 9.3 228.5 Benin 427.7 79.5 3.0 <0.5 2010 33.0 Bolivia 5.0 <0.4 .7f 2012c <2.5 2008 29.230.1 44.10 a day Reference a day a day a day a day a day a day a day Reference % year b % % % % % % % year b 1998 2011c 11.3 26.8 4.9 21.3 60.0 Botswana 8.2 19.1 82.3 1.2 2.5 2005 <2.3 10.3 55.9 5.4 e 2001 28.0 <0.2f 413.5 2008h 14.2 2005 50.4f 64.7 2012 6.5 3.4 13.4 1.5 22. Dem.4 2007 29.0 <0.3 7.8 Ghana 1.4 1998 33...3 2007 59.5 4.4 Gabon Gambia.5 2012c 7.3 76.6 37.6 0.0 Congo.4 6.6 31.0 1.667.481.1 19.8 Cameroon 437.5 2013 2.4 2011c 2.7e 156.0 <0.6e 2011 8.3 8.6 Georgia 1.2 39.9 2012c 2.7 32.5 3.7 11.2 5.8 5.5 2.0 15.9 2.d <2.7 4.4 49.6 769.7 1998 c 14.7 11.6f 2012c 4.5 2008 Belize 2.6 52.5 25.2 1.1 1.2 Djibouti 192.1 2.0 <0.9 2011c <2.9 2.0 <0.5 6.2 <0.3 0.9 73.0 <0.680.7 2013c 7..2 3.5 13.0 46.5 2012c.8 9.0 1.0 0.5 2010 43.9 6.3 2011 53.2 2013c 6.5 9..3 68.0 4.0 11.2 12.6 45.0 1.4 15.5 Guyana 253.8 21.0 <0.7 1999 c 13.3 4.9 37.1 97.0 37.6 2007 8.0 2012 2.6 3.1 Cabo Verde Chinag Colombia Comoros 419.9 24. 2005 8.0 0.8 35.4 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.2 f 1.5 14.5 2005 25.1 2013c <2.3 54.0 <0.1 2012c 4.6 17.8 13.7 2004 <2.6 2002 23.5 <2.3 77.2 1.4 Fiji 2.0 <0. 563.3 16.0 <0.5 2.0 11.6 18.6 54.9 38.1 .5 9. .0 5.9 16.6 48.5 <2.5 51.1 54.Poverty rates Population below international poverty linesa International poverty line in local currency $1.7 32.4 49.2 26.2 86.887.0 28.2 73.4 5.5 2.5 3.6 349.6 4.2 <2.9 26.2 52.7 2011 38.2f 3.5 2012c <2.4 0.3 Cambodia 2.4 2003 64. .6 9.9 1.3 17.2 81.6 0.6 12.7 10.4 2011 <2. .7 2012 18.5 5.6 4.10  at $3.0 <0.2 2007 17.021.7 714.6 28.0 <0.7 23.3 3.9 18.3 23.0 El Salvador 1.5 Chad 477.9 32.0 <0.2 Bhutan 32.1 4.8 2009 55. .6 1.4 919.3 2010 67.0 1.0 2003 45.3 50.7 39.7 Central African Republic 509.2 0.0 5.5 <2.10 a day 2011 110.0 <0.8 .5 5.6 2.1 6.0 3.6 12.8 95.0 2008 66.5 58.d <2.2 2003 48.0 2003 62.6 4..0 8.6 14.6 Guatemala 7.3 11.2 0.3 11. .0e 2005 51.5 2007 <2.0 13.7 1.1 30.7 57.4 7.510.5 180.7 84.5 28.7 81.3 697.9e 3.0 f 2006c 11.2 8.1 50.8 730.8 2012 35.2 48.3 41.2 59. . .5 <2.0 <0.7 1. 2008 30.5 83.3 13.5 2002 5.214.1 0.1 683.5 Ethiopia 10..6 2012 15.5 2011c <2.0 11.1 2013c 4.0 <0.4f 12.7 Brazil 3.90 below $3.10  at $3.9 55.5 6.6 569.9 1.7f 1998 c 14.7 3.0 75.5 9.8 19.6 33.5 2009 14.8 2013 11.2 77.5 <2.0 34.3 90.9 4. Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Estonia 1.8 29.1 Guinea-Bissau 471.3 10.2 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .4 8.7 Chile 744.1 1.7 1.9 18.6 2.7 9.3 33.5 <2.3 84.0 22.9 11.3 19.5 3.5 17..0 62.4 Ecuador 1.7 11.7 3.2 27.0 10.5 Côte d’Ivoire 447.0 <0.0 <0.2 9.5 2012 <2.5 <2.0 2012 77.3 8.0 1.1 2.90 below $3.7 1.1e 3.3 Burundi 925..5 2013c.6 20.1 2011c <2.1 0.2 Congo.4 2008 3.6 6.0 2003 57.7 27.5 13. Rep.5 39.0 19.8 682.1 2.6 9.974.1 2.5 9.7 17.4 28.3 49.8 2013c 2..0 2012c 9.9 23. 2004 13.6 2.7 1998 84.2 1.5 39.3 0.8 30.5 1.0 0.90  at $1.9 15.5 2012c <2.2 35. ...1 16.0 0.2 42.3 Angola 140.5 35.9 33.4 7.7 9.0 1.8 38.0 <0.2 5.3 Bulgaria 1.0 33.4 2011 28.2 53.8 7.8 1.8 2013c 3.2 2011c <2.8 3.0 71.2 6.3 8.7 2012c 5.3 4.3 21.5 <2.9 71.9 92.5 <2.5 779.274.0 0..0 2004 91.5 <2.9 16.5 43.5 2013c <2.8 314.6 <2.3 46.6 80.0 0.5 2.6 2002 20.2 2001 23.10 below $1.0 f 1. . Rep.9 80.710.8 7.9 2012 <2.2 <2.8 36.065.6 25.9 8.7 1.019.0 2004 <2.2 2013c 4.6 14.

5 <2.6e 1.4 5.0 <0.9 2003 31.387.9 5.3 54.8 6.0 <0.3 3.3 4.1 246.1 49.7 48.7 31.0 <0.6 15.9 52.8 76.9 3.0 <0.0 78.10 below $1.5 11.6 34.0 0.6 6.9 7.0 2.5 2013 <2.9 2012c 4.4 2012 <2.0 <2.0 27.7 2012 <2.0 <0.2 8.4 7.1 89.685.3 2011c <2.9 2004 <2.5 120.0 <0.9 16.8 77.0 0.8 1.9 28.1 14.9 0.5 3.9 2.1 36.0 <0.9 259.9 f 3.7 2.0 7.9 1.4 4.4 3.0 0.0 4..1 2004h Mali 421. Islamic Rep.0 <0.5 3.0 <0.9 59.5 6.4 9.0 <0.3 15.5 4.0 <0.4 Micronesia.5 <2.2 54.0 <0.0 1.5 Romania 3.5 2.5 2012c <2.9 24.3 23.90 below $3.5 17.2 14.5 Indonesiag 7.5 48.7 34.2 2012 <2. Fed.5 0.2 2.5 687.5 <2.10  at $3.0 2011 <2.0 2011 <2.0 <0.3 2.10 a day 2011 2011 Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap below $1.2 2005 74..Poverty rates Population below international poverty linesa International poverty line in local currency $1.5 4.5 Mongolia 1.4 1..3 9. .9 32.8 0.8 40.7 0.9 2008 10.185.5 5..7 34.5 39.5 Kiribati 2.5 66.4 2011 21.0 67.1 0.1 1. .3 78.7 12.8 <2.0 427.2 1.5 2.9 1.0 <0.1 2.7 15.2 2010 15.3 2.0 2008 21.158.9 7.0 2013 <2. 2000 c.5 3.415.5 2012 <2.3f .7 10.5 21.0 50.3f 64.5 2.8 <2.0 <0.d 50.6 6.0 18.0 <0.3 87.9 2009c 10.0 <0.9 2009h <2.0 51.9 46.2 f c 2012 21.7f 1.1f 1.90  at $1.6 31.4 12.0 4.0 <0.830.3 54.2 28.0 <0.0 <0.6 28.9 58.9 0.6 51.9 148.1 53.3 25.1 Paraguay Peru 35.4 9.7f 2012c 4.7 17.3 12.7 2007 3.1 Macedonia.339.0 <0..0 <0.5 8.1 2010 59.1 10.0 <0.7 3.6 2.5 2.0 <0.3 32..0 11.8 3.2 9.2 Nigeria Nicaragua 151.0 2010 70.7 0.2 9.2 1.6 25.0 <0.7 <0.5 15.4 28.2 Iran.0 <0.8 2009c <2.2e Latvia 0.3 46.0 10.9 2004 73.0 59.5 Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan 158.6 11.0 <0.2 2012c 3.2 241.0e 2008 <2.3 17.9 25.0 2009 49.3 58.7 56.9 71.0 <0.3 2010 8.0 2011 <2.3 37.4 2008 <2.7 2004 14.5 <2.4f 28.5 2012 2.7 90.9 3.7 31.4 2009h 31. .0 <2.0 <0.9 2.2 3.0 42. 2006 14.6 2013c 3.0 13.1f .6 45.5 4.4 41.7 1.8 63.3 15.5 <2. .6 11.3 109.7 2006 <2.6 2012 <2. .774.6 2005 33.0 2000 6.2 Lesotho 7.2 77.0 2. .0 <0.0 <0.5 Mauritius 34.9 9.5 19.5 92.7 6. .0 <0.1 1.6 17..4 14.8 Panama 1.0 <0.7 3.0 3.8 2011 50.3 2.0 73.5 Hungary Indiag 28.2 262.9 0.0 0.9 78.1f 6.90 a day $3.5 2013h <2.8 35.9 2003 47.2 Kosovo 0.1 Pakistan 48.8 8.6 2012c <2.1 31.6 48.9 6.5 <0.3 2008 68.5 2002 61.3 12.8 90.4 16.0 48.7 0.5 <2.5 2003 53.159.5 Mauritania 214.7 0.7 3.4f 196.5 33.2 Honduras 19.7 23.3 92.4 2009 39.0 <0.90 below $3.5 2012c 53.5 2009 53. .677.5 2012 <2.5 2012 2.6 2013c 2.0 0..1 17.6 15.3 349. FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia 20.5 76.7 29.5 8.7 Poland Philippines 3.5 2011c <2.5 2013 <2.5 50.5 21.6 Kenya Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR 4.7 <0.6 39.5 2.6 8.8 3.6 709.4 33.1 70.5 <2.7 20.7 2010 3.2 9.0 <0.7 17.5 <2.7 12. Lithuania 3.6 28.9 64.1f 2012 <2.7 40.2 45.1 2013c 18.0 0.3 2013c 2.7 31.0 4.7 89.0 1.5 2009 12.8 2007 13.5 10.9 2012 <2.5 46.5 43.4f 2002 2.5 3.9 2007i <2.0 2012 13.1 0.483.7 10.4f 2005 15.3 2.4 42.1 4.8 2006 Maldives 2007 68.5 2012c <2.0 <0.4 2011c <2.1 51.0 <0.5 39.0 <0.2 41.4 36.7 Mexico 17.0 67.4 87.5 <2..6 3. 5.5 2010 <2.9 79.5 <2.0e 7.0 <0. Sts.5 Russian Federation Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 57 .9 81.2f 2001c 55.1 2012 <2.5 <2.5 3.5 <2.6 40.4 2011 <2.0 <0.0 28.7 58.1 1.0 <0.2 0.2 2007 36.10 a day Reference a day a day a day a day a day a day a day Reference % year b % % % % % % % year b Haiti 39.1 2012 30.7 30. .0 <0.9 33.5 2013 <2.0 0.8 .7 45..1 2006 2.5 69.1 0.0 Liberia 1.2f 31.2 2011 <2.0 <0.5 2.3 4.7 1.6 1.6 10.1 2002 80.6 71.6 Papua New Guinea 4.4 Moldova 10.6 1.0 3.3 1.3 1.3 27.6 2010 15.10  at $3.7 37.0 f 3.6f 1996 53..1 Niger 434.4 2009 5.121.4 2009 22.0 <0.0 <0..8 2010 81.5 3.8 1.9 47.8 74.4 <0.8 1997 21.5 <2.3 14.3 13. Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal 8.90  at $1.1 2007 72.3 33.

2 1. .4 23.4 0.5 4..799.2 33.1 Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela.. .7 0.5 8.5 Tanzania 1. .7 1998h 42.0 12.760.0 <0. The national estimates are the population-weighted average of urban and rural estimates.3 12.5 7.0 <0.1 80.1 69.9 441.0 <0.4 1.8 3.1 2010 60.3f 1988i <2.5 Uruguay 31.6 13. .9 45. . Based on per capita income averages and distribution data estimated parametrically from grouped household survey data.10 a day 2011 Rwanda Samoa São Tomé and Príncipe 2011 469.1 49.8 4..8 St.1 31.0 765.8f .5 <2.5 2012 <2.2 719. Covers urban areas only.9 2006 55.6 22.8 Suriname 3.5 2012 <2.4 5.0 <0.1 2.8 27.7 19.0 <0.5 30.4 65.2 3.3 14.0 2.7 Sri Lanka South Africa 80.8 2011 <2.4 <0.8 1.7 2006 <2..5 2012c <2.7f 2001 44..9 34.5 4.8 25.1 33.9 39.8f 2007 <2. .0 <0.207.0 <0.0 <0.5 <2..5 72.1 7.5 39.2 3.4 42.9 4.0 <0.4 2.3 3.7 2012 <2.7 38.3 2.8 2003 66.25 a day poverty line.5 2.2 0.3 2..1f 359.. 1995c 35.5 Seychelles 15. Based on nominal per capita consumption averages and distributions estimated parametrically from unit-record household survey data.2 6.5 <2.0 <0.4 3.6 1992i 3.0 77.. 2005 45.7 220.8 80.5 a.5 <2.8 13.3 28.10  at $3.5 13..0 <0.5 40.5 <2.4 30.7 22.4 467.1f 1.6 2011 <2.5 2010 4.4 West Bank and Gaza Zambia 15.4 2007 46.5f 22.9 2005 37.1 4.7 80.5f 1999 <2. Based on benchmark national PPP estimate rescaled to account for cost-of-living differences in urban and rural areas..8 46.0 <0.2 26.5 70.0 <0.2 58.7 2008 15.0 Timor-Leste Togo Uganda 1.1f .1 63.7 13.0 <0.. Refers to the period of reference of a survey..6 Ukraine 6.4 76.0 <0. . . and data listed for the $3.5 3.7 .9 f 19. Because the 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) estimate needs to be further analyzed.0 <0..4 Tunisia 1.4 . g.5 <2.6 2009 <2.766.10 below $1. 1999 c 23.9 41.90  at $1.5 <2.3 Sudan 2.8 2011c <2.6 2000 48.7 12.9 47. 2008 <2.9 f 4. .0 <0.6 15.Poverty rates Population below international poverty linesa International poverty line in local currency $1.7 61.6 Thailand 24. the 2005 estimate is used.1 84..8f 14.0 <0.6 4.6 17.0 <0.5 Slovenia 1. .2 34.6 0.2 2012 33.7 80..2 130. 2009 <2.1 Tajikistan 3.3 2012 <2.2 3.5 <2.9 2012c <2.2 10.8 31.8 12.5 2.4 17.5 94.357.8 28.0 <0.3 2003 58.0 Swaziland 7.5 3.6 762. .4 44.6 12.2 2005 3.1 32.10 a day poverty line refer to the $2 a day poverty line.. b.0 0.370. Estimated nonparametrically from nominal consumption per capita distributions based on grouped household survey data.90 a day $3.9 23.1 2007 52.6 5.9 Senegal Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap Population Poverty gap below $1.10 a day Reference a day a day a day a day a day a day a day Reference % year b % % % % % % % year b 2005 2000 68.5 <2.5 4.5 2013c <2..9 2012 3.5 <2.8 2006c 9.6 21.4 31.2 23.5 24.0 <0.0 <0.6 14.5 1.9 37.4 3. f.0 <0.6 21. Thus data listed for the $1.0 36.1f 5.2 2011 38.9 3.8 f f 1.1 31.7 39.4 0. d. unless otherwise noted.8 Trinidad and Tobago 8.9 12.8 32.7f 1993i 80.8 4.2 140. .90 below $3.0 14.0 38.5 8. .1 2011 52.8f 7. .2 74.2 13.0 16.0 <0.637.3 33.5 <2.1f 6..9 8.8 66. .2 69.1 2011 16.5 Tonga 3.6 63.0 25.112.478.0 15.2 23. 2009 14.0 f 24.1 0.3 23.935. .5 16. 2010 2005c 17.5 2013 <2.6 Turkmenistan 2.5 2010 <2.1f .1 31.1 2011c <2.4 39.5 7.1 0.6f 5. Based on PPP dollars imputed using regression.4 Serbia 86.9 9.1 Sierra Leone Solomon Islands 9.603. .9 2009 2.0 <0.0 <0. . c.7 1.2 61.0 18.6 78... .815.0 <0.0 <0.0 <0.8 2007 10.5 13.8 14.4 2010 64.90 below $3.7 29.4 25.8 2010 33. RB Vietnam 1..0 <0.1 76.4 2009 41.7 5.3 10.6 2006 60.2 50.1 1. 58 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .0 31. it is the first year.5 <2.5 7..1 Turkey 2.0 <0. Lucia 4.90  at $1.1 2011 54.0 <0.1 76.6 2011 46.5 69.3 16.6 1.487.4 2010 <2. ..0 12.0 <0. h.1 2009 4.90 a day poverty line refer to the $1.9 2009 <2.0 <0.5 1.5 2012c <2.6 .0 <0. .5 9.3 87.5 2002 65.5 8.5 <2.0 <0.8 12.970. For surveys in which the period of reference covers multiple years.9 12.7 Slovak Republic 1.6 13..5 14..1f 5.6f .10  at $3..6f 5.7 10. i. e. Estimated nonparametrically from nominal income per capita distributions based on unit-record household survey data..4 69.2 2009 42.4 16.

3 2.1 88.9 2.4 41.2 18.Saharan Africa 56.3 93.2 Sub.917 1.8 58.3 30.5 47.0 93.8 Europe & Central Asia 81.9 87.0 24.6 15. 1990–2012 Low and middle income 44.6 89.3 4.1 90.3 91.8 46.2 98. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 59 .5 40.8 61.0 3.1 12.9 98.7 21.8 68.9 42.2 1.2 Middle East & North Africa 77.0 57.3 31.1 4. Estimates not shown due to very low population coverage of available survey data.5 14.3 28.2 35.6 26.5 20.9 96.254 983 897 996 891 699 689 553 367 297 173 147 9 24 33 37 29 26 15 11 10 78 69 69 71 70 56 41 35 a Number of poor people (millions) Low and middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa 14 17 16 South Asia 575 579 550 Sub.7 17.0 43.7 29.2 68.5 19.4 95.1 93.5 24.6 a 21.7 29.Poverty rates Global and regional trends in poverty indicators at the poverty line of 2011 PPP $1.8 1.0 14.2 23.645 1.3 98.7 97.7 67.4 South Asia 97.3 65.3 59.1 50.2 34.9 5.5 29.4 1.3 1.5 7.716 1.2 5.Saharan Africa 45.645 1.4 Europe and Central Asia 0.254 983 897 a Share of total poor population living in each region (low.7 Note: Income groups are based on how countries were classified in 1990.Saharan Africa 288 336 349 1.2 92. Source: World Bank PovcalNet (http://iresearch.716 World a 11 34 a a 10 9 583 539 501 362 309 375 399 402 392 394 389 1.2 9.1 91.4 2.0 53.2 40.6 93.8 44.0 7.5 40.3 37.7 17.6 16.7 0.1 Sub-Saharan Africa 14.5 3.6 37.1 34.8 6.2 1.0 7.9 68.3 98.6 91.and middle-income countries only.7 14.1 2.9 13.7 39.3 93.2 1.6 95.4 Survey coverage (% of total population represented by surveys conducted within five years of the reference year) Low and middle income 86.6 52.8 East Asia & Pacific 92.2 97.1 Latin America & Caribbean 4.7 31.0 8.7 1.6 91.org/PovcalNet/).3 21.2 38.1 South Asia 50.751 1.2 90.0 Latin America & Caribbean 94.0 39.1 17.1 81.7 a 35.4 48.worldbank.8 a 0.401 1.2 32.5 91.4 0.7 40.3 92.1 22.7 3.401 1.0 6.6 4.2 90.4 33.0 3.9 East Asia & Pacific 60.5 37.4 42.0 69.5 87.8 35.4 a 0.9 5.8 22.6 18.1 58.5 93.1 26.8 34.8 1.3 3.7 98.6 Middle East & North Africa 0.8 82.917 1.2 75.2 a a 3.7 82.8 15.1 93.90 a day Region 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 2012 Trend.9 16.9 73.1 13.751 1.5 95.7 1.8 Sub.6 47.6 98.959 1.2 18.7 97.1 1.6 86. a.0 36.0 4.7 93. %) East Asia and Pacific 50.6 Poverty rate (% of population) Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa 6.0 32.4 38.959 World a 4.2 7.3 93.9 0.5 97.1 5.9 South Asia 29.9 7.

Surveys ask detailed questions on sources of income and World Bank revised the entire series of global poverty.7) alongside the internationally comparable estimates in the or. when unavailable.25 a day was adopted as political. when 2005 PPP $1.org/poverty/home) provides access to the database particularly important in poor rural economies) should be included and user-friendly dashboards with graphs and interactive maps that in total consumption expenditure. Datt. The country dashboards display trends in own production. Despite progress the sampled respondents participate but refuse to answer certain in the last decade. The local poverty lines. but in practice are often not. This is referred to as “unit nonresponse” and lion randomly sampled households. Cambodia.90 and $3. the dards. frequency. and financial obstacles continue to limit data collection. the global poverty line has to remains low and variable. but valuation methods vary.worldbank. The availability and quality of poverty monitoring 1991). the two effects database draws on income or detailed consumption data from more roughly cancelled each other out: there was no significant statisti- than 1. But consumption 2005 PPP $1. some countries creates uncertainty over the magnitude of poverty The database incorporates country-level updates as soon as new reduction. low- number of countries that field household income and expenditure income countries. and comparability of Development Report 1990: Poverty (World Bank 1990) using house- household surveys need to increase substantially. representing 87 percent of the is distinct from “item nonresponse. the global line. regions. The World Bank’s Development Research Group maintains The lack of frequent. used to estimate poverty. Other data quality issues arise in measuring household living stan- Based on the new poverty line of 2011 PPP $1. change was in 2008. and Lao PDR). Most visualize trends in key poverty and inequality indicators for different survey data now include valuations for consumption or income from regions and countries. Comparisons of countries at different levels of devel- nationally comparable $1. lines of the same 15 poorest countries from the 2008 revision and thus preserves the real purchasing power of the previous line in the Data quality world’s poorest countries (World Bank 2016). Data cov- new international poverty line at $1.25 a day because price data (both consumer price data are not always available: the latest estimates reported here indexes and 2011 PPPs) need to be further analyzed before being use consumption for about two-thirds of countries.worldbank. and van de Walle poorest countries. from 1981 how it was spent. comes closer to the notion of living standards. Since then there has been considerable expansion in the data remain low in small states. using the latest household income and consumption sur- sonnel. The table on trends in poverty indicators reports the survey data become available. poverty measures based on the national poverty lines (see online The statistics reported here are based on consumption data table 2. As differences in the erage in Sub. quality. Cabo Verde. The latest revision is based on the national poverty analysis. To World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . or the quality and training of active computational tool that allows users to replicate these inter- enumerators. timely.org/PovcalNet) is an inter- ferences in timing. Moreover. For Invariably some sampled households do not participate in surveys high-income countries. But institutional. on income data.Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa cost of living across the world evolve. Income is difficult to measure accurately. For five countries (Bangladesh. The two most notable ones were during the two preceding or two subsequent years (in other words. the 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors and the within a five-year window centered on the reference year). accessibility. and public access. and custom country groupings and for different importance of the consumption of nonmarket goods. Analysis of some 20 coun- table produced from PovcalNet.90 a day. The 2012 estimates use more than 2 mil- the interview visit. and consumption vey data. The questions. the poverty estimates are still measured at can vary over time even if living standards do not. When poverty measures The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring based on consumption and income were compared. estimates are available for inequality and because they refuse to do so or because nobody is at home during income distribution only.Poverty rates About the data The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for World timeliness. such as those pertaining to income or consumption. The Poverty and Equity Data portal (http://poverty market value of all consumption in kind (including own production.” which occurs when some of population in low- and middle-income countries. countries in fragile situations. sampling frames. surveys. data. and comparable data available in a database that updates regional and global aggregates annually. tries for which both consumption and income data were available from the same surveys found income to yield a higher mean than 60 Data availability consumption but also higher inequality. income Jordan. and even some middle-income countries. the challenges of measuring poverty remain.90 a day. Similar surveys may not be strictly comparable because of dif- PovcalNet (http://iresearch.000 household surveys across 131 low- and middle-income cal difference. which must be carefully recorded by trained per- to 2012. countries and 21 high-income countries (as defined in 1990). The need to improve household survey be periodically updated to reflect changes in prices.10 a day poverty estimates for opment also pose problems because of differences in the relative countries. particularly in the hold survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion. The previous programs for monitoring poverty is clearly urgent. percentage of the regional and global population represented by The latest comprehensive revision took place in October 2015 household survey samples collected during the reference year or and incorporate many revisions.

2007.90 a day and $3. Datt. cost of their time or because of privacy concerns. G. 1991. (World Bank 2015). A. Washington.90 a day in 2011 PPP terms. 1990. Poverty measures based on an international poverty base and tool (http://iresearch. Mistiaen. Global Monitoring Report 2015/2016: Development poverty comparisons. and consistent comparisons across countries can be dif- exchange rates. and some may be physically or socially isolated and poverty lines of $1. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 61 . For details on data sources and methods used in deriving 1993 consumption PPP estimates produced by the World Bank. World Bank. The international poverty lines are based on chosen for World Development Report 1990 because it was typical nationally representative primary household surveys conducted by of the poverty lines in low-income countries at the time. or welfare aggregates. anchored to of the poverty line. But PPP rates were designed for comparing Research Report. The PovcalNet online data- poor countries.worldbank International poverty lines were revised following the release of PPPs . Since • Poverty gap is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting World Development Report 1990 the World Bank has aimed to apply the nonpoor as having zero shortfall).org/povcalnet. consumer price indexes. As a result. may be less likely to participate because of the high opportunity Work on these measures is ongoing. the World Bank’s latest estimates.Poverty rates the extent that survey nonresponse is random. • Reference year is the period Ravallion 2007). along with data from an expanded set References of household income and expenditure surveys.. Washington. “Quantifying Abso- the same standard for extreme poverty—the poverty line typical of lute Poverty in the Developing World.worldbank. than in erty rates reported in earlier editions.S dollars. However..10 a day are the percent- International comparisons of poverty estimates entail both concep- ages of the population living on less than $1. The commonly used $1 a day standard. So-called poverty PPPs. and D. Countries have different definitions of a day at 2011 international prices. It is conceivable that the poorest can likewise be underrepresented. expressed as a percentage a common standard in measuring extreme poverty. 2016. ficult. some are Definitions homeless or nomadic and hard to reach in standard household sur- • International poverty line in local currency is the international vey designs.” Review of Income and Wealth the poorest countries in the world—but updates it using the latest information on the cost of living in low- and middle-income countries 37(4): 345–61. national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervi- Early editions of World Development Indicators used PPPs from sion of government or international agencies and obtained from the Penn World Tables to convert values in local currency to equiva- government statistical offices and World Bank Group country depart- lent purchasing power measured in U. not for making international ———. As a result of revisions in PPP poverty. A Measured Approach to Ending Poverty and Boost- they take into account the local prices of goods and services not ing Shared Prosperity: Concepts. there is no certainty that an Goals in an Era of Demographic Change. aggregates from national accounts. Later editions used ments. M. compiled in the 2005 round and the 2011 round of the International Comparison Program. which repre- Method of Correcting for Unit Nonresponse Bias in Surveys. designed to representative of the population. The welfare of well as its incidence. converted thus less likely to be interviewed. measured in 1985 The poverty measures are prepared by the World Bank’s Develop- international prices and adjusted to local currency using PPPs. 2015. it is the first year.90 and $3. as is done when making comparisons over time. This poverty line maintains Ravallion. people living in different countries can be measured on a common scale by adjusting for differences in the purchasing power of cur- Data sources rencies. J. tries ranked by per capita consumption. Policy traded internationally. PPP exchange rates are used to estimate global poverty because ———. the sample will still be deprivation across countries. • Population below International poverty lines $1. DC. Washington.10 a day in 2011 prices. was ment Research Group. The current extreme Korinek.10 tual and practical problems. and M. Richer households provide a better basis for comparison of poverty across countries. there is no concern international poverty line measures the same degree of need or regarding biases in survey-based inferences. National poverty lines tend to have higher purchasing power poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with pov- in rich countries.” Journal sents the mean of the poverty lines found in the poorest 15 coun- of Econometrics 136: 213–35. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as what poverty means in the world’s poorest countries. where more generous standards are used. “An Econometric poverty line is set at $1. of reference of a survey. and the Twin Goals.org/PovcalNet) always line attempt to hold the real value of the poverty line constant across contain the most recent full time series of comparable country data.90 a day and population below $3. households with different compare the consumption of the poorest people in the world. This can bias both poverty and to local currency using the PPP conversion factors estimated by the inequality measurement if not corrected for (Korinek. A. might incomes may not be equally likely to respond. and International Comparison Program. Mistiaen. countries. DC: World Bank. For surveys in which the period of reference covers multiple years. van de Walle. Ravallion. World Development Report 1990: Poverty. DC. see http://iresearch. Data.

4 16.6 26.2 0.2 4.1 26.6c 1.5 1.8 –4.2 6.7 11.9 –4.1 8.2 3.3 1.7 10.1 4.7 15.3 11.6 14.3 18.0 2.8 7.5 5.6 24.5 2.9 2.8 –1.2 Total population –1.9 46.3 Croatia 2004 2010 1.4 –3.0 17.3 El Salvador 2007 2012 0.4 3.4 c Canada 2004 2010 2.8 –0.5 10. Islamic Rep.8 Costa Rica 2010 2013 1.7 12.1 1.8 5.4 43.6 0.3 6.1 Brazil 2007 2012 6.8 21.1 Kyrgyz Republic 2008 2012 –0.7 Jordan 2006 2010 2.6 18.5 –1.4 France 2007 2012 0.8 26.6 1.1 11.4 26.2 20.9 50.2 10.9c 20.0 3.8 3.8 11.9 20.6 9.4 52.3 9.4 25.4 0.4 0.8 10.8 5.6 3.3 0.8 25.3 22.7 17.4 15.3 46.9 9.9 1.9 11.2 0.7 28.4 c 7c 7.4 6. 2004 2012 7.1 26.2 14.5 3.0 People Environment .0 0.2 Armenia 2008 2013 –1.8 49.6 1.8 7.9 22.0 41.9 –0. Rep.6 2.1 5.8 10.9 Congo.3 4.5 3.3 3.4 3.6 50.3 1.6 6.2 21.1c 1.1 9.2 2.9 Chile 2006 2011 3.3 Denmark 2007 2012 –0.8 2.4 27.6 7.2 58.9 7.1 Dominican Republic 2007 2012 1.3 4.1 27.3 49.9 –1.2 12. 2005 2011 7.1 6.2 –2.5 Georgia 2008 2013 2.9 19.0 Australia 2003 2010 4.0 Italy 2007 2012 –2.5 6.9 47.1 1.7 2.1 1.0 12.7c Cambodia 2007 2012 8.8 7.7 22.8 Greece 2007 2012 –10.9 8.2 Belgium 2007 2012 1.5 Congo.5 10.6 Indonesia 2011 2014 3.2 0.9 Czech Republic 2007 2012 0.1 –1.2 Estonia 2007 2012 –2.6 Iraq 2007 2012 0.6 0.9 2.1 2.6 27.4 2.5 6. 2009 2013 3.7 9.1 3.5 39.1 China 2005 2010 7.1 Ethiopia 2004 2010 –1.5 5.5 1.2c World view 3.0 1.2 7.7c 2.9c 1.5 28.9 26.8 14.5 1.8 27.2 4.4 6.7 2.6 3.7 15.4 3.1 4.3 6.4 16.5 11.3 1.6 13.4 2.6 5.6 27.7 0.2 1.6 2.8 12.6c 6.1 2.6 Kazakhstan 2009 2013 8.6 34.6 33.3 28.1 6.8 Hungary 2007 2012 –1.4 Colombia 2008 2012 6.7 0.8 3.7 Bangladesh 2005 2010 1.3 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide 3.9 3.3 1.4 4.6 2.7 8.2 11.2 3.2 –1.8 21.4 0.3 2.0 3.0 –8.1 0.9 3.2 18.6 Honduras 2007 2012 –3.8 51.7 1.1 Germany 2006 2011 1.5 –0.7 Austria 2007 2012 0.5 52. Dem.8 28.9 2.8 Ecuador 2007 2012 5.5 Bulgaria 2007 2012 1.4 4.0 Bolivia 2007 2012 10.5 3.7 Iceland 2007 2012 –3.6 23.9 Bhutan 2007 2012 6.7 2.1 –2.4 Guatemala 2006 2011 –1.3 Iran.9 4.8 4.4 52.7 1.8 0.Shared prosperity Period 62 Annualized growth in mean income or consumption per capita Mean income or consumption per capitaa % 2011 PPP $ a day Bottom 40% of the population Total population Baseline Most recent Baseline Most recent Bottom 40% of the population Baseline year Most recent year Albania 2008 2012 –1.6 1. Rep.6 6.7 2.1 –1.0 3.6 3.8 3.7 53.5 4.2 Cyprus 2007 2012 –2.3 52.5 Ireland 2007 2012 –4.7 Finland 2007 2012 1.8 c 0.1 23.3 3.8 46.4 Belarus 2006 2011 9.0 17.9 8.8 0.4 Argentinab 2007 2012 6.3 6.7 18.9 9.1 1.9 7.8 8.1 7.4 2.6 48.5 India 2004 2011 3.7 46.

0 25.9 2.9 0.5 2.5 Norway 2007 2012 3.7 –2.4 72.9 Lithuania 2007 2012 –1.7 8.0 36.5 2.8 0.5 1.0 7.3 3.7 49.2 3.3 Sri Lanka 2006 2012 2.1 4.6 Thailand 2008 2012 4.3 0.1 9.2 19.0 8.6 Philippines 2006 2012 1.7 Mauritius 2006 2012 0.0 0.8 5.5 14.7 2.4 17.9 30.4 Uruguay 2007 2012 7.0 Panama 2008 2012 4.2 36.1 50.2 Nigeria 2003 2009 0.1 2.4 1.4 3.8 –3.2 Latvia 2007 2012 –3.2 2.9 16.1 0.0 45.1 3.2 1.7 3.0 Vietnam 2004 2010 6.4 15.4 33.2 Moldova 2008 2013 5.9 5.2 13.5 Tunisia 2005 2010 3.3 2.3 7.6 –0.5 16.6 4.9 11.5 1.0 1.8 2.8 Russian Federation 2007 2012 5.9 5.0 1.5 11.0 United Kingdom 2007 2012 –1.8 0.9 4.6 Mexico 2008 2012 1. Covers urban areas only.8 –1.8 Spain 2007 2012 –1.3 3.8 Luxembourg 2007 2012 –2.1 19.1 12.5 0.5 11.8 Slovak Republic 2007 2012 5.8 11.2 Total population 2.8 Pakistan 2004 2010 3.8 4.0 2.8 3.0 3.6 Togo 2006 2011 –2.1 Peru 2007 2012 8.4 8.9 6.5 Switzerland 2007 2012 2.0 Slovenia 2007 2012 –0.4 4.9 16.6 2.6 23.6 10.3 6.0 51.6 19. Based on 2005 purchasing power parity rates.2 1.6 13.9 Netherlands 2007 2012 0. b.9 13.8 0.7 1.0 3.3 1.1 9.6 1.9 a.2 6.1 –0.2 10.9 1.8 2.3 20.1 Rwanda 2005 2010 5.1 1.9 2.6 3.4 39.1 28.3 5.7 12.0 19.0 1.3 20. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 63 .0 South Africa 2006 2011 4.3 22.2 2.1 3.2 3.2 7.4 12.0 28.3 6.8 15.2 0.1 1.8 23.5 –3.8 1.6 8.1 11.8 –1.4 United States 2007 2013 –0.3 0.9 5. For some countries means are not reported because of grouped or confidential data.9 2.3 33.8 33.4 6.3 7.3 11.5 34.0 51.4 25.2 66.5 Malawi 2004 2010 –1.9 Mali 2006 2009 2.4 Mauritania 2008 2014 3.4 13.0 2.8 –0.4 6.7 –0.8 Senegal 2005 2011 –0.2 16.0 3.7 4.1 0.4 65.8 1.5 6.2 0.5 11.1 3.2 Tanzania 2007 2011 3.3 1.3 9.9 8.9 0.2 5.2 2.0 –4.9 2.3 4.7 28.0 –2.3 2.2 Serbia 2007 2010 –1.8 8.0 2.8 7.8 2.6 11.5 38.5 1.0 11.2 –0.0 8.9 22.6 Turkey 2007 2012 4.6 5.0 3.3 1.0 –1.7 1.9 1.4 33.3 Portugal 2007 2012 –2.8 Madagascar 2005 2010 –4.3 21.4 63.2 12.0 58.2 –1.8 Paraguay 2007 2012 7.2 5.3 26.0 1.2 5.6 Nepal 2003 2010 7.6 5.3 4.1 Romania 2008 2013 0.6 8.8 5.7 0.6 4.7 12.1 16.4 2.4 9.3 6.0 3.7 Poland 2007 2012 2.5 1. c.8 70.0 1.1 5.3 Uganda 2009 2012 3.0 17.Shared prosperity Period Annualized growth in mean income or consumption per capita Mean income or consumption per capitaa % 2011 PPP $ a day Bottom 40% of the population Total population Baseline Most recent Baseline Most recent Bottom 40% of the population Baseline year Most recent year Lao PDR 2007 2012 1.5 2.4 Ukraine 2008 2013 3.6 Montenegro 2008 2013 –4.4 8.4 5.3 28.2 2.1 3.2 29.8 9.5 Sweden 2007 2012 2.6 1.1 44.1 4.1 1.4 7.8 18.4 3.7 1.4 0.4 17.4 4.5 2.5 4.4 2.

annualized growth of survey mean in most countries and are rarely aligned across countries in terms per capita real income or consumption of the bottom 40 percent. in an inclusive society. a year and half after announcing its new consumption are updated with the 2011 purchasing power parity twin goals of ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosper- (PPP) rates for all countries except Bangladesh. communicate. survey mean per capita real income or con- across time and across countries. If two surveys are equidistant from in a society. consumption was not taken to ignore the many other dimensions Once two surveys are selected for a country. of timing. The database was updated and expanded in and Lao PDR. and when analyzing shared then computing the annual average growth rate between those years prosperity in the context of a country. income or consumption of the total population is computed in the To generate measures of shared prosperity that are reasonably same way using data for the total population. comparisons across countries or over time and annualized growth of survey mean per capita real income or con- should be made with a high degree of caution. around 2006–11 to around 2007–12 (World Bank 2015b). and measure—though measurement estimating the mean per capita real income or consumption of the challenges exist. within a two-year omy and a consideration of equity. but users should consider alter- 23 high-income countries. Indeed. the selection criteria are re-applied to select the next The decision to measure shared prosperity based on income or best survey year. Moreover. there is no numerical target defined globally. per capita real income or consumption of the bottom 40 percent. both consumer price indexes and 2011 income countries. guide selection of the survey years used to calculate the growth And at the country level the shared prosperity goal is unbounded rates in the 2015 update: the final year of the growth period (T1) is (World Bank 2015a). Given that new household surveys are of the bottom 40 percent of the welfare distribution in every coun- not available for every year for most countries. such as survey Lack of household survey data is even more problematic for mon- years defining the growth period and the type of welfare aggregate itoring shared prosperity than for monitoring poverty. shared prosperity. Household surveys are infrequent sumption of the total population. shared prosperity comprises many dimen- bottom 40 percent of the welfare distribution in years T0 and T1 and sions of well-being of the less well-off. sumption of the total population. or consumption of the bottom 40 percent. The comparability of welfare aggregates (income sufficient to raise everyone above an absolute minimum standard or consumption) for the years chosen for T0 and T1 is assessed for of living. other things being equal. the more recent survey year is with its poorest members. It is motivated by the need for an indicator that is easy of mean per capita real income or consumption is computed by first to understand. The choice of the bottom 40 percent as the target population is Calculation of growth rates one of practical compromise. the annualized growth of welfare. two surveys of a country have to be conducted World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . To monitor used to calculate the growth rates. it is not selected as T0. The World Bank Group is committed to updating the shared pros- Promoting shared prosperity is defined as fostering income growth perity indicators every year. survey means of income or Prosperity in October 2014. Shared prosperity explicitly recog- band. progress is measured by how those gains are shared T1 – 5. Since many countries do not con- over time within a country. Its purpose is to allow for cross-country of shared prosperity for 71 low- and middle-income countries and comparison and benchmarking. concern. the following rules country-specific goal. for which survey means are presented in 2005 PPP October 2015 to include estimates for 94 countries. including high- terms because price data. The bottom 40 percent differs across Growth rates are calculated as annualized average growth rates countries depending on the welfare distribution. The period of growth assessed was updated from PPPs.Shared prosperity About the data The World Bank Group released the Global Database of Shared In the latest update of the database. Iraq. the World Bank Group has a standard- 64 ized approach for choosing time periods. require further investigation. While all countries are encouraged to native choices for surveys and time periods when cross-country estimate the annualized growth of mean per capita real income comparison is not the primary consideration. economic growth must increase prosperity among poor every country. Consequently. Thus the gap between initial and final survey years ranges nizes that while growth is necessary for improving economic welfare from three to seven years. the Global Database of World Development Indicators includes the following shared pros- Shared Prosperity includes only a subset of countries that meet perity indicators: survey mean per capita real income or consumption certain criteria. it is important to consider a using a compound growth formula. Because boosting shared prosperity is a duct surveys on a precise five-year schedule. The Global Database of Shared Prosperity is This edition of World Development Indicators includes estimates the result of these efforts. Cambodia. If comparability across the two surveys is a major people over time. updated estimates try and is measured by calculating the annualized growth of mean will be reported for only a subset of countries each year. and the Improvements in shared prosperity require both a growing econ- initial year (T0) is as close to T1 – 5 as possible. Related information. the most recent year of a survey but no earlier than 2010. comparable across countries. and other Data availability relevant parameters. are provided in the footnotes. Growth of mean per capita real wide range of indicators of welfare. data sources. The first important consideration is comparability of the bottom 40 percent. and it can change over a roughly five-year period. ity around the world.

Moreover. prosperity estimates. by the World Bank Group for estimating global and regional poverty rates is. including per capita). [www.org/en/topic/poverty/brief/global-database-of-shared-prosperity]. regardless of the size ment specialists of different departments of the World Bank Group. For surveys in which World Bank. Thus. there are good reasons Global Poverty Working Group. DC. with data Data sources that are as recent as possible.org /PovcalNet/]. The practice adopted would be possible otherwise. if data on income are avail- Poverty rates section. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 65 . and the Twin Goals. ———. is the annualized growth in mean per capita real income consump- ———. 2007–12. 2015a. estimates of annualized growth of mean per the welfare measure for countries for which consumption data are capita real income or consumption of the bottom 40 percent are unavailable.Shared prosperity within five years or so during a chosen period—in this case around household surveys used in calculating the welfare growth rate. See the discussion in the for recent survey years.10 per day the time period as closely as possible across all countries. [http://iresearch.worldbank tion from household surveys over a roughly five-year period. Policy • Annualized growth in mean income or consumption per capita Research Report. They have to be reasonably comparable in both survey expressed in PPP-adjusted dollars per day at 2011 prices. DC. in principle. of their population. Various years. achieving a balance among matching measured at international poverty lines ($1. • Mean income or consumption per capita is the mean income or consumption per capita from Economy States and markets Washington. to use per capita consumption expenditure Data quality as the welfare measure wherever available and to use income as Like poverty rates. income is used for estimating shared prosperity. an interactive computational tool that allows try. The second consideration is the coverage of countries. and ensuring the widest possible coverage of reviewed by the members of the Global Poverty Working Group. It is cal- design and construction of the welfare aggregates. it extreme poverty rates in PovcalNet. it is the first year.90 or $3. Global Database of Shared Prosperity. It is . PovcalNet. which comprises poverty measure- for obtaining a wide coverage of countries. calculated for the bottom 40 percent of a country’s population and for the total population of a country. A Measured Approach to Ending Poverty and the period of reference covers multiple years. in some cases data on consumption may be based on income or consumption data collected in household sur- available but are outdated or not shared with the World Bank Group veys. across regions and income levels. DC. for policy purposes it is important to The database’s primary source of data is the World Bank Group’s have indicators for the most recent period possible for each coun- PovcalNet database. Washington. Since shared prosperity must be The Global Database of Shared Prosperity was prepared by the estimated and used at the country level. 2015b. Washington. The datasets included in PovcalNet are provided and the most recent data. In practice. this means choice of consumption or income to measure shared prosperity for that time periods will not match perfectly across countries. This is a country is consistent with the welfare aggregate used to estimate a compromise: While it introduces a degree of incomparability. unless there are strong argu- also creates a database that includes a larger set of countries than ments for using a different welfare aggregate.worldbank. not every culated for the bottom 40 percent of a country’s population and for survey that can generate poverty estimates can generate shared the total population of a country. Data. and the same quality issues apply. However. Definitions References • Period is the period of reference of a survey. In these cases. The countries. The selection of survey years and countries needs to be made users to replicate the World Bank Group’s official poverty estimates consistently and transparently. Boosting Shared Prosperity: Concepts. able.

PEOPLE 66 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .

Similar interagency efforts have also improved maternal mortality estimates. The international poverty line has been set at $1.worldbank. and a wider range of education indicators. they provide a multidimensional portrait of the progress of societies across the world. size of the specialist surgical workforce. The United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. infant. thematic interagency and expert collaboration helps ensure that estimates are robust. Data for estimating the indicators in the People section have been collected and compiled by national authorities and various international development agencies. prevalence of child marriage. health.25 a day per person in 2005 PPP terms. prevalence of road traffic injuries. number of surgical procedures performed. This effort has improved accuracy. prevalence of female genital mutilation or cutting. risk of impoverishing expenditure for surgical care. and under-five mortality rates that span more than 50 years. These data highlight disparities within countries. women’s agency. As with the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside interagency collaboration. demand for family planning satisfied by modern methods. share of the population practicing open defecation. In many cases. Other indicators have also been added this year. a close working relationship with countries and national statistical offices and investment in improving national statistical capacity help advance data Economy States and markets quality at both the national and subnational levels. The Sustainable Development Goals call for disaggregated indicators. share of deaths that are registered. poverty. including prevalence of anemia among all women of reproductive age. including the World Bank. For gender statistics the World Bank is helping develop methodologies to collect data on asset ownership and entrepreneurship. assessing data quality. The World Bank also leads data collection efforts in such areas as financial inclusion and employment law and business regulations from a gender perspective. many of them related to the Sustainable Development Goals. and comparability of estimates of neonatal. For example. reliable. and World Development Indicators will continue to expand its subnational coverage. prevalence of violence against women. An important update this year is an adjustment to the international poverty line to reflect the new update to purchasing power parity rates from the 2011 round of the International Comparison Program. jobs. such as population. For more information. replacing the previous line of $1.org /wdi/sub-national). people is one of the key themes of the new Sustainable Development Goals. poverty. wherever data sources permit. and timely. Global links Back 2 World Development Indicators 2016 67 . estimates of child mortality used to vary by data source and by methodology. see the About the data for poverty rates in World view. and some estimates presented in People are now available by subnational location. and shared prosperity. transparency. Together with the indicators in World view. and fitting an appropriate statistical model to generate a smooth trend curve. established in 2004. including those for malnutrition.People presents indicators of education. and gender. and population (see http://data. risk of catastrophic expenditure for surgical care. indicators of financial inclusion. The entire series of global poverty rates—from 1981 to 2012— has been revised based on these new data.90 a day per person in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. social protection. has addressed this issue by compiling all available data. making interpretation for global monitoring difficult. contraceptive prevalence (modern methods).

K.) Haiti Honduras Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica R. The primary completion rate is the proportion of new entrants in the last grade of primary education among the total population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Worldwide. de Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago IBRD 42215 68 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . and failure to advance.S.since some students finish school without acquiring adequate literacy and numeracy skills.S. Virgin Islands (U.) St.K. the primary completion rate reached 92 percent in 2013.B. Although the rate does not always ensure that expected learning outcomes occur.) Mexico The Bahamas Cuba Jamaica Belize Turks and Caicos Is. Lucia Curaçao (Neth. Kitts and Nevis Chile Guadeloupe (Fr. and there are large regional differences in achievement.) Uruguay Barbados St.) Ecuador Kiribati Brazil Peru Samoa Fiji American Samoa (U.K.) Dominica Martinique (Fr.) St. Education for all Greenland (Den. Martin (Fr. Vincent and the Grenadines R. most recent year available during 2010–15 (% of relevant age group) 95 or more Canada 85–94 70–84 50–69 Less than 50 United States No data Bermuda (U. it is a good indicator of the quality and efficiency of the school system.S.B.S. It reflects both the coverage of the education system and the educational attainment of students.) Argentina St. The rate can exceed 100 percent because new entrants may include overage and underage children. physical danger. distance. U. Many children drop out of school before completion because of cost. (U.) French Polynesia (Fr.) Sint Maarten (Neth. progress has been stagnant in recent years. de Panama Venezuela Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana (Fr. However.) Caribbean Inset Puerto Dominican Rico.) Paraguay Antigua and Barbuda U.) Primary completion rate. Republic Tonga Bolivia Anguilla (U.

People’s Rep. China Macao SAR. Greenland (Den. of Gabon Congo Rwanda Dem. In Latin America and the Caribbean the primary completion rate reached 101 percent in 2013. which has the lowest primary completion rate. Ethiopia (14 percent in 1994 to 54 percent in 2014).S. of Yemen Djibouti South Ethiopia Sudan Japan Nepal Pakistan Singapore Nauru In d o n esi a Papua New Guinea Seychelles Zambia Malawi Tuvalu Mauritius Mayotte (Fr.) Russian Federation Iceland Finland Norway Sweden Estonia Latvia United Kingdom Denmark Lithuania Ireland Germany Poland Belarus Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Liechtenstein Switzerland Ukraine Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Romania France Dem. China Myanmar Lao PDR Eritrea Rep.) Swaziland South Africa Kiribati Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Angola Lesotho Europe Inset Vanuatu Poland Germany Mali Jordan Arab Rep. and in East Asia and Pacific it reached 105 percent. showed the most rapid progress during the past decade: The primary completion rate increased 15 percent.) Vietnam Cambodia Uganda Kenya Rep. and Bhutan (24 percent in 1993 to 97 percent in 2014). Armenia baijan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Greece Turkey Bulgaria Tunisia Morocco Algeria Libya Niger Chad Senegal The Burkina Gambia Faso Guinea GuineaBenin Bissau Central Nigeria CôteGhana Sierra Leone African d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Liberia Togo Equatorial Guinea São Tomé and Príncipe Sudan China Afghanistan Islamic Rep. Sub-Saharan Africa. Mariana Islands (U.S. of Egypt Western Sahara Czech Republic Slovak Republic Austria Fiji New Caledonia (Fr.) Australia Hungary Slovenia Romania Croatia San Marino Bosnia and Serbia Herzegovina Italy Montenegro Kosovo Bulgaria Cabo Mauritania Verde Syrian Arab Rep. Iraq Cyprus Lebanon Israel West Bank and Gaza Malta Rep.) Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia Madagascar Botswana La Réunion (Fr.In the Middle East and North Africa the primary completion rate increased from 76 percent in 1990 to 94 percent in 2013.) Federated States of Micronesia Palau Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Philippines Brunei Darussalam Sri Lanka Somalia Comoros N. of Iran Saudi Arabia Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Bhutan Bangladesh United Arab Emirates Oman India Thailand Guam (U.of Korea Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Georgia AzerRep. Over the past two decades three countries have quadrupled their primary completion rate: Benin (19 percent in 1990 to 76 percent in 2014). Burundi of Congo Tanzania Hong Kong SAR. to 69 percent in 2013.of Korea Ukraine Spain Monaco Portugal Andorra New Zealand FYR Macedonia Albania Greece Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 69 .Rep.

Botswana ..... 4 34 37 Bermuda Bosnia and Herzegovina Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria . 83 .. ..3 97 99 62 .. 20. .. . . 6 15 14 . Central African Republic 40. .. Algeria 11. 3 .2 38 206 71 0. 12 Belarus . 44 27 10 11 .. 5 . . 98 68 48 10 Comoros 32..... Channel Islands 70 a Maternal Adolescent Prevalence Primary Youth Labor force Vulnerable Unemployment Female mortality fertility of HIV completion literacy participation employment legislators. 6 .. . 36. 46 .... Belize 19.. 65 .2 People Prevalence Under-five mortality of child rate malnutrition. . . 97 . ..1 89 371 110 0. 9 . Burundi 57. 23 .. ...1 74 81 71 58 4 5 48 7.. 99 .. 99 98 61 9 5 27 Azerbaijan Bahamas... 79 .. 100 71 . American Samoa . ... China ..9 61 .. 98 70 2 4 .7 10 23 21 . 66 .6 98 693 123 1.8 8 22 48 0... 9 Albania 23.4 ...9 5 11 9 ..1 .. Belgium .. . .. .. 8 . China .6 33 148 23 . 71 .. 47 48 . 102 .. Rep. ...2 102 ..6 88 596 107 4... 91 396 77 <0.. 12 Benin 34....7 26 140 11 <0. .. 12 80 31 .4 11 27 7 . ..6 96 87 83 64 0 .. . 7 . ... 6 . 9 .000 % of ILO estimate managers Chile 1. .. 100 72 4 2 32 53 Colombia 12.0 67 84 72 ..7 13 27 42 .5 101 99 61 21 8 . 10 11 39 .. Andorra ...1 109 ..2 . 90 ... 7 . stunting % of children under age 5 2008–14 Afghanistan per 1.. 43 Armenia Aruba Australia .7 130 882 93 4. 59 7 3 32 Macao SAR. Congo.. 96 ....1 74 335 70 . Cambodia 32. Congo.5 38 50 72 . 5 7 10 ... .. Dem. . 108 99 55 58 16 . Cameroon 32. 74 .0 45 442 119 2.. .. ... . Antigua and Barbuda . . Hong Kong SAR. 6 .1 38 176 83 <0. ratio rate rate rate rate senior officials.....1 76 .. Modeled and % of ILO estimate Modeled births per Modeled population % of population estimate 1. 2 ..7 139 856 137 2.. ..5 82 712 29 1.. 44 129 34 25.......1 14 29 21 . . 157 477 167 2. 44 Bhutan 33.. . China 9. 74 87 58 . Argentina .... 93 .3 96 99 73 54 3 ... 4 7 8 . 59 .. . 3 . Cabo Verde . 53 11 9 30 ..8 72 81 70 74 4 . 100 45 25 28 ...8 74 81 71 . .. 3 .... 16 .. .. 8 .000 women ages population % of relevant live births 15–19 ages 15–49 age group 2015 2015 2014 2014 2010–14 a ages 15–24 2005–14a ages 15 and older % of total employment % of total labor force % of total 2014 2010–14a 2014 2010–14a . The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados 18.... ..2 100 98 77 13 18 39 Brazil ... 73 53 3 17 Bolivia 27. . Rep..7 16 64 52 0..... . 4 . 16 44 67 . 3 .5 98 100 56 .. . ... 4 . . .. 66 .. . 7 . .3 17 28 67 1. 7 36 Canada Cayman Islands .... 4 6 14 ... 73 88 1 .0 32 25 59 0..000 live births per 100... 8 . 13 52 64 0. .1 98 100 67 56 5 . 7 . 25 42 74 1. . 42. . 99 70 23 7 37 19. . 8. World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . 5 4 19 0.. .. Austria . 99 98 53 9 12 Burkina Faso 35. 4 4 7 .8 14 25 24 0. . Angola ... Chad 38..3 44 36 79 .1 100 98 68 . .1 67 89 83 94 7 ... 95 99 ....4 29 161 51 0.. 4 . 15 52 ...0 100 405 85 1...... . . 7 ... 100 64 42 17 . 7 .4 50 73 70 .. 101 99 64 . 25... .. ....

8 .. .1 31 92 98 1. . stunting % of children under age 5 2008–14 Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia a per 1..... Cyprus . 4 8 9 ..6 64b . 66 . . ...9 69 359 40 1.. Modeled and % of ILO estimate Modeled births per Modeled population % of population estimate 1.. .. .000 % of ILO estimate managers per 100..000 women ages population % of relevant live births 15–19 ages 15–49 age group 2015 2014 2014 2010–14 a ages 15 and older % of total employment % of total labor force % of total 2005–14a 2014 2010–14a 2014 2010–14a ages 15–24 5..0 39 229 88 1.. 63 . ..... 34 . Guatemala 48.6 17 54 66 0. 107 100 62 6 8 36 Ethiopia 40. ..4 27 126 50 0. 4 8 11 0. 33 Ireland ... 3 ...9 108 . 96 86 54 81 4 14 36... . Islamic Rep.. . 22... 11 .... . 48 174 26 ..8 84 93 61 .. 21 .. 2 3 7 . 56 . . ..0 91 97 65 42 15 37 40 Ecuador 25. 60 6 5 30 18. 107 ... . ... . 89 61 31 20 . . 7 . 97 99 53 30 26 23 . 7.. . .8 94 679 142 1.5 Greece . .7 20 129 66 0. Gambia..5 51 291 102 3.5 107 97 62 38 6 37 Equatorial Guinea 26......3 47 501 56 0. ..2 99 ..3 99 99 63 21 8 29. . Grenada ..7 37 92 85 . ... 6 17 18 . 16 . Finland . Israel .... 63 .. 99 ... 102 ....2 51 98 87 .. 84 89 5 22 Faroe Islands . . Eritrea 50... Curaçao . Fiji .....7 62 75 73 .6 93 645 135 3.. . 97 . ..3 98 100 57 ... Guinea-Bissau 27. ..4 91 96 63 53 4 .1 104 92 49 26 13 7 El Salvador 20.... 3 7 5 ... 16 25 27 0.. . . . . 7 . Estonia . Haiti 21. . .... 100 . 22. .. 62 5 7 28 33.3 113 99 69 39 5 Egypt...3 12 36 41 0. 3 9 14 .5 87 92 68 45 3 . . .... 101 . 4 6 7 . ... 11 . 82 42 .... Guinea 35. ..2 94 342 110 6..3 116 100 65 60 13 . 12 27 31 . ...5 57 48 67 79 4 35 . ... 74 9 5 India . 92 100 51 10 17 25 Cuba .. .. Honduras 22.6 93 549 91 3.. . . . Guyana 12.6 10 25 57 0. 4 8 10 .. 99 99 52 6 8 40 40 Hungary Iceland .000 live births 2015 Maternal Adolescent Prevalence Primary Youth Labor force Vulnerable Unemployment Female mortality fertility of HIV completion literacy participation employment legislators.2 22 64 76 0.... 4 6 4 0.. 56 7 10 39 French Polynesia Gabon ..8 67 71 77 61 7 Georgia 11. . . .....0 29 88 81 0.1 102 98 45 41 13 ..... Iraq .....9 ..3 24 33 52 <0.. ratio rate rate rate rate senior officials. Germany Ghana Guam 101b 86 70 77 2 .5 101 99 68 33 6 23 Indonesia Iran. 36 ... 95 . 6 .People 2 Prevalence Under-five mortality of child rate malnutrition.2 54 . 60 15 6 26 Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic . 3 4 10 . 55 . 4 5 10 . . 2 3 6 . Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 71 . .0 69 706 114 1... .8 62 319 68 1...6 32 50 83 . . 59 10 9 32 France ..... The 25. ..... 49 . . 6 . 10 ... .1 103 . . 60 13 12 Isle of Man .. .. .5 65 229 22 1. 6 39 46 0. 100 100 64 14 16 14 Czech Republic . . 52 . 5 3 8 . Arab Rep. .. .6 50 31 72 90 2 . ..3 .. 7 . Greenland .. . ... .4 59 353 60 1... ... 17.. 8 . 22 30 44 0.

9 .. 22... ..0 79 72 83 .. Malta ... 19 New Zealand . 54 . 7 40 13 0.. 8 . .. 4 . 92 99 52 9 6 23 Marshall Islands .2 106b ..5 59 24 65 ...1 45 265 77 16. Korea..3 100 . 64 47 5 .4 64 634 137 10.. Lithuania .000 % of ILO estimate managers World Development Indicators 2016 85 83 .... 30 93 b 9.. 86 99 42 10 11 .. .. 111 100 61 8 10 45 Lebanon .0 96 553 204 0... . 5 . Kyrgyz Republic 12.9 6 8 18 . 61 ..... 19 Morocco 14.8 9 4 10 ....9 97 98 59 17 8 .. 19 Liechtenstein ... 4 7 4 ...6 93 100 41 32 3 44 Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia.9 28 121 32 0. . 27. . .. Sts.2 50 353 117 0.1 50 178 17 0.... 4 . . 5 .6 48 67 84 . ...7 68 . New Caledonia ...9 21 76 40 0.4 5 7 12 . . 13 . . . . .. 53 ...3 9 68 7 .000 women ages population % of relevant live births 15–19 ages 15–49 age group 2015 2014 2014 ages 15–24 2010–14 a 2005–14a ages 15 and older % of total employment % of total labor force % of total 2014 2010–14a 2014 2010–14a .2 113b Kenya 26.. 103 99 69 2 3 ... 100 .... 4 4 6 . 102 ... 2 10 6 . 67 ... Modeled and % of ILO estimate Modeled births per Modeled population % of population estimate 1. . ..1 78 .. Namibia 23.. . Libya . 36 Kazakhstan 13. .3 85 . 78 84 1 . .. 48 . .4 53 47 66 ... People’s Rep.... 64 13 7 30 ..6 13 38 63 0.. 43. . 97 100 61 10 11 38 . 60 8 19 43 Nepal 40. . .. . 6 .1 14 12 29 0. ..5 103 98 60 21 2 25 Maldives 20. . 4 .. . Mozambique 43. 68 ... . 8 18 14 . . Lao PDR 43. 17 ... 96 63 38 13 . ... ... 13 9 6 . . 15 Kuwait 5...8 18 58 24 . 82 ..3 105 100 68 42 8 ..... 100 57 . . FYR Madagascar 49. Jordan 7.000 live births 2015 per 100.3 104 Kiribati Korea.. Myanmar 35.. .. 6 9 17 .. . ... 110 98 63 51 5 .. 4 ... 13..0 85 602 79 0.5 3 11 2 . 103 . Mali .... Lesotho 33. .... 10.7 16 89 61 1.. 100 100 49 18 13 25 Jamaica 5. 14 53 29 0. Dem.. 67 19 12 ... . 57 6 6 24 4..3 69 65 88 86 4 Malawi 42. ... 100 53 . 31 . Malaysia . 59 . ..4 16 23 23 0. 100 78 .. ... 36 . Latvia . 23 . 99 55 23 28 28 25 Luxembourg Macedonia. ratio rate rate rate rate senior officials.. 8 15 13 <0.2 103 99 62 . 35 100 16 .....1 79 489 143 10... 5 10 12 . Rep.1 3 5 4 .6 .. 100 73 29 4 ... Fed. Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro . 3 .. stunting % of children under age 5 2008–14 Italy per 1.8 67 197 65 0. . 102 . 26 .9 25 82 1 . Japan 7.2 90 487 92 23...8 22 44 16 . 2.2 59 .. ....4 76 83 66 . 6 11 24 Netherlands Nicaragua Niger 72 a Maternal Adolescent Prevalence Primary Youth Labor force Vulnerable Unemployment Female mortality fertility of HIV completion literacy participation employment legislators.1 70 725 111 1... .. 8 .5 36 258 73 0. . 6 . . .... 6.. 112 .7 85 96 79 .1 102 82 51 51 10 .. . 62 79 4 . .. 56 90 18 ... 115 587 175 1. Front ? User guide World view People Environment ..0 86 ... .2 People Prevalence Under-five mortality of child rate malnutrition. 3 .. Kosovo .... Liberia 32.. 22 150 90 0.0 49 510 92 5. . . 99 50 ....... . . .

.9 41 138 47 18.. Kitts and Nevis St. stunting % of children under age 5 2008–14 Nigeria a per 1.. .2 109 99 66 .. 58 . 92b 80 61 .7 79 94 58 . ... 101 . 3 .2 56 88 54 .. .4 17 68 50 0.. . .. ..0 61 389 74 27. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 73 .. . . . .. .. 3 4 6 0..5 .. . . . ..0 81 178 39 <0. .. 100 68 9 3 Sint Maarten . 8 13 11 . ratio rate rate rate rate senior officials. 7 ..4 89 99 70 38 5 34 30 Peru 18. 3 9 4 <0....... 5 3 14 <0.. 69 . 4 10 10 . Qatar .000 % of ILO estimate managers per 100. . Norway ... .. .4 70 64 67 .4 100 b 100 68 ... ..2 101 . . Somalia 25..... 97 . 34 Singapore ...1 69 96 44 33 11 9 Tajikistan 26. 96 100 .5 59 56 77 58 10 . ..8 45 32 38 0. .. ... 2. 67 .. .. 11 31 35 .4 96 99 76 46 4 Philippines 33. .9 21 132 58 0. 100 100 59 13 25 30 14..8 12 17 9 0. . 3 5 6 0..8 67 82 86 78 1 . 66 . . 18 51 26 .3 42 290 27 2...1 98 100 57 17 9 38 33 Poland Portugal . .... 16 .5 14 48 54 .1 101 98 65 38 7 . ...9 120 1.. ..1 98 98 55 43 5 28 .5 57 215 55 0. . 6....9 109 814 112 3.. .9 14 . 6 14 43 ...0 94 98 55 13 6 36 Swaziland 31...... 14 ... 31. 10 ..1 96 . . .. . 64 7 8 35 Sweden Switzerland ...4 47 315 80 0.2 70 311 76 0.5 13 68 40 <0.. 112 99 ... 99 60 15 14 Puerto Rico ....... 3 .. 37. 15 . 4 5 9 . 11 . St.1 98 100 58 15 10 38 Solomon Islands . 100 99 42 31 .. . 45.000 live births Maternal Adolescent Prevalence Primary Youth Labor force Vulnerable Unemployment Female mortality fertility of HIV completion literacy participation employment legislators. ....0 7 17 19 .. ..7 10 30 15 <0.. 99 53 9 25 31 South Sudan 31.. 9. Spain Sri Lanka St.. 65 5 3 31 Oman Pakistan Palau ... 10 25 24 . . . .... Modeled and % of ILO estimate Modeled births per Modeled population % of population estimate 1.. Suriname Sudan 8. 28 114 49 . ..9 . 87 .1 74 73 55 .... 102 99 53 29 22 33 7.. 82 .6 28 114 61 <0. . 68 9 5 33 Syrian Arab Republic 27. 6 19...6 102 98 66 30 4 46 Papua New Guinea 49. 4 5 3 . 111 99 55 . . 22 . 56 ..2 76 66 56 .... Martin . 7 . ..7 37 37 . Panama 19.3 137 732 105 0. . 15 12 9 .2 102 . .. .. .360 120 1. Paraguay 10...000 women ages population % of relevant live births 15–19 ages 15–49 age group 2015 2015 2014 2014 2010–14 a ages 15 and older % of total employment % of total labor force % of total 2005–14a 2014 2010–14a 2014 2010–14a ages 15–24 32. . 60 12 13 31 Slovenia . .People 2 Prevalence Under-five mortality of child rate malnutrition. 3 .... 18 45 52 .8 95 .. 11 .6 47 156 85 0. . 94 99 87 0 0 12 Romania . 8 Northern Mariana Islands .. 7 6 20 <0.. . 99 43 .. ... South Africa 23.. 4 .. 5 . 94 99 57 31 7 31 Russian Federation . .. . Vincent & the Grenadines ... 101 100 64 6 5 38 44.. .... . Slovak Republic . ..1 17 94 75 0... St... .. .... 24 7 ..... 3 10 4 ..7 79 72 72 . Lucia 38. ..8 21 155 47 1..1 93 789 68 2. . .. 36 Rwanda Samoa San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone .. ..

44 . Yemen. 99 100 61 ..4 85 80 81 . c.3 c 17 59 21 ....3 7 17 20 . b.. 9 24 25 1.. Vanuatu 28. . 23.. .. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified....5 19 55 31 .. Excludes high-income countries... 79 79 13 . Turkmenistan ... Uruguay Uzbekistan Virgin Islands (U. .7c 18 67 65 .. Rep. ..000 live births Maternal Adolescent Prevalence Primary Youth Labor force Vulnerable Unemployment Female mortality fertility of HIV completion literacy participation employment legislators. United Kingdom . 4 9 15 . .000 % of ILO estimate managers per 100..1 94 93 49 31 11 . . 111 99 64 .7 53 215 48 . 91 86 59 66 5 ....2 96 100 62 .5 78 368 92 2.. 11 ..6 76 495 98 2.. 62 13 6 34 United States 2. . ratio rate rate rate rate senior officials...4 15 95 80 0..5 106 97 78 63 2 .3 74 86 89 74 3 . RB 13. .9 71 68 78 . Vietnam 19.. Tonga 8. 94 95 71 .. Sub-Saharan Africa 35.. 51 42 17 ..... .. . .. ... 91 83 56 77 4 . .1 97 97 48 22 13 ..1 14 62 7 <0.6 71 443 110 16. 103 99 67 . World 45 w 0.7 104 99 66 23 7 44 . .. . 105 99 70 ...... Tuvalu . a. Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia 10..1 7 14 24 . 101 98 66 32 7 ... 6 ..000 women ages population % of relevant live births 15–19 ages 15–49 age group 2015 2015 2014 2014 2010–14 a ages 15 and older % of total employment % of total labor force % of total 2005–14a 2014 2010–14a 2014 2010–14a ages 15–24 Tanzania 34.5 14 16 28 .S. 10 .. . 11 Turks and Caicos Islands ..8 42 385 62 <0.. .7 55 343 115 7. 93 .. 97 72 56 1 25 Timor-Leste 57. High income 3. Upper middle income 7.8 w 43 w 216 w 92 w 91 w 63 w 6w .0 c 11 16 18 . 62 .. 7 ...) West Bank and Gaza 7. . . 63 .3 56 84 77 79 4 .. 98 100 59 14 9 . ... 97 99 41 26 26 . Europe & Central Asia 10. Ukraine . ..... Uganda 33. 27 . . Turkey 9. 4 ...6 96 98 65 30 9 . w East Asia & Pacific 11. Data are for 2015. 6 . 100 62 . 7 6 29 .7c 83 547 103 4.4 21 45 59 .2 110 100 60 18 8 38 United Arab Emirates .. 74 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment ... 6 43 11.5 53 253 47 .. .. Venezuela. ... . Lower middle income 33.1 69 88 49 30 17 5 Zambia 40.... 81 .. . 5 ... Modeled and % of ILO estimate Modeled births per Modeled population % of population estimate 1.8 w .... stunting % of children under age 5 2008–14 a per 1.. 20 63 32 . 39 36 18 0.4 81 . 46.2 People Prevalence Under-five mortality of child rate malnutrition. .1 17 124 15 . 62 ... 8 .. 100 99 49 29 9 10 . 103 . Zimbabwe 27. . . Latin America & Caribbean 10. .5 69 71 70 .7 89 91 87 66 5 . 95 100 64 16 4 .. South Asia North America 37...7 10 15 57 0. . Middle East & North Africa 17....4 22 54 38 0. Thailand 16.. ..0 64 224 93 12. 98 80 38 70 5 10 Togo 27..1 ..3 12 20 45 1.2c 23 81 39 0... Low income 37. ... 6 ...2 53 182 35 . 7 .. 6 13 23 .8 49 398 119 5... .5 28 78 43 ..

Survey data are subject They are more likely to result in premature delivery. the United Nations Population nutrition and repeated bouts of infection during the first 1. or the cause of death may not be known. wasting (low weight for height). Estimates of wasting and recall error. Thus cause of death and disability among women of reproductive age in estimates must be obtained from sample surveys or derived by low. and develop- discussion of childhood mortality estimates. and the United Nations Population of a child’s life. Further. Fre- deaths of women of reproductive age or their pregnancy status may quent illness saps the nutritional status of those who survive. health. to recall error. giving estimates by different agencies. for detailed background healthy adults. A complete vital registration system—covering at least and services during pregnancy and childbirth.and middle. and overweight (high approximately five years before the survey. but young girls may continue their pregnancies. the United indicators in this section are available disaggregated by sex.and middle. the WHO. wealth. and prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted age-specific mortality data. the UN Inter-agency Group for Child up opportunities for education and employment.People 2 About the data Though not included in the table due to space limitations. Trend lines are obtained by fitting a country-specific regression Child malnutrition model of mortality rates against their reference dates.income countries. But complete vital registration systems diseases. Maternal mortality ratios in the table are modeled estimates Childhood stunting is a largely irreversible outcome of inadequate based on work by the WHO. Undernourished children have lower resis- Measurements of maternal mortality are subject to many types tance to infection and are more likely to die from common childhood of errors. Many adolescent pregnancies are To make estimates comparable and to ensure consistency across unintended. Estimates of the strict definition of maternal death. (For further Good nutrition is the cornerstone for survival. delivery complications. so data presented here health status.income countries.000 days Fund (UNFPA). and increased risk of for countries with no data. irrespec- countries. they reflect pregnancy-related deaths (deaths severe wasting can show large fluctuations across surveys within while pregnant or within 42 days of pregnancy termination. census. mortality rates may be used to identify vulnerable populations. which comprises UNICEF. and age in the World Development Indicators and research institutes. The methodology dif- Mortality rates for children and others are important indicators of fers from that used for previous estimates. eases are unavailable. mis- With underweight children (low weight for age) a less prominent classification of maternal deaths has been found to lead to serious problem today than in the Millennium Development Goals era. Means of achieving reproductive health include education suses. locking not be reported. UNICEF. Stunting has long-term effects on individuals and Division. and include country-level time series data. And they are among the indicators most frequently Adolescent fertility used to compare socioeconomic development across countries. survey data (see Sources and methods). applying indirect estimation techniques to registration. or Adolescent pregnancies are high risk for both mother and child. Better estimates would be based on annual incidence. Well-nourished children perform better in school. including fertility. including diminished cognitive and physical development. Reproductive health is a state of physical and mental well-being The main sources of mortality data are vital registration systems in relation to the reproductive system and its functions and pro- and direct or indirect estimates based on sample surveys or cen- cesses. ailments such as diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. a multilevel regression model using available national maternal mortality data and socioeconomic information. and may be affected by weight for height) in children under age 5. and thus reliable trends can be derived.childmortality. method that uses all available information to reconcile differences. or seek unsafe Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 75 . Under-five mortality birth attendants. referring to a period height for age). and in turn give their children a better start in life.org). safe and effective 90 percent of vital events in the population—is the best source of contraception. without complete registration data but with other types of data and reduced productive capacity and poor health. the World Bank. When data on the incidence and prevalence of dis- should not be compared across editions (WHO and others 2015). the World Bank. Surveys and censuses can be used to measure the World Health Assembly’s Global Nutrition Targets 2025 and the maternal mortality by asking respondents about survivorship of sis- Sustainable Development Goals have shifted focus to stunting (low ters. see UN Inter-agency ment. and their children set off on firmer developmental paths. has developed and adopted a statistical database. low birthweight. data and for a graphic presentation. stunting are more stable. both underestimation. In countries with incomplete vital registration systems. grow into Group for Child Mortality Estimation [2015]. and other universities of residence. place Nations Population Division. both Maternal mortality physically and mentally. high-income countries with reliable vital registration systems. For countries societies. and death. and gross domestic product. tive of the cause of death) and need to be adjusted to conform to but such data do not exist at national or regional level. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading are fairly uncommon in low. But these estimates are retrospective. maternal mortality is estimated with degenerative diseases such as diabetes. Even in them into a vicious cycle of recurring sickness and faltering growth. many Mortality Estimation. see www. Well-nourished women face fewer risks during pregnancy and childbirth.

2 People abortions. The models. and estab- and the educational attainment of students. Estimates of adolescent fertility rates are based on vital education as well as children who entered school early. however. and some coun- sion. over time in generalized epidemics (important because prevalence is for countries without recent literacy data. Labor force surveys are the most comprehensive a proxy that should be taken as an upper estimate of the actual source for internationally comparable labor force data. Changes in procedures and assumptions for levels of completion. And there is a trend among recent national estimating the data and better coordination with countries have and international surveys toward using a direct reading test of lit- resulted in improved estimates. For countries without vital registration systems fertility The youth literacy rate for ages 15–24 is a standard measure of rates are generally based on extrapolations from trends observed recent progress in student achievement. It reflects an education system’s coverage 76 Data on the labor force are compiled by the International Labour Organization (ILO) from labor force surveys. which reflect the certainty associated with each of the estimates. time job-seekers. or workers in the informal sector. In practice. while the registration systems or. censuses or sample sur- denominator is the number of children at the entrance age for the veys and are generally considered reliable measures of fertility in the last grade of primary education. see urbanization over the past two decades). Low national prevalence rates can be misleading. people from self-reported data. plausibility bounds. a model is used to estimate the share of births to Youth literacy adolescents. The indicator reflects the primary cycle. which are updated eracy skills. Where no empirical information on age-specific fertility rates is available. since data limitations preclude adjusting data from population censuses are often based on a limited number for students who drop out during the final year of primary education. Estimating literacy rates spill over into the wider population.unesco. Establishment censuses and surveys provide exceed 100 percent.worldbank. financial and human resources. people who are unemployed but seeking work. It includes people who are currently Many governments publish statistics that indicate how their educa- employed. track the course of HIV epidemics and their impacts. Many countries report the number of literate or illiterate women especially vulnerable.income requires census or survey measurements under controlled con- countries most new infections occur in young adults. and cohort progres- and unemployed and not looking for work by country. available at http://data. HIV prevalence rates reflect the rate of HIV infection in each coun- Conventional literacy statistics that divide the population into try’s population. measured by the gross intake ratio to tries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size last grade of primary education. with There are many reasons why the primary completion rate may little scope to probe. The numerator may include late entrants and data on the employed population only. using the Global Age- higher in urban areas and because many countries have seen rapid Specific Literacy Projection Model. and efficiency indicators There are variations in the treatment of contributing family workers such as repetition rates. mak- differ across countries. Labor force primary completion rate. Primary completion. as defined by the Inter- such as employment exchange registers and unemployment insur- national Standard Classification of Education (ISCED2011). overage children who have repeated one or more grades of primary workers in small establishments. the ability to make simple arith- lance data as well as survey data. Generally. with young ditions. recent past. in their absence. They often disguise epidemics that are initially concen- for tracking global progress toward universal literacy. and first- tion systems are working and developing—statistics on enrollment. Because definitions and methods of data collection annually. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for positive people to live longer) and allow for changes in urbanization Statistics based on national censuses and household surveys and. It reflects the accumulated in censuses or surveys from earlier years. of questions on the economic characteristics of individuals. outcomes of primary and secondary education by indicating the proportion of the population that has acquired basic literacy and Prevalence of HIV numeracy skills over the previous 10 years or so. In many low.and middle. It is ance schemes. The models take into account metic calculations. reduced infectivity among people receiving antiretroviral therapy Data on youth literacy are compiled by the United Nations Educa- (which is having a larger impact on HIV prevalence and allowing HIV- tional.org. which typically lasts six lishment censuses and surveys and from administrative records years (with a range of four to seven years). World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . graduates. system’s performance. data should be used cautiously. two groups—literate and illiterate—are widely available and useful however. literacy is difficult to measure. Labor force participation The labor force is the supply of labor available for producing goods Primary completion and services in an economy. censuses. Some use educational attainment Data on HIV prevalence are from the Joint United Nations Pro- data as a proxy but apply different lengths of school attendance or gramme on HIV/AIDS. not unemployed workers.uis. trated in certain localities or population groups and threaten to however. For detailed information. is a core indicator of an education tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. The estimates include www. ing full use of information on HIV prevalence trends from surveil- literacy encompasses numeracy. pupil–teacher ratios. Not everyone who works is included.org.

They for work during the short reference period. with boys usually The ILO defines the unemployed as members of the working-age receiving a larger share of education and health spending than girls. are the least arrangements before starting work. employment office statistics. and are often incapable of generating enough jobs. classified Changes in unemployment over time may reflect changes in the according to the International Standard Classification of Occupa- demand for and supply of labor. Women are vastly workers are temporarily unemployed—between jobs as employers underrepresented in decision-making positions in government. and managers example.” remain pervasive in many dimensions of life. database. and economic growth. they are most prevalent in low- of contributing family workers and own-account workers would not income countries. They may not be available vulnerable—and therefore the most likely to fall into poverty. The timing tion criteria and enhanced methods to ensure comparability across of a survey can maximize the effects of seasonal unemployment in countries and over time to avoid the inconsistencies mentioned agriculture. Unemployment These patterns of inequality begin at an early age. senior officials. Women suffer more from discrimination and from workers in total employment is derived from information on sta- structural. women are considered likely to have social protection and safety nets to guard against to be employed when they are working part-time or in temporary economic shocks. Some unemployment is unavoidable. While gender inequali- especially in countries with large armed forces. For Female legislators. their relative shares would be. Such although there is some evidence of recent improvement. The share of women in high-skilled occupations such as including people who have lost their jobs or who have voluntarily legislators. The unemployment rates in the table are modeled estimates from the ILO’s Key Indicators of the Labour Market. high and sustained unemployment indicates serious inefficiencies in resource allocation. While the categories ties exist throughout the world. In many cases it is especially difficult to tion. These harmonized estimates use strict data selec- measure employment and unemployment in agriculture. National estimates of unemployment are available in the World Development Indicators online database. women are often responsible for the care of children contributing family workers and own-account workers are the most and the elderly and for household affairs. and official estimates. Armed nets workers can afford to wait for suitable or desirable jobs. A high proportion of contributing more secure employment. The criteria for people considered to be seeking work. such as social insurance statistics and ment Indicators online database. there are other important factors that affect data comparability. and geographic coverage. covering only civilian employment can result in an under- Despite much progress in recent decades. National estimates of general household surveys. Vulnerable employment Women tend to be excluded from the unemployment count for The proportion of contributing family workers and own-account various reasons.People 2 Besides the data sources. 9th edi- time. care. Further. nutrition. Each group faces different economic risks. there are other reasons to limit comparability. and managers indicates women’s status left work. and managers are based on the employment by occupation estimates. Data on female legislators. senior officials. Data are drawn mostly from labor force surveys. unemployment. But forces constitute a separate major group. Besides the limitation mentioned for calculating labor force participation rates. In countries with well developed safety practice whether or where the armed forces are included. supple- in reporting practices. but they may also reflect changes tions 1988. population who are without work but available for and seeking work. and often a large rural economy. definitions. are also included but limited to registered unemployment only. database. Countries could apply different informal work arrangements. At any time some and role in the labor force and society at large. Estimates are based mainly on labor force surveys. sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) Data on unemployment are drawn from labor force surveys and used only when no survey data are available. And informal sector employment is difficult to quantify above. and cultural barriers that impede them from seek- tus in employment. labor force participation rates are available in the World Develop- Administrative records. look for the right workers and workers search for better jobs. censuses. In countries without unemployment or wel- mented in limited cases with other household surveys. family workers in a country indicates weak development. results from the normal operation of labor markets. population fare benefits people eke out a living in the informal economy or in censuses. vary across countries. health be affected. censuses. but in some countries they Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 77 . Data on vulnerable employment are drawn from labor force and general household surveys. senior officials. and political voice matter because of their strong association with well-being. and the The labor force participation rates in the table are modeled esti- treatment of people temporarily laid off or seeking work for the first mates from the ILO’s Key Indicators of the Labour Market. little job growth. such as census or survey reference period. social. as they need to make are the least likely to have formal work arrangements. and ing work. Also. and official estimates. productivity. gender inequalities estimation of “employees” and “workers not classified by status. and official estimates. for example. 9th edition. with other where informal activities are not tracked. often called frictional unemployment. despite the instability of these jobs or their active search for savings to offset these shocks. Inequalities in the allocation of education.

000 live births. How AIDS education. United Nations Population Division.agency tors of the Labour Market.org/files_v20/download/IGME%20report%202015%20child%20 estimates.int/reproductivehealth 1) who are female. source. • Labor force /estimates2014/]. by either working or and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2015. [http://childmortality looking for work during a reference period. reference period. • Adolescent Key Indicators of the Labour Market. Geneva: WHO. if subject to the age-specific mortality rates of that year. senior officials.who.org).Various years. database.unaids. 2015. Data on primary age 5. with annual data growth standards released in 2006. and die from pregnancy-related causes while pregnant or within 42 days female legislators. unemployment.000 live births. is the number of women who participation rates. [www. modeled estimate. regardless of age.2 People are included in the most closely matching civilian occupation or in Data sources nonclassifiable workers.pdf].org/en/resources/documents entrance age for the last grade of primary education. 2015. Modeled estimates of maternal mortality ratios • Prevalence of child malnutrition.unesco. fertility rate is the number of births per 1. and the World Bank. Department of Economic and Social Affairs.int/nutgrowthdb a short simple statement about their everyday life. Geneva. 2015. Data are based on the WHO child from United Nations Population Division (2015).org/unpd/wpp/]. • Under-five mortality rate is linearly interpolated by the World Bank’s Development Data Group. and managers Fund). Data on adolescent fertility rates are population ages 0–59 months. • Vulnerable employment is contributing family workers mortality%20final. Geneva: International Labour Office. UNICEF (United Nations Children’s estimates. UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). the World Development Indicators database or the ILO’s Key Indica- Data on under-five mortality rates are from the UN Inter. and vital reg- Definitions istration data. senior officials. database. Data are modeled ILO WHO (World Health Organization). Data on labor force mortality ratio.000 women ages 15–19. 2015.who. [www.childmortality. WHO (World Health Orga- year of primary education. stunting is the percentage of are from the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter. senior officials. censuses. Data limita- /2015/MDG6_15years-15lessonsfromtheAIDSresponse]. tions preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). divided by the population at the Changed Everything. vulnerable employment. 9th edition. The completion rates and youth literacy rates are from the UNESCO probability is expressed as a rate per 1. is the number of new UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS). or gross intake ILO (International Labour Organization). • Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people ages 15–49 who References are infected with HIV. For country-level information on classifica- Data on prevalence of stunting are from the WHO’s Global Data- tion. Joint Child Malnutrition Esti- people ages 15–24 who can both read and write with understanding mates—Levels and Trends (2015 Edition). 9th edition. participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Definitions of labor force 78 the Labour Market. New York: UNICEF. are the percentage of legislators. New York.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring dard deviations below the median for the international reference /maternal-mortality-2015/).agency children under age 5 whose height for age is more than two stan- Group (www. • Female legislators. • Youth literacy rate is the percentage of nization). 2015. Levels older that engages actively in the labor market. consult the footnotes in base on Child Growth and Malnutrition (www.who. World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . per 100. Key Indicators of ratio to the last grade of primary education.uis.org) and are based mainly on household surveys. New York: available for and seeking employment. World Population Prospects: • Unemployment is the share of the labor force without work but The 2015 Revision.int/nutgrowthdb). /publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality-2015/].who. and managers are from the ILO’s of pregnancy termination. or definition. [www. World Bank Group. Trends in Mater- (International Standard Classification of Occupations–88 category nal Mortality: 1990 to 2015. Data are modeled ILO . the probability of a child born in a specific year dying before reaching Data on HIV prevalence are from UNAIDS (2015). • Maternal Institute for Statistics (www. and unemployment may differ by country. and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. and managers and the United Nations Population Division.un. [http://esa. • Primary completion rate. entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary United Nations. Group for Child Mortality Estimation (www.

UEM.UEM.SECO. Male Industry.DST.LTRM.ZS Services.POV. Male Agriculture.ZS Employment in services SL.1524.04TH.FRST.TOTL.POV.worldbank.NAHC SL.POV.DST. Male SL.1).ZS SL.ZS Long-term unemployment.WAG.MA.10 a day SI.FE.TLF.MA.POV.UEM. National SI.NAGP SL.6 Children at work Children in employment.IND.0714.10 a day SI.DST. Rural SI.0714.ZS Youth unemployment.10 Share of consumption or income.worldbank.TOTL Population growth SP. Male SL. Male SL.OL Crude death rate SP.SRV.ZS Labor force participation rate..MA.POP.org example.ZS Population ages 65+ SP.POV.GAP2 2. Third 20% of population SI.TO.SP.TOTL). use indicator online.UEM. Female Services. Male SL. Total SL.POV.AGR.TOTL.IN Self-employed SL.ZS Unpaid family workers SL.FE. Urban SI.ZS Poverty headcount ratio.People 2 Online tables and indicators To access the World Development Indicators online tables.FE.DPND.5 Unemployment SI.7 Poverty rates at national poverty lines Agriculture.0714.VULN.ZS .ZS Poverty headcount ratio.TO.EMPL.MA. Youth SL.2DAY Population living below 2011 PPP $3.POV.TOTL. 2.YG Dependency ratio.ZS Population ages 15–64 SP. Primary Economy Population living below 2011 PPP $1.ZS Poverty headcount ratio.IND.ZS Labor force participation rate.0714.CACT.MA.GROW Population ages 0–14 SP.ZS 2. Old SP.LTRM.SRV.FE.9 Distribution of income or consumption Unemployment.POV.org/indicator/ the URL http://wdi.AGR.TO.FE.ZS Vulnerable employment.0714.POP. Secondary SL. Tertiary SL. Lowest 10% of population SI.EMP.TOTL.% growth 2. Lowest 20% of population SI.90 a day SL. To view a specific /indicator/SP.20 Share of consumption or income. Male SL.ZS Youth unemployment.TLF.RUGP SL. Female SL.ZS Children in employment.ZS SL.POP.ZS Employment to population ratio.FAM.TLF. http://wdi.EMP.UEM.CDRT.ZS SL.UEM.GAPS Poverty gap at 2011 PPP $3. Female 2.MA.DDAY Poverty gap at 2011 PPP $1.0714.TOTL.TLF.IN Crude birth rate SP.UEM. use the URL http://data.TLF.ZS 2.EMPL. Female Unemployment by educational attainment.0714.EMP.ZS Long-term unemployment. http://data. National SI. Female Work only SL.IN Unemployment by educational attainment.ZS Children in employment.0714.SRV.TLF.EMPL.ZS Unemployment.org/table/ and the table number (for and the indicator code (for example.SW.SP.3 Employment by sector 2.POP.ZS Poverty gap. Second 20% of population SI. Young SP. Urban SI.20 Share of consumption or income.SLF.GINI Share of consumption or income.EMPL.ZS Study and work SL.MA.worldbank.02ND.ZS Dependency ratio.CBRT.TLF.POV.DPND. Female .PRIM.ZS States and markets Gini index SI.ZS SL.UEM. Average annual growth 2.0714.20 Share of consumption or income.POP.DYN.TLF. Female Long-term unemployment. Total SL. Male Employment in manufacturing SL.FE.a.UEM.EMPL.90 a day SI. Rural SI.ZS Wage workers SL.AGR.1564.03RD.POP.CACT.DST.ZS SL. Female Industry.POV.EMP.MA.ZS Unemployment by educational attainment. Fourth 20% of population SI.1524.0714.POV. Female Labor force.b Labor force.ZS Poverty gap.TLF. Total SL.EMPL.FRST.UEM.MNF. Female SL.POP.URGP Poverty gap.POP.a GDP per person employed.FE.LTRM.FE.DYN.0714.ZS SL.8 Poverty rates at international poverty lines 2.WK.2 Labor force structure Employment in agriculture SL.FE.VULN.MA.FE.ZS SL.DST.ZS Vulnerable employment.20 Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 79 .0014.1524.TERT.org/table/2. Total Labor force.worldbank..4 Decent work and productive employment Employment to population ratio.1 Population dynamics Population SP.65UP.RUHC SL.URHC SL. Male SL.

ZS Government expenditure per student.ZS SH.XPD.PRM.XPD.LT.b SE.XPD.TENR.MED.NENR Net enrollment rate.GINT.PRM.MA.LT. Male SE.TOTL. gender.16 Disease prevention coverage and quality SE. Measles Child immunization rate.SEC.ADT. Highest 10% of population SI.ZS SE.UNER.PRM.9. Primary SE.XPD. bottom 40% SI.ZS Completeness of death registration SP.PC.ZS Youth literacy rate. Male SE.SPR. Female 80 SE.MED.PRIM..NENR Adjusted net enrollment rate.ZG Annualized growth in mean consumption or income per capita..TO.1524. Primary SE.PRM.XPD.MED. Female SE.XPD.MA Adjusted net enrollment rate.2 Shared prosperity Annualized growth in mean consumption or income per capita. Reaching last grade of primary education.ADT.MA.SPR.DTHS.CMPT. Female SE. Reading .ZS SI.TER.2 People Share of consumption or income.ZS SH.IMM.11 Participation in education Gross enrollment ratio. 2.ENRL..PC40.LO.H2O.MA.ZS Adult literacy rate.PRSL.PRS5.STA.FE.ZS Students at lowest proficiency on PISA.b SE.ENRR Public health expenditure Gross enrollment ratio. Male Government expenditure on education.ZS Lower secondary completion rate.20 Cohort survival rate. Female SE. Highest 20% of population Share of consumption or income. bottom 40% SI.XPD.PC40 Mean consumption or income per capita.TC.PRM.ZS 2.ZS Youth literacy rate.IMM.ZS Completeness of birth registration SP. Male Primary completion rate. Male SE.MA.FE Primary school-age children out of school.IDPT SH.ZS 2.PROG.FE.ZS Nurses and midwives SH.MA.XPD.ENRR 2.ZS Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education.SEC. Primary.ADT.10 Cohort survival rate.PRM. Female SE.ZS Cohort survival rate.SEC. PPP $ Physicians SH.CMPT.REPT.MEAS SH.TC.PRM.PCAP Repeaters in primary education.SPR.ZS 2.PRM.ENRL.SAFE.ADT.ZS 2.12 Education efficiency Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education.FE. Tertiary Net enrollment rate.PRM.ZS Transition rate to secondary education. Reaching last grade of primary education. Female Lower secondary completion rate.LITR.15 Health systems Gross enrollment ratio.PRE.GB.PROG.b SH.FE.PCAP SH. Male SE.PRM.REG.MA.PRM.ZS Health expenditure per capita.MA Primary school-age children out of school. % of total government expenditure Students at lowest proficiency on PISA.PCAP.05TH. and area This table provides education survey data for the poorest and richest quintiles.XPD.PRM.ZS Secondary school pupil-teacher ratio SE.PRM. Male 2.ZS SE.XPD. Primary.10 Education inputs Government expenditure per student.UNER. Female SE.LO.CMPT.FE.ZS Adult literacy rate. Female SE.ZS SH.SEC.FE.b Students at lowest proficiency on PISA. Reaching grade 5.ZS SE.ZS Trained teachers in secondary education SE.PC.TERT. Secondary SE.ZS Government expenditure on education.SEC.TCAQ. Reaching grade 5. $ Health expenditure per capita.LITR.EXTR. Science .XPD.GINT.ZG Mean consumption or income per capita.GD.FE.14 Education gaps by income.SECO.SEC. Male 2.SEC.STA. Female SE. total population SI.MA. Male SE.ZS Transition rate to secondary education.13 Education completion and outcomes Primary completion rate..MA.DST.TOTL. Primary SE.PRM.ZS Repeaters in primary education.SPR. Female SE.PHYS.FE .PRM.10TH.ZS Cohort survival rate.ZS World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide Access to an improved water source Access to improved sanitation facilities Child immunization rate.ZS Primary school pupil-teacher ratio SE.DST. total population SI.PRM.KD SH.1524.PC. Male SE.PRS5. DTP3 Children with acute respiratory infection taken to health provider World view People SH.FE.TCAQ.ENRR Total health expenditure SE.CMPT.PRM. Male SE.PCAP.PP.BRTH. Mathematics .MA.OOPC.PRSL.P3 Hospital beds SH.REPT.REG.ARIC.ZS SE.ENRR Gross enrollment ratio. Female Trained teachers in primary education SE.PUBL Out-of-pocket health expenditure External resources for health SH.SEC.TOTL. Secondary SE. Secondary SE.PRM.TENR. % of GDP SE.BEDS. Tertiary SE.FE. Preprimary SE.ACSN SH.NUMW.ZS Government expenditure per student.ZS Environment .

ZS Vitamin A supplementation SN.IN Neonatal mortality rate SH.NMRT SP.MA.ZS Children with fever receiving antimalarial drugs SH.22 Health gaps by income 2.ZS SH.UWT.CHLD.ZS Antiretroviral therapy coverage 2. National estimate SH.DYN.ZS SH.CONU.BFED.STA.ZS SH.ZS Death from non-communicable diseases SH.FE Adult mortality rate.SALT.ARTC.FE.ADO.STA.STA.STA.MA.PRV.STA.AMRT. Female SH. Female SH.MMR.MLR.STNT.CURE.BRTW.ANEM Incidence of tuberculosis SH.ZS Unmet need for contraception SP. prenatal.NPRG.FE.IMRT.NE Maternal mortality ratio.STA. Male SH.DTEC.MALN.ZS Prevalence of stunting.ANM.ZS Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women Prevalence of anemia among nonpregnant women Total fertility rate SP.ZS Adolescent fertility rate Maternal mortality ratio. Female Prevalence of overweight children.STA.DYN.MORT.DEFC.STA.ZS 2. Female Women’s share of population ages 15+ living with HIV SH.ZS Pregnant women receiving prenatal care SH.RISK Prevalence of underweight.MA Under-five mortality rate.People 2 Children with diarrhea who received oral rehydration and continuous feeding SH.FE Prevalence of smoking.SVR.21 Mortality Life expectancy at birth SP.ZS SH.STA. Female 2.MMRT Prevalence of undernourishment Prevalence of wasting. Youth male Prevalence of HIV.DTH.b Data disaggregated by sex are available in the World Development Indicators database.MLR. Male SH.WAST.DYN.WAST. Male SH.ITK.ZS Economy SH.DIAB.ZS Prevalence of severe wasting.WAST.PRG.VITA.DYN. Male SH.NETS.FE.IN SH. Male SH.ZS SH.ZS Contraceptive prevalence rate SP.TFRT Prevalence of diabetes SH.ORCF. Male SH.TFRT Prevalence of HIV..MA.DYN.NCOM.STA.FE Adult mortality rate.WAST.HIV.ZS Exclusive breastfeeding SH.PRV.BRTC.STA.MA.SMOK.DYN.IN Infant mortality rate Under-five mortality rate.MA.18 Nutrition and growth Prevalence of stunting. a.ZS SH. Male SP.TFRT.TRET.ZS Children sleeping under treated bed nets SH.SVR.INCD SP.DYN. Available online only as part of the table.19 Nutrition intake and supplements Prevalence of anemia among children under age 5 SH.STA. Female Prevalence of severe wasting.ZS Death from injuries SH.20 Health risk factors and future challenges Prevalence of smoking.ZS Births attended by skilled health staff SH.OWGH.COMM.INJR. Female 2.MA.FE.ITK.DYN.LE00.ZS States and markets This table provides health survey data for the poorest and richest quintiles.ZS Prevalence of overweight children.ZS Consumption of iodized salt SN. Youth female SH.DTH. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 81 .ZS Tuberculosis case detection rate SH.OWGH. not as an individual indicator.HIV.TBS.STA.TBS.HIV.MMRT.ANVC. Female Prevalence of HIV. Derived from data elsewhere in the World Development Indicators database.ITK.AMRT.DYN.ZS SH.ZS Prevalence of wasting.1524.STA.MA SP.DTH.ANM.MORT.FE.ZS Tuberculosis treatment success rate SH.1524. Total SH.ZS Low-birthweight babies SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS 2. Modeled estimate Lifetime risk of maternal mortality SH.SMOK. b.DYN.MALN.STNT.ZS Death from communicable diseases and maternal.MA SH.FE.FE. Total SH. .ZS Prevalence of underweight.AIDS. and nutrition conditions SN.STA. Male SH.STA.17 Reproductive health SH.TBS.MORT Under-five mortality rate.DYN.

ENVIRONMENT 82 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .

resilience. The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 is recognition that economic growth. For example. estimates of the indicators have been drawn from international sources and have been standardized to facilitate comparisons across countries. and energy resources. energy (production. cultivable land) and of degradation (pollution. Growing populations and expanding economies have placed greater demands on land. climate variability. and access to natural resources may vary within countries. efficiency). Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change are measured globally. urbanization. use. minerals. water resources. Other indicators in this section cover greenhouse gas emissions. electricity production and sources. deforestation. renewable energy consumption. the World Bank Group has joined the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All initiative. and doubling the rate of improvement in energy efficiency. Economic growth and greater energy use are positively correlated. These global goals draw attention to a wide array of the environmental conditions that need to be closely monitored. businesses. water may be abundant in some parts of a country but scarce in others. and countries often share water resources. poverty eradication. threatened species. but their effects are experienced locally. But ecosystems span national boundaries. access to electricity. the increasing scarcity of freshwater. the overexploitation of coastal ecosystems and fisheries. and loss of biodiversity). Economy States and markets with disproportionate impacts on the poorest communities. the loss of forest cover. forests. Global links Back 3 World Development Indicators 2016 83 . dependency. New indicators from the Global Tracking Framework database cover these three goals and go beyond to include primary energy intensity. Recognizing this. Efforts to reduce poverty and promote sustainable economic growth are undermined by the degradation of soils. agriculture and food production. People in extreme poverty —the roughly 700 million living on less than $1. But economic growth often has negative environmental consequences. Access to electricity and the use of energy are vital to raising standards of living. and civil societies to achieve three goals by 2030: providing universal access to electricity and clean cooking fuels. and environmental sustainability are intertwined. water. water. exposure to impact. viable and longlasting development can be ensured only by protecting the environment and using its resources wisely. and access to nonsolid fuels. doubling the share of the world’s energy supply from renewable sources.90 a day in purchasing power parity terms in 2015 — are disproportionately affected by these adverse environmental conditions. which calls on governments. and natural resources rents. forests and biodiversity. renewable electricity output. loss of habitat. ambient air pollution. long-term changes in the Earth’s climate. and the loss of biological diversity. Where possible.The indicators presented in the Environment section measure the use of resources and the way human activities affect both the natural and the built environment. They include measures of environmental goods (forest.

2013 (kilograms of oil equivalent) 5.) Argentina St. Producing the energy needed for growth while mitigating its effects on the world’s climate is a global challenge. Virgin Islands (U. along with the other greenhouse gases.499 500–999 Less than 500 United States No data Bermuda (U. Republic Tonga Bolivia Anguilla (U. U. Kitts and Nevis Chile Guadeloupe (Fr.) St.000–2.B.999 1. supplied more than 81 percent of the world’s total energy production in 2013.) Dominica Martinique (Fr.500–4. The share of energy production from alternative sources has increased slightly since 1990.S. and natural gas.) Uruguay Barbados St. its production and use need to be distinguished.B. Lucia Curaçao (Neth.000 or more Canada 2.) Caribbean Inset Puerto Dominican Rico.S. (U. such as coal.) St. Vincent and the Grenadines R. which.K.K.) French Polynesia (Fr. Global demand for energy is surging. Because commercial energy is widely traded. de Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago IBRD 42216 84 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .emissions. Fossil fuels are the primary source of carbon dioxide Energy use Greenland (Den.) Sint Maarten (Neth. but fossil fuels.) Energy use per capita.) Haiti Honduras Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica R.S. are believed to be the principal cause of global climate change.S. oil.) Ecuador Kiribati Brazil Peru Samoa Fiji American Samoa (U. Martin (Fr.) Paraguay Antigua and Barbuda U.) Mexico The Bahamas Cuba Jamaica Belize Turks and Caicos Is.K. de Panama Venezuela Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana (Fr.

) Russian Federation Iceland Finland Norway Sweden Estonia Latvia United Kingdom Denmark Lithuania Ireland Germany Poland Belarus Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Liechtenstein Switzerland Ukraine Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Romania France Dem.Rep.2 billion metric tons of oil equivalent.5 billion metric tons of energy in 2013—half the world’s total energy use. High-income economies used 6. Almost 40 percent of the world’s people rely primarily on wood. to 13. coal.S.) Swaziland South Africa Kiribati Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Angola Lesotho Europe Inset Vanuatu Poland Germany Mali Jordan Arab Rep. Iraq Cyprus Lebanon Israel West Bank and Gaza Malta Rep. more than twice that of Europe and Central Asia. Mariana Islands (U. of Yemen Djibouti South Ethiopia Sudan Japan Nepal Pakistan Singapore Nauru In d o n esi a Papua New Guinea Seychelles Zambia Malawi Tuvalu Mauritius Mayotte (Fr.) Federated States of Micronesia Palau Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Philippines Brunei Darussalam Sri Lanka Somalia Comoros N. China Macao SAR. China Myanmar Lao PDR Eritrea Rep.) Australia Hungary Slovenia Romania Croatia San Marino Bosnia and Serbia Herzegovina Italy Montenegro Kosovo Bulgaria Cabo Mauritania Verde Syrian Arab Rep.) Vietnam Cambodia Uganda Kenya Rep. which forces them to breathe in toxic smoke that causes lung diseases and kills nearly 4 million people a year—most of them women and children.Total energy use worldwide increased 54 percent between 1990 and 2013. of Egypt Western Sahara Czech Republic Slovak Republic Austria Fiji New Caledonia (Fr. Armenia baijan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Greece Turkey Bulgaria Tunisia Morocco Algeria Libya Niger Chad Senegal The Burkina Gambia Faso Guinea GuineaBenin Bissau Central Nigeria CôteGhana Sierra Leone African d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Liberia Togo Equatorial Guinea São Tomé and Príncipe Sudan China Afghanistan Islamic Rep. and nearly 13 times that of South Asia. or animal waste to cook their food. North America has the highest energy use per capita. of Iran Saudi Arabia Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Bhutan Bangladesh United Arab Emirates Oman India Thailand Guam (U. Greenland (Den.) Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia Madagascar Botswana La Réunion (Fr. Burundi of Congo Tanzania Hong Kong SAR.of Korea Ukraine Spain Monaco Portugal Andorra New Zealand FYR Macedonia Albania Greece Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 85 . more than 10 times that of Sub-Saharan Africa.S. of Gabon Congo Rwanda Dem. charcoal.People’s RePDRof Korea Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Georgia AzerRep.

3 .327 43.0 44 23. .824 99 99 1. .8 1.6 .8 16 0.988 76 46 3.88 31. Albania –0....21 20.00 0. Burundi –2.21 5.0 393 0.6 27 5.07 31..8 Cayman Islands 0.895 139.688 17.1 .1 China –1..081 96 63 2. 0..9 ..00 4..0 5.00 0.99 5.8 28.5 .7 11. Cambodia 1..02 24.590 100 94 0..7 7.3 9.2 80. .7 Armenia 0.0 1. .2 .3 12 485.4 2. Belarus –0.6 14 63.020 52 29 4.00 1..00 0. .00 8.183 100 100 1.2 11 16.4 .9 Afghanistan –1..8 49.0 851 87 89 1.20 12. .4 .5 48 57.960 100 50 3.1 –0.2 . 0.9 1.63 6.7 6 369.0 Algeria 59.201 73. Australia 0.4 1. Cabo Verde –0.21 29.8 29 1.6 21 5.2 . Chad 1..5 396 1..883 91 81 1.. . 6.918 64.65 0.4 18 3.42 18.3 18 79...062 96 77 2.59 24..7 800 7.104 51 12 3.16 24.5 .0 Angola 0.00 19. .0 Austria –0. 0. .882 31.7 7 0.7 655 Antigua and Barbuda 0..364 .29 29.9 Bangladesh 0.2 9 190.6 43..2 16 439.07 18.6 19 0...202 651. 0.963 100 100 1. .6 .279 77 15 3. 98 98 –0. . .422..8 .868 76 42 2.. Benin 0.3 972 78 20 3..5 19 97.336 100 100 –4.7 Colombia 86 Internal renewable freshwater b Terrestrial and resources Comoros 1.5 11 1.4 1. . ..35 20.6 ..2 7..3 Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso 0.5 ..1 29.05 28..8 Cameroon 0.96 15.226 5.8 19 121. 0.2 .36 17.5 289 84 88 2.1 12.8 10 0.6 3..5 1.4 669 64. Central African Republic 0. Congo.098 0.2 14 23...8 .294 95 93 1.5 711 82 20 5. Andorra 0.. ..38 47.3 2.5 Botswana 0. Argentina 0.5 4..7 331 6. Bolivia 0.1 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0..3 .6 Congo. Dem.5 2.. –0. 1.470 98 83 1.172 25.4 6.53 17.5 .0 .349 69 22 2.8 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .039 Belize 0.8 9 9. China .00 5.438 570. .474 23..4 –0. 1.00 0..8 1.5 Azerbaijan –2.9 .558 90 36 2.3 2.. 0.4 Bahamas.6 7. .6 .0 969 Aruba 0.6 2.3 1.8 31 0.389 100 91 1.00 1.2 572 98 .4 27. .8 Canada 0.8 5.7 16 4. .9 930 76 48 5.4 10 4..1 786 8.8 54 9.......2 1.0 20.4 44.436 100 100 0.4 3 100 99 1.7 1.109 49 52 5.3 1. .. . Rep. Rep.907 99 86 –0.5 air pollution Carbon dioxide emissions % growth Populationweighted exposure micrograms per cubic meter million metric tons Per capita kilograms of oil equivalent billion kilowatt hours 2011 2013 2013 Access to Urban improved population sanitation facilities Energy use Electricity production 2000–15 2014 2014 2015 2015 2013–14 2013 0.1 0.01 6. 97 96 1... 0.8 15 65. 0.9 49..59 7.6 20 4...299 100 95 0.6 . .246 American Samoa 0. . ..938 39..90 29.0 584 92 72 2. 40.5 Belgium 82.8 2.2 18 5.827 98 92 1.4 43 0.282 100 90 0.19 2.2 3. China .. 2.5 1.3 13 72.2 Macao SAR.4 10.29 8. .393 4.5 1.99 10.0 16 1.9 Brazil 0. 100 63 0..2 556 1..5 7..735 90 50 2. Channel Islands Chile –0.491 55 32 4.794 99 96 1.1 14 2.8 17 0. .4 .4 292 8. .6 22 12.4 6.019.2 . . ..99 22.. Bahrain 0.0 282 100 96 0..068 100 100 0.0 6.2 Hong Kong SAR.0 Barbados 0.8 . . –0.5 . .18 15. 1.00 0.8 6 0. ..18 3.7 20.3 101.. 41.3 . ..7 .586 249.4 28 0.9 9.80 6.03 1. .2 Bermuda 0.1 16 49.5 2.4 .. 0.1 14 29. The 0... .04 14.7 21 33.3 Environment Deforestationa Nationally protected areas average annual % Access to improved water source marine areas % of total Per capita territorial area cubic meters % of total population % of total population Ambient PM2.4 660 87 61 3.1 216 53.

1 19. .8 6.597 100 86 –1.7 8.321 100 99 –1. .5 10.6 11 40.9 Greece –0.020 100 99 0.249 100 99 0.4 .3 18..0 26 69.0 . . Guinea-Bissau 0. ..9 1..673 48 75 3.00 5. .3 Curaçao Cyprus 10.03 19.4 1.4 3.8 18 7. .4 Estonia 0..2 Czech Republic –0.5 507 8.1 14 20.4 Fiji French Polynesia –3.04 5.1 Hungary –0.4 .9 15 0.05 14.231 58 28 3. Arab Rep.4 1..4 16 48..2 15 729. Guatemala 1.116 94 40 2.5 3.8 885 167. .895 100 97 0..0 32..6 ..336 100 99 –0.011 87 86 3.25 3.5 1..6 9 1. .5 9 8.88 7.67 2.868 627.6 5.8 20 6.7 1.556 90 59 4.8 11..029 Côte d’Ivoire –0.935 87 61 2.960 270.0 16 7.5 15.7 693 5.207 96 91 1. 100 100 0.00 1.1 23.53 22.6 27 10.5 11 2.387 91 83 2.3 97.971 59.489 98 84 0.00 . Guam 0.23 11.25 1.7 Djibouti 0.Environment 3 Deforestationa Nationally protected areas average annual % Internal renewable freshwater b Terrestrial and resources Access to improved water source marine areas % of total Per capita territorial area cubic meters % of total population % of total population Ambient PM2.074.7 1.4 9 18.1 1.4 47 2. Haiti 0.4 17 0.4 15 84.2 Denmark –0.00 0.56 6.. Gabon –0.350 95 93 0.1 30 0.4 Ghana –0.1 31.3 Ethiopia 0.265 100 99 1.280 30.7 . .7 4.0 . 0.5 1.1 1.9 Guinea 0.6 .7 15 564.0 1. 11..4 8.6 608 100 98 0.6 13 2...47 10.6 20 99 95 2. 0.9 States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 87 .1 2.075 71. Georgia –0.2 . Islamic Rep. .1 ..3 11 6.6 Croatia –0.1 548 58 16 4. .2 1.52 8. .4 28 0..4 1.134 57..175 93 42 2. .258 57 28 4.7 14 338.1 .3 519. –0. .07 3..9 16 7.8 1. –1.5 air pollution Carbon dioxide emissions % growth Populationweighted exposure micrograms per cubic meter million metric tons 2013 2011 Access to Urban improved population sanitation facilities Energy use Electricity production Per capita kilograms of oil equivalent billion kilowatt hours 2013 2013 2000–15 2014 2014 2015 2015 2013–14 Costa Rica –1.6 Iran.73 0..98 6.3 315.. .1 Germany –0.2 25 0.9 –0.5 2..8 8 36.2 .04 38... .592 100 98 0.9 .13 23.814 13.0 13 6.107 34.0 27 2..09 5...8 1..00 22.2 7 1..468 82 23 3. .4 662 8.1 2.258 85 84 2.2 ..39 1.801 0.07 14.7 3.1 344 12.8 . The –0..481 73.411 77 20 4.3 Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt.. Grenada 0.031 19. 1.559 94 75 1.. .5 0.6 91 100 100 2.84 8.4 Gambia.4 605 7.9 9. .60 2.0 676 100 100 0. .2 393 1. 100 90 1.06 15.0 17 109..0 7. 0.5 . Finland 0.52 20.7 0.064 100 100 0.4 . .9 14 35.3 35 0.0 32 586..6 1. 0..4 Iraq –0. 0.840 25.8 3...00 0.0 2.1 33 133.886 79 21 4.35 2. Eritrea 0.1 1. Indonesia –0. 0.819 87 85 1.57 15.881 97 98 0.1 India –0.8 Equatorial Guinea 0. –2.751 98 95 2..5 .0 850 215.3 11 35.1 342 90 47 1.30 12. . .5 12 21. .3 France –0.54 3.30 18..616 98 91 0...644 96 90 2...3 768 9. .3 .9 1.. Dominica 0.1 1.3 Cuba –2.6 Ireland –1.669 100 97 –0.5 164 0.1 Greenland 0.6 7 54.990 86.08 21.843 567.435 2..0 3.2 .3 Iceland –4.4 7 1.032 10. .58 9.765 .57 0. .32 7.9 .04 2..1 Honduras 1.9 12 11.06 0. .4 27.15 6.623 13.8 Isle of Man Israel Economy 0.8 El Salvador 1.193..6 2.9 731 17..17 0.131 89 15 3.1 ..9 ..7 Faroe Islands 0.818 93 64 2. .7 .3 606 1. Guyana 0.4 9 7.9 3.9 18.177 18..3 36 220.5 3. 100 99 0..28 3..7 6.5 2.59 18.2 2. –0.7 980 23.74 25.691 4.6 2.

4 152 0.182 100 93 –0..2 . Malta 0.2 .9 0.9 Mozambique 0.1 18 398.9 7. 30. . –0..48 0.00 11.6 8 2.0 9.0 8 19.6 –0.5 564 27..3 Libya 0.11 3.75 3.1 14 2.7 2.4 8...9 14 13.3 ..1 ..4 15 2. 67 40 2.3 2. Mauritius 0.056 99 81 1.9 8.0 17 5.1 17 168.711 Liechtenstein 0. FYR Malaysia Maldives 0.5 Monaco 0..385 90 93 2.396 99 88 –4. 0. ..6 6 2.. .3 24 20.2 17 56..826 5. .2 4.297 52 12 4..9 3. –0. Sts.1 .4 5.5 70 2.959 64 60 3. . 3. . –1.6 461 63 30 4.1 Micronesia.83 1.159 6.. .973 87 68 1. .2 10 3.3 Nepal 0.6 1.00 2.2 Niger 0.262 96 85 1.685 51 21 3.002 100 100 1.85 20.579 287.19 8.272 97 92 –0..6 1.2 11.3 Macedonia. Malawi 0. Mauritania 1.020 138.2 23 0. People’s Rep.3 407 14.770 81 80 2.564 91 34 4. .0 . Mongolia –0..1 28 39. .9 594 4.2 46 4.5 16 1.. 89 57 0..4 313 11.757 61.00 44.0 2.2 Lesotho –1.6 581 19.5 29 10. .605 100.9 Mexico 0.651 3.00 99.6 27 1...11 4.038.. 100 100 0.9 Italy Jamaica Kenya –1.24 17.3 3.48 17.677 100 82 0.310 1.3 14 261. .53 10.. . –0.9 Namibia 0.084 4.5 Jordan 0.00 0.1 12 7.3 1. Korea.0 3.3 11 13.72 6.7 3..2 .6 8 0.735 2. 0.3 18 6. 1..8 967 90 41 4.8 45.9 0.9 36 1. 1.7 .977 94 82 0.9 Netherlands New Caledonia 0.8 –0.. .28 2.8 456 88 76 0..349 6.93 17.490 76 17 3.1 .0 14.4 New Zealand 88 Internal renewable freshwater b Terrestrial and resources World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .. .397 98 96 2.5 air pollution Carbon dioxide emissions % growth Populationweighted exposure micrograms per cubic meter million metric tons Access to Urban improved population sanitation facilities Energy use Electricity production Per capita kilograms of oil equivalent billion kilowatt hours 2000–15 2014 2014 2015 2015 2013–14 2013 2011 2013 2013 –0.00 0.5 118 100 100 1.28 9.253 Kosovo .1 Madagascar 0.4 101 58 40 3..8 24 73.. .570 1.0 4.78 16.0 2.2 Lebanon –0.00 91.196 17.9 ..8 4. 537.3 .3 370 3.187.2 .9 Myanmar 1.602 99 91 0.3 1.297 6..1 1..31 0..8 72.00 0.286 98 100 0.5 26 22. 0.3 5.5 1.2 17 9..1 18.5 14 225. .0 25..93 1..2 Lithuania Luxembourg 0.7 7 4..5 Korea.8 742 1.11 2.00 34. Rep.4 .3 Environment Deforestationa Nationally protected areas average annual % Access to improved water source marine areas % of total Per capita territorial area cubic meters % of total population % of total population Ambient PM2.6 492 Kiribati 0.035 92 46 3.6 7 3.6 183 58 11 5.573 18. .. .92 23.0 14.8 2..463 76 71 4.095 2.5 29 589..722 93 98 1.5 4 0.480 82 30 3.5 1.8 .5 2.357 4.3 Kazakhstan 0. 97 0.798 100 98 2.74 13.60 10..6 11 7.9 1..9 Morocco –0.7 15 10.7 12 466. Mali 1.1 103 97 99 2. Dem.1 . .11 0.3 .5 Kuwait –1.65 0.512 77 25 4.0 .53 16.3 3. .787 95..7 28.546 297.4 49 91.02 2.2 11 2.3 .30 18. 95 77 0.1 9 1.1 . .1 75 99 98 4.00 0.7 2.0 7 0.90 16.5 1..510 100 .. 1..0 863 4.3 .00 0.33 11.0 19.1 3.1 855 85 77 2.4 16 1.01 29.4 3.4 38 1. 100 96 0.392 43.34 8. 99 100 2.14 2. Liberia 0.. Latvia –0.3 Marshall Islands 0...4 3.0 2.0 Kyrgyz Republic 1.5 .8 1.0 Moldova Montenegro –2.3 112 .2 2. Fed. .6 690 Lao PDR –0..22 22..12 1.18 6.3 Nicaragua 1..2 Japan –0. .6 1.1 652 100 98 1.45 22. .8 8.382 100 100 0.7 3.9 1.9 .0 0 99 100 4.8 7.7 .5 9 31.

.7 Oman 0.245 69 29 4..3 764 60...1 5.00 20.. 3.. ..2 .5 Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar 0.930 95 79 0.057..3 16 34..00 4..8 29..5 Russian Federation –0. 59 0.3 17 22. . Saudi Arabia 0.1 2.52 22.. .8 25.989 97 72 0.. 0.2 17 317.4 0.1 Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 89 .00 10. .6 183. São Tomé and Príncipe San Marino 0.0 17.34 5.7 2.304 68. Samoa 0.057 9.24 0.7 14 0. 0.1 24 0.3 7 0. . Panama 0.03 8.6 Rwanda –2.1 .68 0.2 . . St.8 11 1.. 0.7 –0.833 48.39 6.123 81 30 4.3 1..03 8.1 708 Philippines Peru –0.0 17 15.8 1.658 253. . Martin 0.. St.5 6 45.9 17 0..321 40 19 2.7 1..078 39.19 19... .5 6.26 0.8 2..132 153..6 .0 Switzerland –0. –0. 0.8 –0. .2 35.808.01 0. Slovak Republic –0. –0..7 107.7 14 5. .9 .. . .1 5 0. .2 830 93 66 2..24 0.439 133.3 437 98 .0 457 75..6 .0 11..934 100 100 1..6 27 16.7 2. Paraguay 1.325 100 99 –0.3 Poland –0..4 .9 41 7.00 0.7c 102 56 24 2.634 96 91 0.8 303 17. .96 2...00 3.0 50..9 .0 14 15.7 Romania –0.9 6.2 .323 Solomon Islands 0. .8 Palau 0.4 4. Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten 0.70 6..63 26..47 14.6 2. ..832 92 74 1. . .. . South Africa 0.856 98 89 1.7 13 53..4 24 57. . 0.91 0..083 –0.7 . . 0..2 78.393 100 100 0.12 11...5 54 520.4 838 76 62 5.28 29.410 98 97 –0..80 1.. Sudan 0.5 475 97.001 ..4 4..364 100 98 1.3 16 49. .2 2.0 9.. . .28 3.2 .2 2. .093 1.00 0.1 5.02 13.05 8.0 330 93 97 8.0 2.00 0.9 Tajikistan –0..5 Slovenia 15.9 19.080 74 58 1.37 2. .5 –0. 99 92 –0.4 .320 95 75 2. .565 164.6 .3 46 163.4 110 100 100 1.0 29.0 0. Vincent & the Grenadines Sweden 0. Swaziland –0..88 4..9 261 3.592 58...4 52.5 air pollution Carbon dioxide emissions % growth Populationweighted exposure micrograms per cubic meter million metric tons Per capita kilograms of oil equivalent billion kilowatt hours 2011 2013 2013 Access to Urban improved population sanitation facilities Energy use Electricity production 2000–15 2014 2014 2015 2015 2013–14 2013 Nigeria 3.0 Spain Sri Lanka 0. 2.00 ..7 30 64..4 3. 100 1.3 .02 0.1 17 84.5 30 88.129 100 79 –0...2 .179 99 96 –0. .1 74.9 7.6 2.57 10.7 .3 6.32 1.120 34.542 96 95 1..2 7 52.5 20 2.636 100 99 1.3 Suriname 0.0 773 Northern Mariana Islands 0. 98 80 1.2 7 0. 1. .3 9 82.653 100 100 0.2 6 5.504 279.32 0.2 26 100 98 3.3 ..7 592 25.2 78 97 100 2.4 10 49..1 .9 .5 1.0 ..6c 375 10. .8 16 0.8 1.2 . . ..3 12.0 12 270.6 10 0. St.3 570 ..183 59 7 5.2 Pakistan 2..6 2.5 914 95 .981 87 76 1.1 7 9.2 .5 17.07 36...9 3. 96 98 2.8 1. Kitts and Nevis 0.03 21.3 2.4 38 83. .650 74 95 2.0 .0 16 .64 9.054 100 99 0.7 322 90 96 2. .4 14 477.7 1.Environment 3 Deforestationa Nationally protected areas average annual % Internal renewable freshwater b Terrestrial and resources Access to improved water source marine areas % of total Per capita territorial area cubic meters % of total population % of total population Ambient PM2. Somalia 1. .34 9.0 .6 297 91 64 3..2 2..2 488 St.1 7 0.2 South Sudan 0. .363 284.758 79 48 3... . .. Norway 0.4 . 0.8 Syrian Arab Republic –0..00 1. Lucia 0.00 9.334 63 13 3.3 18 36. 99 –1.2 .4 3. .00 0.08 54.9 4.178 28..6 3..699 97 35 3.232 26. .3 14 1.2 .00 28... .4 43. ..0 Papua New Guinea 0.4 10 1.

5 air pollution Carbon dioxide emissions % growth Populationweighted exposure micrograms per cubic meter million metric tons Per capita kilograms of oil equivalent billion kilowatt hours 2013 2011 2013 2013 Access to Urban improved population sanitation facilities Energy use Electricity production 2000–15 2014 2014 2015 2015 2013–14 Tanzania 0.988 165. ...002.9 26 114..6 956 18.8 1..6 14.. Tuvalu 0.4 40 13.4 531 87 100 1. .0 554 93 91 2.1 463 0.305.3 758 9.1 3.6 80 55 53 4.3 . ..36 16.5 3.2 2.03 12.33 36..8 2.216 5..305.8 0.419 54. .8 41 178.00 2. Togo 4.2 Upper middle income High income a.978 356.925 s 804 91 w 68 w 2.7 Uzbekistan –0.8 South Asia –0.1 6.1 22.7 15 15.9 22 303.. .0 11 448.37 4.777 66 28 4.2 2.3 26 2.3 470 5.5 3.553 193..1 . RB 0... Includes South Sudan.2 5.4 7 0.1 ..735.0 4..0 4.032 79 19 5.. Ukraine –0.594 95 80 2..286.373 1.7 46 2.00 0.4 13 188.0 11 5.6 Thailand 0.8 w 5.3 United States –0.9 25 2.3 324 8..776.7 6 0.556.691 106.00 0.88 10.656 12.03 13.8 1.) 0.5 Zambia 0. 100 91 0.2 2..616 63 12 3.44 14.0 Vietnam –1.2 21 746.1 1.2 . 0.233. b.. .10 9.2 671 453..370.319 99 96 0.73 2. West Bank and Gaza 0.0 631 13. Includes emissions not allocated to specific countries.4 North America –0.791.101 65 44 4.8 Low income 0. .649.7 381 98 92 1. Rep.538 9.166.940. 90 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .33 37. .5 Tunisia –1.012 18.9 11.4 550 1.1 Tonga 0.553 240.6 1.2 United Kingdom –0.43 13.0 25 173.5 Europe & Central Asia –0.565.8 .2 668 Virgin Islands (U.9 1.8 2.152 92 45 2.3 39 13.8 1.5 9 7.351 11.38 8. c..4 . d. .6 2.4 14 1.315 98 93 2.993 99 100 1..8 8. Negative values indicate an increase in forest area.09 19.4 2.00 0.0 42 62.67 2.0 ...6 7.2 36 22. 2. 95 58 3. 2.6 .4 18 3.7 3.4 Turkey –1.0 1. ..2 Vanuatu 0.2 265 . River flows from other countries are not included because of data unreliability. .00 2. 98 83 1.31 1.24 12.S.8 .7 36 4.00 3. 189 58 92 3.6 6.162 95 83 1.190 1.7 Timor-Leste 1.5 ..62 3.7 26.153.8 2.4 6..5 15 6.02 3.8 0.323.9 1.70 26.. . .838 99 100 1.2 127.00 3.866 98 93 0.8 ..203.9 17 320.6 4.7 United Arab Emirates –0.9 5.482.5 32 2.2 20 155. 100 96 –0.7 7 0.943 4.7 26..342.09 w 12.424.17 18. Trinidad and Tobago 0.990 100 95 1.4 1.75 26.9 Turks and Caicos Islands 0. Uganda 3. .5 15.3 Latin America & Caribbean 0..0 15 286.6 77 37 1.3 16 25.9 9 49.10 3.06 10.961 98 78 3.2 2.963 100 96 0.271 123.343.621 56 16 5.6 Middle East & North Africa –0.4 Sub-Saharan Africa 0.227 93 94 1...328.987 68 30 4.3 . Venezuela.835 95 92 –0.5d w 9.1 17 100 98 0. .00 1.09 16.2 12 3.9 –0.4 .0 636 2.894 w 23.015 8. Lower middle income 0.31 2.5 3.28 16.914 4.065 90 52 2.0 11 5.14 14.3 Environment Deforestationa Nationally protected areas average annual % Internal renewable freshwater b Terrestrial and resources Access to improved water source marine areas % of total Per capita territorial area cubic meters % of total population % of total population Ambient PM2.5 7. .246 100 99 1.48 13.2 Turkmenistan 0.1 w 32 w 9 34.525 94 77 2.9 1.6 w East Asia & Pacific –0.5 1.00 .5 7 7.2 . Yemen.5 Zimbabwe World 1.2 .073 8.9 6.215 96 96 0.777 72 41 4.9 Uruguay –2. 0.

Some define areas based on the does not mean that protection is in force. the size limit in the areas based on administrative arrangements. Some countries update their information more frequently than others. which may include nonfunctioning systems. Data for small countries and countries in arid and ing demand for energy production are some of the factors that must semiarid zones are less reliable than data for larger countries and be considered when shaping development strategies.income countries. cross-country comparisons should tions in consistency and methods of collection. calculating their nance of biological diversity—as well as terrestrial protected areas populations. The World that the water is safe or adequate. crop waste. Even in high-income coun- Nature (IUCN) categories for areas of at least 1. Almost 40 per- protected areas. it does not account for variations in the quality and cost not materially affected by human activity. and 2010. but growth can create new stresses on the tions in total renewable water resources. Cooking with solid fuels creates harmful smoke and particu- are derived from different sources and refer to different years. pollution. The data on freshwater resources are derived from estimates of responsible for 5. The coverage rates are based on information from Habitat protection and biodiversity service users on household use rather than on information from Deforestation is a major cause of loss of biodiversity. Access to an scientific reserves and strict nature reserves with limited public improved water source is equated with connection to a supply access.” “improved.” and “reasonable” ods limit cross-country comparability. Due to varia- based on national definitions. conservation is vital for stemming this loss. data quality is highly be made with caution. natural landscapes with unique aspects. Data are exposure to high levels of fine particulates in the air contributes Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 91 .” “adequate. protected landscapes (which may include Urbanization cultural landscapes). Conservation efforts Access to drinking water from an improved source does not ensure have focused on protecting areas of high biodiversity. natural monuments and of the service. Improved sanitation facilities tion on forest cover in 2015 and adjusted estimates of forest prevent human. as these characteristics are Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) and the United Nations not tested at the time of survey. some have more accurate data on the Air pollution extent of coverage. countries with greater rainfall. so lates that fill homes and the surrounding environment. and insect contact with excreta. and reporting peri- terms such as “safe. and areas managed mainly for the sustainable There is no consistent and universally accepted standard for distin- use of natural systems to ensure long-term protection and mainte- guishing urban from rural areas and. Thus. These estimates onds. Data do not distinguish environment. a breakdown the FAO centage of the population with ready access to water for domestic provides only for low.Environment 3 About the data Environmental resources are needed to promote economic growth collected intermittently and may hide substantial year-to-year varia- and reduce poverty. variable across countries. Others designate protected areas smaller than 1. loss of biologically diverse habitat. improved water source is widely used. Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation based on surveys and censuses. dung. urbanization.5 million deaths per year. Most countries use a classification related to the size not assigned to an IUCN category. For small countries with presence of certain infrastructure and services. and habitat service providers. Because data are definition leads to underestimation of protected areas. about one every 2 sec- runoff into rivers and recharge of groundwater. it is extremely subjective. and increas- within countries. cover in 1990.000 hectares— tries treated water may not always be safe to drink. between seasonal and geographic variations in water availability depletion of water resources. In both cities and rural areas Freshwater resources exposure to air pollution is the main environmental threat to health.000 hectares. While information on access to an Environment Programme (UNEP) compile data on protected areas. data purposes and are estimated by the World Health Organization may underestimate the rate at which natural forest is disappear- (WHO)/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring ing in some countries. 2000. Differences in definitions. by extension. FAO (2015) provides informa- health and protecting the environment. Long-term cross-country comparisons should be made with caution. reporting practices. charcoal. Deforestation. Nationally protected areas may have different meanings in different countries despite offi- are defined using the six International Union for Conservation of cial WHO definitions (see Definitions). Designating an area as protected or characteristics of settlements.and middle. managed nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries. or coal to meet basic energy needs. Loss of forests Water and sanitation Forests provide habitat for many species and act as carbon sinks. and many underreport the number or extent of Air pollution places a major burden on world health. Data presented here do not Data on access to an improved water source measure the per- distinguish natural forests from plantations. national parks of national or international significance and system. animal. A reliable supply of safe drinking water and sanitary disposal of If properly managed they also provide a livelihood for people who excreta are two of the most important means of improving human manage and use forest resources. cent of the world’s people rely on wood.

oil companies. Breaks in benefiting countries. and economic fac- income countries and vulnerable segments of the population such tors. lung Energy use cancer. Energy use has been growing rapidly in low- and middle-income as children and the elderly. and adjustments are made to compensate for dif- dioxide emissions are probably accurate within 10 percent (as ferences in definitions. matter used directly as fuel or converted into fuel. motorized transport. For example. but high-income economies still use more than four Data on exposure to ambient air pollution are derived from esti- times as much energy per capita. for all countries. 92 Carbon dioxide emissions Whether such damage occurs depends largely on how electricity Carbon dioxide emissions are the primary source of greenhouse is generated. It includes energy from combustible renewables University of Washington. and urban represents a drag on development. often calculated and reported as national energy data adjusted to conform to annual questionnaires elemental carbon. The International Energy Agency (IEA) reports include coun- at the national level. Department of Energy’s Carbon gerous waste products. gas and liquid from generated by combining data from atmospheric chemistry transport biomass.400 locations in surveys or other incomplete information and thus give only a broad 79 countries. The IEA makes these estimates in consulta- calculated from global average fuel chemistry and use). but it produces other dan- ide emissions. A notional thermal efficiency of 33 percent Direct monitoring of ambient PM2. Although estimates of global carbon data are missing. Carbon dioxide emissions. which the U. and heart disease. Pollutant concentrations are sensitive to local conditions. and measurement protocols and standards are not the same 100 percent efficiency for converting hydroelectric power. which contribute to global warming. including respiratory diseases. try notes that explain some of these differences (see Data sources). Bureau of Mines’s Cement Manufacturing Data for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are based on Set. Trends estimated from and national energy experts. verted into oil equivalents. Exposure to concentrations of particulates in both impression of developments and are not strictly comparable across urban and rural areas is weighted by population and is aggregated countries. or electricity. Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) calculates using data The IEA compiles data on energy inputs used to generate electric- from the United Nations Statistics Division’s World Energy Data ity. intended for cross-country comparisons of Electricity production the relative risk of particulate matter pollution. Data for countries that are not members of the Organisation Set and the U. Not only does exposure to air pollution In most economies growth in energy use is closely related to growth endanger people’s health. But electricity generation also can damage the environment. Fossil fuel combustion and cement manu- burning an equivalent amount of natural gas. particularly for low.3 Environment to a range of health effects. energy statistics for other countries have undergone mates exclude fuels supplied to ships and aircraft in international continuous changes in coverage or methodology in recent years as transport because of the difficulty of apportioning the fuels among more detailed energy accounts have become available. Estimates of annual concentrations are and waste—solid biomass and animal products. economies.S. burning coal releases twice as much gases. For example. Nuclear energy does facturing are the primary sources of anthropogenic carbon diox- not generate carbon dioxide emissions. series are therefore unavoidable.5 is still rare in many parts of the is assumed for converting nuclear electricity into oil equivalents and world. These data should be considered only a general indication of air quality. In addition. estimates by multiplying them by 3. an international scientific mation to other end-use fuels (such as electricity and refined petro- effort led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the leum products). it also carries huge economic costs and in the modern sectors—industry. country tion with national statistical offices. It occasionally revises its time series a consistent time series tend to be more accurate than individual to reflect political changes. heat. the IEA has constructed values. incorporating recent findings and corrections. and All forms of energy—primary energy and primary electricity—are con- even monitoring sites in the same city may register different levels. mates of annual concentrations of very fine particulates produced Total energy use refers to the use of primary energy before transfor- for the Global Burden of Disease study. Esti- In addition. electric utilities. geographic. estimates may have larger error bounds. and industrial and municipal waste. Modeled concentrations are calibrated against observations from Data for combustible renewables and waste are often based on small ground-level monitoring of particulates at some 3. Each year the CDIAC recalculates the entire time series historical energy statistics for countries of the former Soviet Union.and middle- areas—but also reflects climatic. Biomass is any plant models and satellite observations of aerosols in the atmosphere. threatening human carbon dioxide—a major contributor to global warming—as does and natural habitats.S. since 1949. Use of energy is important in improving people’s standard of living. were converted to actual carbon dioxide mass completed by OECD member governments. World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .667 (the ratio of the mass of carbon are sometimes made to complete major aggregates from which key to that of carbon dioxide).

Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. pit latrines with slab. G. • Urban population growth is the annual rate of change of urban population assuming exponential change. and Data on protected areas. ———.unep-wcmc.” Environmental Science & Technol- sanitation facilities are likely to ensure hygienic separation of human ogy 50(1): 79–88. Natural incom- Brauer and others (2016) for the data and methods used to estimate ing flows originating outside a country’s borders and overlapping ambient PM2. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. and nuclear power generation. oil. 2015. and tide and wave energy as York: United Nations. Improved Global Burden of Disease 2013.Various years. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015.ornl. Data on freshwater resources ing.d. wind. Deforested areas do not include areas logged but databases.org]. Environ- microns in aerodynamic diameter that are capable of penetrating mental. septic tank. are emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture ———. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. V. Data on particulate matter ferent designations and categories. and Metabolic Risks or Clusters of Risks deep into the respiratory tract and causing severe health damage. derived from the UNEP and WCMC online infrastructure.” Lancet. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries.5 National Comparative Risk Assessment of 79 Behavioral. n. well as that from combustible renewables and waste. Rome. Oak Ridge. • Electricity production is mea- bsite. and Occupational.org/unpd/wup/]. or References boreholes.. Production WHO (World Health Organization)–UNICEF (United Nations Children’s includes the output of electric plants designed to produce electricity Fund) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. ises (piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling. are based on data from national authorities. [www. “Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Estimation for the age of the population using improved sanitation facilities.d. or pit latrine). plot. AQUASTAT. which equals indigenous production plus imports and stock Conservation Monitoring Centre). • Nationally protected areas are from the FAO’s AQUASTAT database. Energy An improved drinking water source includes piped water on prem- Statistics of OECD Countries.org/gbd/data) by the Institute for Health Metrics renewable freshwater resources are the average annual flows of and Evaluation (see GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators 2015). Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries.org/datasets-tools--reports_15. • Energy use refers to ———. Paris. and polygons concentrations are from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study are removed. public taps or standpipes. and defined as exposure to fine suspended particulates of less than 2. including agriculture. • Access to an improved water source is the per- tion are from IEA online databases and its annual Energy Statistics of centage of the population using an improved drinking water source. Environmental Science Division.healthdata. • Internal (www. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 93 . protected dug wells. [http://esa. 2015. which is obtained by the United Nations. 2016. collection. “Global. A.5 exposure. solar. van Donkelaar.org/nr/water /aquastat/data/query/index. settlements. J. Online databases. n. Urban population is the proportion of midyear population of areas defined as urban in each country. All overlaps between dif- United Nations Population Division (2014). minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft . and all undated protected areas are dated. Data on energy use and electricity produc- are excluded. Data on carbon dioxide emissions are from water resources between surface runoff and groundwater recharge CDIAC online databases. World Urbanization Pros- to hydropower. See rivers and groundwater from rainfall in the country. R. and gas fuels and gas flaring. [www changes. Paris.Tool&ctops=]. Oak Ridge National Labo- pit latrines. Online data- piped sewer system. 2013. Frostad. excreta from human contact. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Exposure is calculated by weighting mean annual concentrations of PM2. acid precipitation. Cambridge. of cement and include carbon dioxide produced during consumption ———. national leg- intended for regeneration or areas degraded by fuelwood gather- islation. tube wells. Regional. In addition United Nations Population Division.html].un. • Carbon dioxide emissions Burden of Disease Study 2013. or yard). Bank estimate of total population. and composting toilets. coal.5 air pollution is GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators. Rome. as well as that of combined heat and power plants. ranching. TN. Freedman. 2014. Online database. [www. Paris. • Ambient PM2. They include flush/pour flush toilets (to CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center). protected springs. Data on access to water and are terrestrial and marine protected areas as a percentage of total sanitation are from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for territorial area and include all nationally designated protected Water Supply and Sanitation. or forest fires. and international agreements. ventilated improved base.wssinfo. it covers pects: The 2014 Revision. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Various years.Environment 3 Definitions Data sources • Deforestation is the permanent conversion of natural forest area Data on deforestation are from FAO (2015) and the FAO’s website. Martin. 1990–2013: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Data are aggregated at the national level and include both rural and urban areas. of solid. to other uses. multiplied by the World ratory.Various years. 2015.We engaged in international transport. • Access to improved sanitation facilities is the percent- et al. New generation by geothermal. the use of primary energy before transformation to other end use UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and WCMC (World fuels. Data on urban population are from the areas with known location and extent.html]. Paris. sured at the terminals of all alternator sets in a station. Various years.html?&types=Data. Online databases. M. liquid. UK. [http://cdiac.gov/home.5 by population. buffered points. gas. Non-OECD Countries. only. in 188 Countries. and Energy Balances of OECD Countries. IEA (International Energy Agency). and rainwater Brauer.fao.

PTMR. % for industry ER.PC 3.worldbank.KT.ZS Oil sources EG.RUR.COMM.THRD.PRD. sources.FWDM.ELC.KD Carbon dioxide emissions.H2O.FWAG.OE Fossil fuel EG.METH. % of urban population SH.ZS).PP.THRD.PRD.CE EN.OE Energy use EG.CROP.ACCS.1 Rural environment and land use Rural population SP.TOTL.KD 3.KD Electricity production EG.6 Energy production and use Energy production EG.NO Threatened species.ZS Combustible renewable and waste Alternative and nuclear energy production EG. Birds EN. Average annual growth Energy use.HA Fertilizer consumption. cu.FSH.ZS Access to an improved water source.USE.AG. use the URL http://data.XD Food production index AG.LND.COMM.THRD.org/indicator/ the URL http://wdi.LND.ELC. Per capita ER.USE.CE Methane emissions.ZS Permanent cropland AG.ZS Tractors AG.ATM.ZS Arable land.METH.AGRI. hectares per person AG.7 Electricity production.ATM.ZS Annual freshwater withdrawals.LND.GDP.ZS Arable land.3 Environment Online tables and indicators To access the World Development Indicators online tables. % for agriculture ER.KG.ZS Water productivity.ZS GDP per unit of energy use EG. kilograms per 2011 PPP $ of GDP EN.FWTL.BIR.FO.3 Agricultural output and productivity Crop production index AG.ZS 3.PC EN.ZS Annual freshwater withdrawals.H2O. % of land area AG.PUSE.ELC.COMM.IMP.FWTL.LND.ZS 3.USE.INTR.ATM.ZG Land area AG. 3. % of rural population SH.ZG EN.AGR.ZS AG.CO2E.M3.LND.K2 Forest area AG.KT. Per capita Carbon dioxide emissions.FERT.ZS 3.GDP.XD Cereal yield AG.b Average annual deforestation Threatened species.org/table/3. % change Methane emissions.CREL.COAL.K3 Annual freshwater withdrawals.ATM. Fishes EN.K3 Internal renewable freshwater resources.MM Land under cereal production AG. Mammals EN.CO2E.ZS 3. % irrigated AG.ZS Fertilizer consumption.worldbank.LVSK.NO Threatened species.CL.CRNW.YLD.H2O.RU.EGY.NGAS.ZS EG.KD Access to an improved water source.XD Livestock production index AG. kilograms per hectare of arable land AG. and access 3.H2O. GDP/water use People EN..PP.MRN. m ER.ZS Average annual precipitation AG.ELC.KT EN.FWIN.LND.LND. % change 94 ER.PROD.NO Threatened species.ZS Annual freshwater withdrawals.NO Terrestrial protected areas ER.org example.ELC.TOTL.K2 . use indicator online.ZS Agricultural land.SAFE.PTLD.AGRI.ATM.HPT.PRD.CON.TRAC. Total Carbon dioxide emissions.4 Deforestation and biodiversity Nuclear power sources EG.HYRO.HA.ELC. efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions Net energy imports EG.PETR.ATM. http://wdi.RUR.PROD.CO2E.LND.FRST.KG Agriculture value added per worker EA.GD.KT.8 Energy dependency.PCAP.CONS.worldbank. Total World view EN.worldbank.PRCP.ZS Hydropower sources EG.FWTL.ELC.LND.PRD.ARBL.ZS Marine protected areas ER.OE .FERT. Carbon intensity World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide EN.2 Agricultural inputs Agricultural land.FOOD.ZS Agricultural employment SL.CON.EG.SAFE.ZG Environment . % of domestic ER. Per capita EG.9 Trends in greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions.KT.ARBL.ZS Forest area Access to electricity EG.H2O.KO.LND.ATM.H2O.FRST.KH Coal sources EG.ZS Renewable sources EG.GHGT.a.PC Annual freshwater withdrawals.PT.LND.ELC.GHGT.EMPL.INTR..H2O.ZS Carbon dioxide emissions.LND.CREL.IRIG. Higher plants EN.UR.NUCL.H2O.ZS 3. http://data.org/table/ and the table number (for and the indicator code (for example.H2O.ATM.USE. % of internal resources ER.USE.TOTL.a.5 Freshwater Internal renewable freshwater resources ER.CROP.ZS Natural gas sources EG. % of fertilizer production AG.MAM.RUR.1).RNWX.THRD.CO2E.ZS Rural population growth SP.TOTL. % of land area AG.b Energy use. Total Greenhouse gas emissions. To view a specific /indicator/SP.

ZS Population affected by droughts.AG.ZS Disaster risk reduction progress score EN.10 Carbon dioxide emissions by sector Electricity and heat production Manufacturing industries and construction Other sectors EN. % of urban population EG.GDP.RU.EL5M.GROW Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million EN.ZS Energy intensity level of primary energy EG.RU.ZS a.CLC.EL5M.EG.UR Access to improved sanitation facilities.STA.ZS SP.NSF.ZS 3.KD Renewable energy consumption EG. Agricultural EN.RU.FEC.ELC.11 Climate variability.GDP.GDP.ELC.ATM.UR.LND.EL5M.POP.GHGO.RT.NOXE.TOTL.RNEW.ZS Oil rents NY.GHGO.MDAT.ACSN.MINR.NOXE.CO2.ZS Rural population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters EN.ZS Mineral rents NY.Environment 3 Methane emissions.EL5M.ETOT.CE Nitrous oxide emissions.ATM.POP.MCTY. Total EN.ACCS.ACCS.ZS Access to non-solid fuel.ACSN.METH.TOTL Urban population.RNEW.ZS 3.EL5M.COAL.OTHX.KT.RU. Available online only as part of the table.ATM. From energy processes EN.URB.PP. Average annual growth 3.CE Other greenhouse gas emissions.GDP.ATM.BLDG.ZS Coal rents NY. Derived from data elsewhere in the World Development Indicators database.ATM.ZS Access to electricity.TOTL.CO2. % change EN.ZS Access to non-solid fuel.ZG Nitrous oxide emissions.14 Contribution of natural resources to gross domestic product Total natural resources rents NY. exposure to impact.ACCS.LND.RT.ZS Rural land area where elevation is below 5 meters SP.UR.KT.PETR. floods. Total EN.NOXE.ZS Forest rents NY.URB.NGAS.CLC. not as an individual indicator.TRAN.ZS Methane emissions. % of total population EN.EL5M.ZS Access to electricity.ZS EN. b.GDP.ZS Access to improved sanitation facilities.URB.RU Access to electricity.XQ SP.DRSK.ZS EN.AG.ZG 3. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 95 .ZS AG.RT.NSF.ZS AG.CO2.NSF.ATM.ZS Population in the largest city EN. % of rural population SH.CO2.URB.ELC.METH.ELC. % of population EN.CO2. and extreme temperatures EN. % of rural population EG.ZS Access to non-solid fuel.RT. Agricultural Other greenhouse gas emissions.NOXE.STA.URB.MANF.PRIM.ATM.IN. % of rural population EG.ACCS.ACCS.LND.RT.LCTY.12 Urbanization EG. From energy processes Nitrous oxide emissions. and resilience AG. % of urban population EG.ZS Transport Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters Urban population EN.RT.13 Sustainable energy for all EN.ZS Natural gas rents NY.FRST.EGY.ACCS.UR.ZS Renewable electricity output EG.ZS Urban population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters EN.UR.ZS EN. % of urban population SH.ZS Nitrous oxide emissions.TL.ZS Population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters Urban population.GDP.ZS Residential buildings and commercial and public services Land area where elevation is below 5 meters 3.POP. % change EN.ATM. % of population EG.UR.EG.

ECONOMY 96 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .

9 percent in 2016. household air pollution due to cooking with solid fuels.The Economy section provides a picture of the global economy and the economic activity of more than 200 countries and territories. financial assets. Mutual agreement does not mean that transactions have to be entered into voluntarily (the payment of taxes is treated as a transaction despite being compulsory).6 percent in 2015 and 2. It includes measures of macroeconomic performance and stability as well as broader measures of income and savings adjusted for pollution.8 percent in 2016.and middle-income economies accounted for 33 percent of the global economy in 2015. For more information. Expected growth in high-income economies has been revised from earlier forecasts to 1. Additionally. with data up to 2012. see http://www. and is projected to grow 2. Other economic flows are the result of events that affect the value of nonfinancial assets. an increase of 1 percentage point. Low.3 percent in 2015 and are projected to grow 4. Seattle.org /external/Pubs/FT/GFS/Manual/2014/gfsfinal . In August 2015 the International Monetary Fund began using the Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014 framework for its Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and database. transactions cover monetary exchanges and in-kind activity (such as the receipt of commodity grants and noncash remuneration). The new framework emphasizes economically meaningful fiscal indicators and allows for the phased implementation of accrual accounting while supporting needed improvements in the compilation of cash-based fiscal statistics for the public and general government sectors and subsectors. It also harmonizes the system used to report fiscal statistics with other macroeconomic statistical systems— most notably the System of National Accounts and the European System of Accounts. an international scientific effort led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington. Damages include the costs of premature mortality due to exposure to ambient particulate matter.4 percent in 2015. The adjusted net savings indicator has been updated this year with new data on the health impacts of air pollution from the Global Burden of Disease 2013.pdf.worldbank. and liabilities but that are not exchanges or transfers. Historical series based on the previous (2001) framework. can be accessed through the World Development Indicators archives (http://databank .org/data/source/WDI-Archives). Global real gross domestic product grew 2.imf. They grew an estimated 4. and resource depletion.1 percent in 2016. In turn. Economy States and markets GFSM 2014 provides comprehensive fiscal data through accrual reporting and allows data inconsistencies to be detected and fiscal transparency to be improved. Transactions cover all exchanges or transfers that take place by mutual agreement and the consumption of fixed capital (the economic equivalent of “depreciation”). fiscal analyses by end-users will be more detailed and robust. Affected series have been adjusted from 1990 onward. A key feature of GFSM 2014 is its distinction between transactions and other economic flows. to about $74 trillion in current prices. Global links Back 4 World Development Indicators 2016 97 . and ambient ozone pollution. depreciation. These flows can reflect either price changes (including exchange rate movements) or volume changes due to one-off events (such as mineral discoveries or natural disasters).

Virgin Islands (U.0 United States No data Bermuda (U. Average annual per capita GDP growth in low. (U. Vincent and the Grenadines R. The 2007 financial crisis spread from high-income to low-income economies in 2008.) St. But growth must be sustained over the long term.0–1.0 or more Canada 4.S.) St.9 Less than 0.3 percent over 2009–14 (the post-crisis period).0–3. Kitts and Nevis Chile Guadeloupe (Fr.and middle-income countries Economic growth Greenland (Den. de Panama Venezuela Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana (Fr. from 3.4 percentage points.) Dominica Martinique (Fr.) Sint Maarten (Neth.K.2  percent a year after the crisis. de Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago IBRD 41453 98 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .) Mexico The Bahamas Cuba Jamaica Belize Turks and Caicos Is.and middleincome countries in Middle East and North Africa saw the largest drop: Average annual per capita GDP growth fell 3. down from 1.) French Polynesia (Fr.1 percent in the pre-crisis period to –0.9 0. which was still faster than in high-income countries.) Caribbean Inset Puerto Dominican Rico. fastgrowing middle-income economies are closing the income gap with high-income economies.) Uruguay Barbados St.S.K.9 2.) Haiti Honduras Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica R.K. and gains must be shared to make lasting improvements to the well-being of all people.slowed from 5 percent over 2000–09 (the pre-crisis period) to 4.B. Lucia Curaçao (Neth. Republic Tonga Bolivia Anguilla (U.5 percent before the crisis.B.) Ecuador Kiribati Brazil Peru Samoa Fiji American Samoa (U.) Argentina St.0–5. The low. 2009–14 (%) 6. Economic growth reduces poverty.) Paraguay Antigua and Barbuda U. High-income countries grew an average of 1. U. A year later it became the most severe global recession in 50 years and affected sustained development around the world.3 percent in the postcrisis period. As a result.S.) Average annual growth of per capita GDP.S. Martin (Fr.

supported by mineral exploration and diamond exports. Armenia baijan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Greece Turkey Bulgaria Tunisia Morocco Algeria Libya Niger Chad Senegal The Burkina Gambia Faso Guinea GuineaBenin Bissau Central Nigeria CôteGhana Sierra Leone African d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Liberia Togo Equatorial Guinea São Tomé and Príncipe Sudan China Afghanistan Islamic Rep. of Yemen Djibouti South Ethiopia Sudan Japan Nepal Pakistan Singapore Nauru In d o n esi a Papua New Guinea Seychelles Zambia Malawi Tuvalu Mauritius Mayotte (Fr. and rice production. Iraq Cyprus Lebanon Israel West Bank and Gaza Malta Rep. The whole economy has been rejuvenated. China Myanmar Lao PDR Eritrea Rep.) Australia Hungary Slovenia Romania Croatia San Marino Bosnia and Serbia Herzegovina Italy Montenegro Kosovo Bulgaria Cabo Mauritania Verde Syrian Arab Rep.Rep. Sri Lanka is the fastest growing country in South Asia. compared with 3. This is attributable to the slowdown in property investment and shrinking exports from the manufacturing industry.9 percent post-crisis.7 percent in the post-crisis period.People’s Rep. of Gabon Congo Rwanda Dem. China’s economy has been slowing down: Average annual per capita GDP growth dropped from 10.3 percent before the crisis. Burundi of Congo Tanzania Hong Kong SAR.) Vietnam Cambodia Uganda Kenya Rep.) Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia Madagascar Botswana La Réunion (Fr.S. with average annual per capita GDP growth of 6. textile.Turkmenistan saw the highest average per capita GDP growth over 2009–14 among low.and middle-income countries: 9. Sierra Leone has been steadily growing. Average annual per capita GDP growth reached 8.of Korea Ukraine Spain Monaco Portugal Andorra New Zealand FYR Macedonia Albania Greece Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 99 . of Egypt Western Sahara Czech Republic Slovak Republic Austria Fiji New Caledonia (Fr.) Russian Federation Iceland Finland Norway Sweden Estonia Latvia United Kingdom Denmark Lithuania Ireland Germany Poland Belarus Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Liechtenstein Switzerland Ukraine Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Romania France Dem. apparel.) Swaziland South Africa Kiribati Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Angola Lesotho Europe Inset Vanuatu Poland Germany Mali Jordan Arab Rep.) Federated States of Micronesia Palau Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Philippines Brunei Darussalam Sri Lanka Somalia Comoros N.5 percent over 2009–14. tea export. with its main sectors encompassing tourism.2 percent pre-crisis to 7. of Iran Saudi Arabia Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Bhutan Bangladesh United Arab Emirates Oman India Thailand Guam (U. After a decade of civil war.S. China Macao SAR.of Korea Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Georgia AzerRep. Mariana Islands (U.9 percent. thanks to the end of three decades of civil conflict in 2009. Greenland (Den. This rapid growth was driven by the well planned development of the hydrocarbon sector and considerable government spending on infrastructure.

. 8.1 .8 –4.0 110.. ..8 13.. . Chile 6.9 .2 .7 10.6 6.6 .9 –0..7 25. 0. 0.4 1.0 Aruba 3.6 –12.0 4. 1.2 –0.4 54.7 .3 0. 26.7 .2 .3 25..2 12.. .4 362.2 3... 1.6 2.3 –3.8 –12.0 –0.6 5.2 131.5 –3....2 .0 2.6 .7 34..5 109.9 American Samoa Andorra Angola .6 58.3 .3 17.5 21.7 –24.7 .0 Macao SAR.. 4.3 –5.1 .4 6.9 10...3 2.1 ..2 –1.2 Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso 2.. .2 17..2 4..6 4. . .7 ..5 ..5 –0.8 17.3 Brazil 2..9 2.8 10..8 76. 29.7 10.. .1 97.0 –0. Dem.9 63.6 .. .9 Canada 3. .2 3..2 8. ..8 9. .0 Cambodia 7.8 Comoros 1.8 .4 7. 6.3 2.9 –3. 0.9 4.5 1. . .1 16.9 13.4 2. . .3 4.5 25.2 7.2 57.1 Bermuda 2.7 10.3 –1. .0 1.. .0 11..8 –1.... 38. Bhutan 5.. 1.5 28.8 Algeria 1.3 –18. .0 –1..7 6.0 6. 4.3 China Channel Islands 10.1 2.5 3. ..9 0.0 Cameroon 1.5 38.8 84..0 –4. –17..5 4..8 .9 79..2 –5.2 –2. .6 2.0 Barbados 1. Rep.3 5..6 1..7 15. China 3. –1.4 .0 5.4 ..6 10.1 15.9 46...4 81.3 –0.3 17.7 1..3 –1.. ....3 2. 2.8 Belgiumc 2... . .9 21.7 Chad 2.8 1.1 7.1 .6 –9.3 2. .3 . –7.1 1.4 21.0 –2.9 ..4 Economy Gross domestic product Gross savings Adjusted net savings Current account balance average annual % growth % of GDP % of GNI % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % growth % of GDP 2014 2014a 2014 2013 2013 2014 2014 1990–2000 Afghanistan 2009–14 Broad money .1 9. ..9 2.7 Benin 4. 1. Cayman Islands Central African Republic 1..1 2.6 4.0 6.3 –3...2 –2.7 16.7 23.3 .9 .9 –2.0 3. Australia 3.6 3. . .2 4.3 –3.1 ..7 . .2 –7.4 83.6 4.4 0.7 4..9 .6 Armenia 34.7 Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina 4. 1.5 28.2 –0.8 0.9 11.5 35.8 9.8 –8. . . .9 22. Belarus –1. . ..9 5.6 .5 4.8 Cabo Verde 12.9 63...1 25.3 .7 46.2 37. 1. .5 6.0 24....8 . . –6.....1 36. .. 7.4 20. 5..6 85. Belize 4. 2. . ..9 Albania 3.5 2. 0.6 48. ..5 49.0 23. –3. ..8 Burundi –2.0 .5 0.3 Antigua and Barbuda 3.8 0.8 14.. .9 4.8 15..8 –18.6 –9.3 4. 32.7 2..1 .8 –0.8 2.1 –1..6 .6 4.. ..8 .1 .9 0.6 42. 6.9 24.7 3.3 –20.. The 2..8 3.0 4.8 1.6 4.2 11. 15.9 39. .2 2.2 5.9 1. Rep. 3..0 9. 1.5 0.0 . .2 . 6.. .. –0.3 10.1 –0..3 –7.5 –0.2 32..9 Argentina 4..8 20.9 8. .6 47.8 3.0 34.3 .4 83....6 –1. .0 –0. .4 6..2 67. .7 –2. 1.7 6.0 –0. .. 42.5 ..5 .5 –8..2 62.. .2 74. 100 2000–09 Central Central Consumer government government price index cash surplus debt or deficit World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .2 11.3 34... Congo. . . .1 6.1 Congo.1 Hong Kong SAR.5 26..6 1.3 0.9 .5 74.. –8.4 18. . 30.3 –1.8 –1.3 –7.9 18.6 63..3 –6.1b 17.5 Austriac 2.5 17.2 Botswana 4..1 –0.. –0.1 .2 95.7 5. .7 1.. ..5 13.8 8. 3. .9 –4.0 4.1 .5 .2 –1.. ...5 58...9 –5. ..7 .0 3.4 3. .2 43.9 8. 3.2 1. .0 –26.6 Bahamas.9 ..2 4. 36.6 12..1 7.0 193.2 7.6 2. ..8 0.2 24.9 –1. ..0 –1. 7.2 Azerbaijan Bangladesh 4.1 –9.9 1.9 3. .0 –1.. 4. China 2..0 4.4 Bahrain 5.6 8.8 1... .3 –5. .8 10.4 39..9 b 4. . –0.9 78.8 4. 4.3 4....3 89.6 34.4 –7.4 5.1 . .0 .8 3.4 101.3 .3 26. . 8.8 27.5 6.3 –4.5 5.0 Colombia 2.9 1. .

5 El Salvador 4.1 .1 1.1 55..1 14.3 –4.7 23.9 –2.0 6.2 .4 47..2 Georgia Guam Guinea 4. .8 4...0 3.2 18....2 2. .7 –0.. . .3 4.8 . .7 133....2 29.8 23.1e 7. . .0e –10...5 –4.. .0 0.4 Dominican Republic 6.1 ..2 3. .2 –0...9 2... .8 Egypt.3 24.7 8.3 3.2 16..1 3.4 e 5.8 66. .4 14... 5. . ..4 6.3 –3.2 ..6 6.3 India 6.2 –11.9 18.3 6.9 2.4 .. .8 11..1 0.7 2.4 Indonesia 4..8 –2.0 Ecuador 2.6 2. ..5 Gambia..1 11.3 78. 1.1 3. 6.4 e 38.5 0.0 1.3 10.8 –18. 0.9 13. . Islamic Rep.8 1. .2 –2..5 33.9 –0.3 . . Ethiopia 3.3 .1 Greecec 2. Francec 2..3 5.6 18.1 16. .4 Iraq Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 101 .6 –5.. . 10. –14.3 Guyana 5.4 3.5 –6.2 0.6 .4 ..2 15.4 55.5 12.. 4.1 43.5 0. .3 5. . –21..7 5.. ..6 11. 2. 9.. .6 –9..3 40.1 .9 16. .1 –6.0 –2.2 Denmark 2. . . Faroe Islands French Polynesia Gabon 2.5 10. ..5 3. ..8 2.2 –1.6 .3 . .6 145.9 8...4 4.6 –3. .5 3.8 31. 4. .2 3. .8 96.7 1.2 –0..7 17.6 2...2 3.4 2.4 ...1 1.6 65.4 2.8 –5.2 3.2 .5 32. .3 –3.4 –12.. .. Guinea-Bissau 0..3 Iceland 2.9 ... Arab Rep.3 –10. .3 6.. 0.8 25.5 37.4 20.6 44..5 –0.2 –3. ..d 4...7 ..0 6..0 24. Cyprusc..0 35. .2 Hungary 1.6 0. . .9 2.2 46. Fiji 2.9 1. . .6 Haiti Iran. .... 0. ..6 103.8 –19. Isle of Man 6. 6. .5 23...4 10.4 .0 –2.. –0. . –13.4 ..4 .4 0.2 .9 Finlandc 2.9 3.6 –6. .4 26.4 94.7 3.1 –2.0 6.8 26.1 .2 2.5 31... 3. . . 4.3 Eritrea Equatorial Guinea 6..6 27..7 ..5 . . .. ...4 39.0 –10.4 1. ...5 .7 6.7 0. .3 14. ..6 .3 –5.1 1990–2000 2000–09 2009–14 Central Central Consumer government government price index cash surplus debt or deficit Broad money Costa Rica 5.3 3..3 1.0 0.2 . ..3 .7 –1. .5 1.8 0. Grenada 3.1 –5.3 5.5 0.. .6 –0.2 52. Estoniac 5.. 17.6 –3.4 –7.5 1....6 181.1 0.8 10.9 –1.0 1..7 –4. Czech Republic 1. .9 3.5 73...6e 20.2 ..8 14. .5 0.9 2.2 . Guatemala 4..0 3.7 3.3 19. .5 3.9 8.4 –2. . .5 .0 6. .3 5.7 –2. . .8 8.3 –5.9 ..6 2. Ghana 4. Curaçao Cuba ..1 76.4 5. 2.8 13.0 3..1 4. .5 Croatia 3.2 58.2 ..5 85.7 1.6 13..1 –14.3 –1.5 –4. –0. Greenland 1..4 .7 –3.0 7. 3.8 .0 84. .5 Côte d’Ivoire 3..4 77.5 1.2 35.0 0.5 Ireland c 7.3 7.2 4..1 –47.2 4..8 50.5 –6.. .6 –1. 0.9 1..4 25.7 1.4 –5.8 –1. .0 –2.7 23.9 31..5 14.2 –4. .1 Germanyc 1.6 53. . . .2 88. ..1 –1..5 6.7 15.8 –17. ...6 –2.Economy 4 Gross domestic product Gross savings Adjusted net savings Current account balance average annual % growth % of GDP % of GNI % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % growth % of GDP 2014 2014a 2014 2013 2013 2014 2014 52..6 42.7 23.3 19....0 4..0 0.8 –1..6 .0 –3. 10.2 2..7 4.3 1...0 1...9 88.1 4.4 4.8 . .8 .9 8.3 27. .7 2. –25.6 –1.9 83. . ..5 ... . . .2 . 4..8 1.5 48.1 Dominica 2.3 –0.4 14.9 .9 Honduras 3.8 0.2 5. 7. .0 –1. 2.9 54.2 69.3 5..4 2.0 5..4 20.3 27.3 .9 5.5 5.0 20.9 –1. The 3. .3 0.9 7.8 0.2 –5..3 –7.. . 0. .0 4..2 4.0 .. .5 –0.9 9.3 Djibouti 36..0 2... –1. 15. Israel 5.

.8 –24.5 4.. .4 4. . ..7 1..9 10.3 –7.0 –16.. 2.8 3.5 7. .3 32. 5.2 0.2 2. .6 88.8 .. .9 4.8f –7.9 18. .7 –7.3 5.0 5.5 2.8 125.8 –0.7 .2 .8 .8 Kenya 2.4 41. .2 0.2 ..6 4. 2.4 ..9 –1. . 5.6 .5 –1. . .7 0..1 5.9 20.7 –4.9 . 0.6 . Rep.3 59. .0 49.6f 5.3 43. .0 .1 5. .4 5. 4.7 –10. .1 2.2 –6. Moldova –9.1 –3.7 4.7 21.....4 11. –0.0 .0 Maltac 5.5 Japan 1. .1 24.6 . . .2 3.1 15. Mauritania 2.3 0.3 5.5 41.3 Kazakhstan –4. 9.2 102.0 51... 6.9 –7....5 7.. –15..8 6.7 –26.6 1. . .6 2..9 3.9 –10.6 Mali 3..6 –11. 0. .3 6.4 Montenegro 4.2 4..9 .9 .6 –0. .. Sts...7 0.9g 5.2 9.2 1.0 1. 139.2 13.2 –2.0 .2 . . 26.3 .6 0.4 –0. .9 33..8 7.3 3..8 Mexico 3.6 8.5 1. Kuwait 4.6 2.9 19. New Zealand 3.4 . . Nepal 4.7 –15.2 4.8 Micronesia.5 48.3 1.2 –10..1 Niger 2.8 . 4.2 .. 24.0 Lesotho 3. –7.8 –3..... ..4 5..1 59.2 Kyrgyz Republic –4.8 18.1 Malaysia 7.8 37. .0 g 3.3 –5.7 .4 Economy Gross domestic product Gross savings Adjusted net savings Current account balance average annual % growth 1990–2000 Broad money % of GDP % of GNI % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % growth % of GDP 2009–14 2014 2014a 2014 2013 2013 2014 2014 Italyc 1..3 56. ..0 24.0 2.7 2.5 1. 8.5 34.1 0. 5.2 15.7 4. .. 6.6 2.7 2..4 Netherlandsc 3.5 .. .7 64.7 –6.8 0. .3 19.7 –5. 6.3 5..7 32.3 2.0 f 19. . ..4 New Caledonia 102 2000–09 Central Central Consumer government government price index cash surplus debt or deficit World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .4 51.0 3. 6.5 –4.4f 13.8 .9 1.7 Myanmar Namibia .. People’s Rep.8 –3.. –10....8 0. .1 16.9 –3. 13. .8 6.6 .8 3..1 Maldives .8g 16.2 18..3 3.4 58.3 .. Dem..4 Malawi 3.7 21. –2. –0.8 18.. Latvia c 5.6 0.8 3.7 6.7 –7.1 2.3 Jordan 5...2 7.1 –7.. 1...4 3. .2 –11.8 –25.0 26..0 ..5 .0 8.7 20. .5 –36.3 5.9 4.3 5.3 –4. –10.6 20.4 –3.9 Mauritius 5..2 12..6 4.7 .7 251. 2.5 11. . ..2 3.8 ..1 .. Luxembourgc 4..7 33..4 52..4 6...6 3.3 3..2 –0...0 1.3 2. .1 50. 3.4 4.2 0.6 4. ...4 2.9 42. .3 1.8 27...0 Morocco 2.4 .9 Kiribati 4. ..8 2.4 18.9 72.4 15. . .2 .4 8.. .1 29.5 . Mongolia 1..0 37.1 –7. Lithuaniac 4.0 134.7 3. ..9 –5.9 –60.4 Macedonia.4 3.7 256. .2 3.4 118.3 29. 5. Jamaica 1.8 –8.5 32..1 3.5 19.5 . ...1 –2.3 Liberia 4.0 0.. 6.1 . .7 19..4 –29.1 5.1 0.5 14..9 6.6 g Mozambique 8.2 201.0 16. .1 .7 86.0 Monaco 1. –7.8 0. 0.. .5 Libya Liechtenstein 6.1 4.3 . Fed.6 . .9 2.8 68.9 5...4 0.3 12.8 –2. 8.1 3....5 28. .9 7.3 3..1 6.8 29.3 13.9g 25.4 3.. 7..5 5...4 16.9 38.2 1..4 –5...2 ..9 2. .0 7.6f 5..2 3. FYR Madagascar 2. .7 Lao PDR 6.4 7.3 –0. Nicaragua 3..9 35. . .1 .4 34.3 2..6 29.3 5.8 18.2 2.7 .6 .5 . . Korea.4 1.6 –0. . –4.0 29.8 –9.5 39.7 23.1 137.6 60. Marshall Islands 0..0 0.0 48.1 57.0 –10..3 21.8 2.9 –3.5 –0.3 0.9 –1. –0..5 . .7 . .5 –7. 3. ..6 127. 8.. –0..6 . Lebanon 5.0 4..1 10.5 . .4 –27.1 8.4 –1.7 . 1..8 9.2 14. –0..9 39.6 4.0 7...4 22. .4 1.6 –0.3 Kosovo ..9 Korea.1 ..3 66.4 –2.5 5.1 .

8 8. . .4 2.8 41. 7.6 –5.1 –5..7 .. –30. .5 –4. ..0 5.3 29. St.8 60..2 16...7 .5 ..5 22.. 0.0 –0. 5.1 8.. .2 –4.5 –0. ..1 0..1 5.1 71..3 0. Sloveniac 4..0 2..8 155.9 6.9 7.2 43.4 8.0 –3. .3 0. .5 89.0 0. . –4. Kitts and Nevis 4..2 –1.0 .8 0.0 7.8 1.. ...1 5.Economy 4 Gross domestic product Gross savings Adjusted net savings Current account balance average annual % growth % of GDP % of GNI % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % growth % of GDP 2014 2014a 2014 2013 2013 2014 2014 20.. . Martin Tajikistan Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 103 .9 –4.5 2.1 . ...3 28.5 22.0 ..0 4.9 .7 3..8 .2 66.0 –0. .3 2. .2 18..2 11..3 17.1 39.7 –0.7 1. .. ..2 6. . . .4 64.5 37.6 7.5 –2..2 .5h 0. 5. . –7.4 11.3 55. .5 1..6 58.7 .2 .0 131..1 .5 . .2 13.9 St.2 11.2 3.7 –12. Lucia 3.1 20.9 Qatar ...6 ..2 1.8 –1..6 ..6 0.0 5..4 43.0 42..6 Peru 4.0 50..1 20..0 –3. Samoa 2. . ..1 Seychelles 4.2 .... 2. .2 –4... .8 8.3 3. –8.9 2.5 15.6 21.. .1 .4 22.9 5.3 . Panama 4.1 0.. –10....9 Papua New Guinea 3. ..4 11.3 Sweden 2.3 –2.2 42..0 . 3.8 4..3 .7 6.1 0.7 61.3 . –6..8 3.3 20.4 71..3 –3.3 .. .5 5. . 2. 5.6 0. –0..3 5.4 –1. ..3 ..0 11.1 61.4 19.5 10...6 . . 5..5 . 0.0 2.8 –13. 19. ..0 3.7 6.2 ..5 –5.2 26. –2.8 14. Sri Lanka 5. 7.0 10..0 –0. . –18.7 4.. .3 63. 36.8 18. 1. 2.5 4.3 11..8 6.6i 9. 5..6 1..6 Portugal c 2. .0 Philippines 3. –21. . . .1 .8 96. .2 52.0 9.8 Senegal 3.5 8.8 3. 1.6 Poland 4.1 –6..3 Russian Federation –4.2 15..0 Palau 2..1 5..3 21..7 13. . ...1 48. . .3 .5 –6. 3.0 .5 .5 5.9 5...9 23..8 . 13.8 . . 2.......1 .1 –1.1 4..5 –5. –5. .9 Switzerland 1. 3.2 24...8 5. . .3 14.0 0...5 7. .3 Rwanda –0.4 3.0 29.3 68.9 –1.9 51.9 2.8 5.0 –2.. . .9 19.4 0. 14. .6 109.4 .0 19.2 –2...5 –20.2 Pakistan 3.6 3.4 8.0 ...9 18.7 St.1 46.2 .3 10.8 5.7 25. 3.. –6.3 2. .2 ...8 7. 65..7 24. .7 .8 10. . .0 Serbia 0.3 3..3 . .5 55. . .2 1990–2000 Nigeria Northern Mariana Islands Norway 2000–09 2009–14 Central Central Consumer government government price index cash surplus debt or deficit Broad money 1.3 4..1 .6 4...2 .5h 7..9 6.1 45.4 –1.2 0..3 . .7 7. . .0 40. ..9 San Marino 5.2 14.8 3.9 22.5 4. 0.0 .5 2.0 ...4 .6 –0. 3. ...3 4.. Slovak Republic c Sint Maarten 4.8 46.0 1... .1 .6 0. .8 1.1 0..9 10. . .2 . . .0 5.4 1.3 Romania São Tomé and Príncipe Saudi Arabia 2..0 2..5 6.6 .6 .3 37.7 3.4 .9 3.4 Swaziland 3.8 2.. –29. –1.7 –1. .2 Paraguay 3..0 –0. Oman 4.5 3..4 6.7 St.4 3.. Sierra Leone Singapore .2 17..2 3..0 7. .2 2. 6.. Solomon Islands 3.7 6.2 7.6 23. . 36.5 20...0 1. . . . . –7.0 2.5 14. Puerto Rico 3.3 –3.0 . .2 6.2 –0. Vincent & the Grenadines 3..4 Suriname 0... 44. . Somalia South Africa . 7.6 3.6 .4 138.0 10. . ... ..1 3.. .5 .7 5.9 21.8 Sudan 5.2 2. .. 1..1 .2 42..0 –6.0 –0.6 Syrian Arab Republic 5..4 44.8 73..0 .7 36...8 –1.0 188.8 31. ..2 77.3 –11.9 23.8 –3..9 2.4 2...1 24.7 2. ...1 10. . Spainc South Sudan 2.5 0.

..9 w 2.1 –4. Includes South Sudan.6 0.7 w .9 2.9 27..6 Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands 3. –10. 0.3 Ukraine 61.1 6.4 Tunisia 4.3 14.5 3.7 6.2 52.. .7 –3.5 .9 2..4 Togo Timor-Leste 3.1 7.. .8 195. .1 12.1 –0.3 8. ..2 7.8 –0.9 5. i.1 1.2 Upper middle income 4.3 77.2 21.4 2. these countries share a single currency.. .4 3....2 1.6 Sub-Saharan Africa 2.3 5.6 60.8 . f.9 47.9 –3.9 22.1 –9. . Uganda 7.3 1. .6 18.5 18.1 23. b.. . On February 1. 6. the most recent year available.4 –5.1 –4.5 19. 3.4 0..2 1.4 6.6 7. .1 1.8 38.7 w East Asia & Pacific 3.3 . As members of the European Monetary Union.6 .2 14.2 18..6 4. .9 .2 United Arab Emirates 4.4 Thailand 4.7 55.. . .. .7 28. .2 4.9 .. 2013.9 29. the IMF Executive Board recognized the material progress in remedying the inaccurate provision of data since 2013 but found that some actions called for by the end of February 2015 had not been completely implemented.1 2.4 12.4 .3 ..7 4. ..0 6.1 Zambia 1.1 44.5 5..5 –4.8 Uruguay 3. Refers to the area controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus.5 –13.9 –2.. .9 Vietnam 7.8 30. ..6 . .0 11. 5.2 18.4 –2.1 .3 8. d.7 10. . ..6 2.7 ...8 29.9 w 2. ...0 0. 39...1 1.8 21.6 –5.9 25.4 4..3 North America 3. . 2011.2 1.6 7..1 . 4.4 6...6 36. .3 . Data are officially reported statistics from the National Statistics and Censuses Institute of Argentina. –1. . .7 17. .2 1.9 4...1 .0 3..2 3.7 0.. 0. .. e.7 31.. Includes data on pollution damage for 2010..9 1.3 2..4 5.2 49. .2 2.9 5.8 .7 Middle East & North Africa 3.4 7.8 73. . Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.3 5. Excludes Transnistria. j..9 6.2 5.8 –5.. Covers mainland Tanzania only.7 .9 5. .0 –2.3 –2.8 10.8 21.S. Includes South Sudan until July 9..8 42.7 28. ...4 Economy Gross domestic product Gross savings Adjusted net savings Current account balance average annual % growth % of GDP % of GNI % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % growth % of GDP 2014 2014a 2014 2013 2013 2014 2014 1990–2000 2000–09 2009–14 Central Central Consumer government government price index cash surplus debt or deficit Broad money Tanzaniaj 3. .9 0.0 Tonga 2.4 4.0 43. . ..8 5.4 a.6 7..6 4. . Rep.7 High income 2.8 16. c. .. g. .. .2 4.7 –5.8 w 12..4 3.6 2. .1 –5.6 14.4 –2... . RB 1.1 –9. h. West Bank and Gaza Zimbabwe World 2.3 22.9 12. .3 ..3 4.3 . 2.1 33. 5.. .. the International Monetary Fund (IMF) issued a declaration of censure and in December 2013 called on Argentina to implement specific actions to address the quality of its official GDP data on a specified timetable.4 96. .6 89...2 .8 –0.1 4.2 –1.7 Europe & Central Asia 1..2 1..7 United States 3.. ..5 30.0 –2.2 8.0 8. 14.5 –7. –7.9 3..8 –19.4 6..8 Venezuela.4 17. Includes Former Spanish Sahara.1 –10.5 138..7 4.6 2. The IMF Executive Board will review this issue again by July 15.3 8. . Tuvalu 3.0 2. . .5 6.5 30.4 –2.8 3.5 15.. .6 5.3 4.5 Uzbekistan Virgin Islands (U.8 5.2 –5. 17..4 5.5 Latin America & Caribbean 3.8 5..9 8. .. 22. On June 3.5 South Asia 5.9 66. Vanuatu 3..6 23.5 9. 62. .4 16. .1 17.6 2.5 2.3 .0 .8 Low income 2.7 20. ..9 127. 7.1 33.8 United Kingdom 3.0 2.0 3.6 Yemen..8 .. 1.. 104 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . 2. 78.7 –8.7 0.0 7.9 .3 Trinidad and Tobago 4.2 4..5 98. .1 .8 5.9 6.4 3.8 Lower middle income 3.) .2 6.. –4.2 8..5 48.... 0. the euro.3 16. 0. 2016. 2015.7 12.7 6.1 127.1 2..

S. and secondary income. the balance of payments. By accounting for Growth rates of GDP and its components are calculated using the the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of the envi- least squares method and constant price data in the local currency ronment. esti- information about methodology used. Economy States and markets Beginning in August 2012. and international finance statistics. after accounting for the depreciation and depletion of a full range of There has been progress in unifying the concepts in the system of assets in the economy. even though the United increasing. the discrepancy is left unallocated. Only growth in GDP is reported here. And fourth. the available. of foreign exchange earned by a freight company strengthens the To obtain comparable series of constant price data for comput- balance of payments to the same extent as the foreign exchange ing aggregates. they update the weights assigned to various components to better Where to draw the line for analytical purposes requires a judgment reflect current patterns of production or uses of output. and transac- an economy and lead to breaks in series that affect the consistency tions in financial assets and liabilities. For individual country ing these expenditures are treated as consumption). primary income. and real gross very fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less national income. and income groups.S. For example. real gross domestic income. weighted average of the growth rates of the components generally does not equal the GDP growth rate. balance of payments. Balance of payments accounts are divided methods. There are a number of definitions in common use for this and should be a year without major shocks or distortions. adjusted net savings go beyond the definition of savings for countries and using constant price U. Second. because it is often the most timely indicator of trends in the current Rescaling may result in a discrepancy between the rescaled GDP account balance. Methods of computing growth are described in Sources and the rest of the world. persistently negative adjusted net savings Nations recommends using the 2008 System of National Accounts indicate that the present value of social welfare is decreasing. and the Rebasing national accounts capital and financial account. refer to Sources and methods. than 2. the International Monetary Fund implemented the Balance of Payments Manual 6 (BPM6) framework in its Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 105 . The new concerning the imbalance that best indicates the need for adjust- base year should represent normal operation of the economy—it ment. many are gesting that an economy is on an unsustainable path. Damages from output or in the real incomes of its residents. the trade balance is useful industrial origin to a common reference year.5 microns. is a more analytically useful indicator of an external imbalance. Similarly. Using between exports and imports of goods. statistics. and government finance tive and the accounting includes a sufficiently broad range of assets. The International Adjusted net savings are derived from standard national account- Monetary Fund (IMF) has recently published a new balance of pay- ing measures of gross savings by making four adjustments. To avoid distortions in the data on trade in goods long before data on trade in services are growth rates. Conversely. Adjusted net savings measure the change in a country’s real wealth government finance statistics. acqui- Rebasing of national accounts can alter the measured growth rate of sition or disposal of nonproduced. Even so. into two groups: the current account. which records transactions in goods. the standards and definitions for govern- deducted to obtain net savings. ambient concentrations of domestic product (GDP). The current account balance of data over time. The trade balance is the difference tries have not rebased their national accounts for many years. but there are many national variations in the implemen- economic theory suggests that the present value of social welfare is tation of these standards.Economy 4 About the data Economic data are organized by several different accounting conven- Adjusted net savings tions: the system of national accounts. the World Bank rescales GDP and value added by earned by a goods exporter. a unit ume weights become progressively less relevant and useful. Local currency series are converted to constant U. some as old as 1968. From an analytical view it an old base year can be misleading because implicit price and vol- is arbitrary to distinguish goods from services. current public expenditures ment finance statistics were updated in 2014. The growth rates are average annual and compound growth The balance of payments records an economy’s transactions with rates. If a country’s adjusted net savings are posi- national accounts. still using earlier versions. Customs authorities are typically able to provide and the sum of the rescaled components. dollars using an exchange rate in the common reference Balance of payments year. Forecasts of growth rates come from World Bank (2016). Third. and ambient ozone pollution. but several countries on education are added to net savings (in standard national account- still report using the 1986 or 2001 version. As a result. but many countries are still using the estimates of fixed capital consumption of produced assets are previous version. For example. Some coun- related analytical purposes. ments methodology (BPM6). When countries rebase their national accounts. nonfinancial assets. The 2008 SNA offers local air pollution include damages from exposure to household air three plausible indicators for calculating growth: the volume of gross pollution from cooking with solid fuels. which records capital transfers. sug- (2008 SNA) methodology in compiling national accounts. services. mates of the depletion of a variety of natural resources are deducted to reflect the decline in asset values associated with their extraction Economic growth and harvest. dollar series for regional or net savings in the SNA. First. deductions are made for damages from An economy’s growth is measured by the change in the volume of its carbon dioxide emissions and local air pollution.

However include methodological changes in the 2008 SNA. presentational changes. In addition. The at www. A commonly Some differences remain between GFSM 2014 and the SNA. weights are consolidated into one account. and a store of value. consumption of goods and services and the savings and invest- Consumer price indexes are produced more frequently and so ment created in doing so. can be accessed through the World Develop- encompasses currency held by the public and demand deposits with ment Indicators archives. used measure of inflation is the consumer price index. including through improved recording and issued by banks. It aims to harmonize. M3 includes M2 as well as important international economic developments that have taken various money market instruments. and from other bank liabilities by the special role it plays as a medium editorial changes. Data on government revenue and expense are collected by the IMF The historical BPM5 data series will end with data for 2008. Many countries Government finance report government finance data by fiscal year. The SNA measures production and constant price series. are of less value in comparing countries. additional changes. the basket of goods. Countries reporting bud- reasons. they usually provide an incomplete picture. which mea- particularly in how some government production activities are sures the prices of a representative basket of goods and services treated. commonly used definitions of the money supply. There are several onward. the treatment of some are more current. consumer price indexes social security funds). have led to the structure of relative prices. with data up to 2012. money is a liability of the banking system. which through questionnaires to member countries and by the Organisa- can be accessed through the World Development Indicators archives tion for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . The narrowest.worldbank.org/external/np/sta/bop/bop. statistics are often incom- The complete balance of payments methodology can be accessed plete. indicators here are shown as percentages of GDP. distinguished existing methodological guidelines. Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014 framework for 106 its Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and database. The increase in the average prices of goods and is supplemented with the Public Sector Debt Statistics: Guide for services in the economy should be distinguished from a change Compilers and Users. Although useful for measuring accounts may not include all central government units (such as consumer price inflation within a country. For debt-related issues GFSM 2014 called inflation. untimely. ally calculated on the basis of periodic surveys of consumer prices. spending. but it is only the average increase. Government finance statistics are reported in local currency. which. They are constructed explicitly. clarifications of defined.pdf. because they serve different analytic purposes. Despite (http://databank. banks. Generally tical reporting and financial reporting. bank deposits denominated in foreign currency. IMF efforts to standardize data collection. using surveys government production activities differs in GFSM 2014 from the of the cost of a defined basket of consumer goods and services. not the relative price changes. M1. geographic (urban or rural) and income group coverage of consumer For most countries central government finance data have been price surveys can vary widely by country. for budgetary tral government accounts are available. Historical series based on the previous (2001) framework. a unit of account. Furthermore. The consumer price index is usu- 2014 measures the impact of economic events such as taxing. GFSM purchased by a typical household. The definition of a household.imf. efforts to harmonize statis- in the relative prices of individual goods and services. consumer price indexes should be interpreted with 2014 can be accessed at www.htm. and lending on government finances and on Other price indices are derived implicitly from indexes of current and the remainder of the economy. The World Bank implemented BPM6 in In federal states the central government accounts provide an incom- its online databases and publications in April 2013. see Sources and meth- In August 2015 the International Monetary Fund began using the ods for information on fiscal year end by country. and the /Manual/2014/gfsfinal. to the extent possible. guidelines with the 2008 SNA. such as certificates of deposit place in recent years. As a result. the BPM6. and not comparable across countries. Balance of pay- plete view of total public finance.org/external/Pubs/FT/GFS caution.imf.org/data/source/WDI-Archives). methodological treatment of various types of events. The changes and deposits with financial institutions other than banks. but for others only budgetary cen- derived from household expenditure surveys. The complete GFSM Nevertheless. affected series will be adjusted from 1990 lie at the heart of a country’s financial system. borrowing. ments data for 2005 onward are presented in accord with the BPM6. and new developments in accompanying an overall increase in the price level is a change in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards. getary data are noted in Sources and methods. treatment of those activities in the 2008 SNA. and the Monetary and A general and continuing increase in an economy’s price level is Financial Statistics Manual. the of exchange. The 2014 Financial accounts framework will be implemented in World Development Indicators Money and the financial accounts that record the supply of money from April 2016 onward. Because budgetary impairing comparability over time. tend to be conducted infrequently in the poorest countries.4 Economy major statistical publications. M2 includes M1 plus time and savings deposits with banks The GFSM 2014 framework addresses the measurement of that require prior notice for withdrawal. that constitutes inflation.

Pienknagura. banks. cial assets). Washington. Data on forest. DC.. Latin America’s which are included as a financing item under net acquisition of finan- Deceleration and the Exchange Rate Buffer. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. [http://dx. ———. The Laspeyres formula is generally ———.” World Bank Economic Review 13 (2): 333–56. • Broad money (IFS line 35L. DC. Data on central government finances are from the tion. savings. Global Economic Prospects: Spillovers and Weak Growth. securities other than shares. New underpinning by Hamilton and Clemens (1999). • Central government cash surplus or deficit is Statistics and annual International Financial Statistics Yearbook. 2016. 1999. R.healthdata other than the central government. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such sions: An Expected Value Approach. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Statistics database. 2014. 2011. Washington.net/pwt]. National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables. The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development for the New Millennium. and Feenstra. • Current account balance is the sum price index are from the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. Semiannual Report. Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook. date.” Energy Journal 15 (2): 157–84. with missing data estimated by World Bank staff. 2013. revenue (including grants) minus expense. energy. De la Torre. and net on broad money are from the IMF’s monthly International Financial secondary income. Various years. the IMF’s Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and International They are net savings plus education expenditure minus energy deple- Financial Statistics. International Financial Statistics. Table (Feenstra. P. data for selected high-income economies are from the . OECD. Various issues. plus net current transfers. • Central government debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding Office of the Chief Economist. as currency and money deposits. Data on GDP for most countries are collected from national statisti- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. DC. 2013. States Energy Information Administration. L. net forest depletion. Timmer. mineral depletion. such as yearly. “The Social Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emis- on a particular date. S. United States Energy Information Administration. 1994. Seattle. Parts used. and the Penn World /ipdbproject/IEDIndex3. Data of net exports of goods and services. Data on the consumer local air pollution damage. Parts 1 and 2. usually the last day of the fiscal year. and ambient ozone between gross national income and public and private consump- are from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation’s Global Bur- tion. Vari- cal organizations and central banks by visiting and resident World ous years. ambient particulate matter pollution. International Energy Statistics database. net primary income. Estimates of damages from It is calculated without deducting for depreciation of fabricated capital carbon dioxide emissions follow the method of Fankhauser (1994) assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. 2016. Washington.doi. E. University of Washington..” [www. [www. Inklaar.ZK) is the sum of currency outside 1 and 2. Various years. Data on education expenditure are from the United Nations Educational. Fankhauser.. Data on adjusted net savings are based on a conceptual Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables.gov/cfapps the OECD’s National Accounts Statistics database. Washington. DC. [www. and M. excluding capital gains. and M. a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or may change at ———. Data on gross savings are from World Bank national accounts United Nations Statistics Division. International Energy Agency. with missing data estimated by World Bank Economy States and markets World Bank. Yeyati. [http://dx. Washington. and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors ease 2013 data. DC. and carbon dioxide and IMF’s Government Finance Statistics database. DC: World Bank. and other securities such as certificates of deposit and commercial paper. Additional data gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any on energy commodity production and reserves are from the United product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. and mineral depletion are based on the • Gross domestic product (GDP) at purchaser prices is the sum of sources and methods described in World Bank (2011). and Timmler 2013). National Accounts Statistics database. Data on exposure to household subtracting intermediate inputs. A. minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. it is measured as of a given Developing Countries. • Adjusted net savings measure the den of Disease 2013 study. Washington. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 107 . C. Clemens. Various years.ggdc.eia. Data on consumption of fixed capital are from the United Nations Statistics Division’s York: United Nations. Paris. demand deposits other than those of the central government.doi Bank missions. and S.1787/na-data-en].org/10. • Gross savings are the difference air pollution. R.org/gbd/data]. This cash surplus or deficit is close to the earlier References overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments. Value using data from the International Energy Agency’s CO2 Emissions from added is the net output of an industry after adding up all outputs and Fuel Combustion Statistics database.. bank and traveler’s checks.cfm]. K. Paris. National Accounts data files. Inklaar. Government Finance Statis- reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring tics Manual. Global Burden of Dis- the time. “The Next Gen- loans. Data on current account balances are from change in value of a specified set of assets. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government.org/10.Economy 4 Definitions staff. “Genuine Savings Rates in Because debt is a stock rather than a flow. Washington. . Various years. eration of the Penn World Table. • Consumer price index IMF (International Monetary Fund). Hamilton. specified intervals.1787 Data sources /co2-data-en]. Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. DC.

ZS Imports of goods and services NE.TRAN.VAL.worldbank.MNF.8 Structure of demand NY.ZS Consumption of fixed capital NY.ZS.VAL.ZS.VAL.CD.WT Insurance and financial services TX.GNFS.GN.UN Chemicals NV.GNP.KD.FUEL.ZS.ZS.ZG Manufacturing NV.ZS.ZS Net forest depletion NY.UN Agricultural raw materials TM.UN Household final consumption expenditure NE.MMTL.AGRI.TRAN.TOTL.1 Growth of output 4.MANF.VAL.CHEM.ZS.CD NY.VAL.ADJ.ADJ.CON. $ Food World Development Indicators 2016 NE.GN.ZS.ZG 4.KD.PRVT.IND.WT Industry NV.ZG Transport TM. $ Adjusted net national income.KD.IND.WT Food TX.CON.OTHR.KD.CON.TETC.CON.GN.VAL.ZS.GDI.MANF.ZS Gross savings NY.CD.DRES.UN Gross domestic product.ZS.VAL.ADJ.ADJ.GN.ZS.ZS 4.MKTP.VAL.VAL.CON.ADJ.SRV. communications.6 Structure of service exports Front NY.EXP.ZS Natural resource depletion NY.WT ? User guide NY.ZS.VAL.ZS Industry NV.AGR.org/table/4.GN.KD.TOTL.ADJ.CD Food.GN.UN Ores and metals TM.1).10 Toward a broader measure of national income Gross domestic product.worldbank.VAL.ADJ.TOTL.DKAP.KD.ZS.TOTL.GNFS.ZG Computer.SERV.KD.3 Structure of manufacturing Manufacturing value added NV.GN.GOVT.4 Structure of merchandise exports Merchandise exports TX.WT Travel TX.KD.ZS.GNFS.WT TM.WT Transport TX.DPEM.MMTL. http://data.KD.NNTY.VAL.ZG TX.ZS.TETC.MKTP.MANF.WT Travel TM.9 Growth of consumption and investment Household final consumption expenditure General government final consumption expenditure Gross capital formation Exports of goods and services NE.VAL.FOOD.WT Agriculture NV.ZG Commercial service imports TM.ZS.FUEL.KD. Per capita NE.FOOD.CD.5 Structure of merchandise imports 108 4. use indicator online. % growth NY.VAL. $ Manufactures TX.ADJ.ZS Manufacturing NV.MKTP.ZG Gross national income.ZG Insurance and financial services Services NV.TOTL.GOVT.NNTY.MKTP.ZS Local pollution damage NY.IMP.CD Gross national income. 4.GNS.DKAP.GN.ZS Services NV. information.MNF.4 Economy Online tables and indicators To access the World Development Indicators online tables.WT TM.GDP.GDP.FBTO.AGR.DFOR.CD NY.ZG).ZS.GDP.GN.EXP.GNFS.ZS.MKTP.MTRN.VAL.GDP.UN Merchandise imports NE.ZS.GDI.UN NY.SERV.ZG NE.worldbank.GDP.ZS Energy depletion NY.IND.WT Computer.GN.ZS.ZS.ZS Adjusted net savings NY.11 Toward a broader measure of savings Gross savings 4.ADJ.ICTR.GN.OTHR.UN Agricultural raw materials TX.ZG Imports of goods and services NE.VAL.MRCH.UN Fuels TX.org/indicator/ the URL http://wdi.VAL. To view a specific /indicator/NY.VAL.DCO2.MKTP.ADJ.TRVL.KD.GNP.ZS.AGRI.org example.ZS World view People Environment .ZS Carbon dioxide damage NY.ZS General government final consumption expenditure NE.ZS Mineral depletion NY. and other commercial services TM.VAL.MKTP.PC.MNF.ZS.UN 4. and other commercial services TX. % growth TM.IMP.PETC.DNGY.MNF.org/table/ and the table number (for and the indicator code (for example.AEDU.INSF.TRVL.MANF.UN Other manufacturing NV.ZS.7 Structure of service imports Gross domestic product NY.ZS Gross capital formation NE.ZS Adjusted net national income.ADJ.MRCH.KD.worldbank.MNF.WT 4.KD.SVNG.UN Textiles and clothing NV.IND. beverages and tobacco NV.INSF.CD.CD Agriculture NV. communications.2 Structure of output Gross domestic product NY.VAL.ZS Education expenditure NY.ZG 4.VAL.ZG Ores and metals 4.VAL.MANF.ZS Exports of goods and services NE. % growth Commercial service exports TX.DMIN.ADJ.ZS 4.ZG Consumption of fixed capital NY.PRVT. http://wdi.UN Fuels TM.KD.ZG Household final consumption expenditure. use the URL http://data.KD.OTHR.TXTL.ICTR.IND. information.UN Machinery and transport equipment NV.TOTL.ADJ.UN Manufactures TM.SRV.

ZG FM.GOTR.XPN.14 Central government revenues Taxes on income.GSRV.ZS Broad money Expense GC. Exports BX.Economy 4 4.FCTY. Lending FR.ZS Compensation of employees GC.LEND Debt and interest payments.INTP.OTHR.FRGN.CPI.RV. Foreign GC.GSR.DOMS.TAX.INR.ZS 4.16 Exchange rates and price GC.KD.CD Current account balance BN.INR. Deposit FR.ZS Interest payments GC.TOTL.AST.RES.GD.BAL.XPN.RF Real effective exchange rate PX.GSR.RINR Debt and interest payments.TAX.CD Back World Development Indicators 2016 109 .CAB.ZS Other expense GC.GDP.RV.REV. Imports BM.CD Balance on secondary income BN. Real FR.ZG.GD.TOTL.TOTL.ZS Taxes on goods and services GC.ZG Consumer price index FP.AST.PPPC.ZS PA.12 Central government finances 4.TRF.M3 GC.DOMO.17 Balance of payments current account Goods and services. Interest GC.ZS 4.CD Goods and services.OTHR.CD Total reserves Economy PA.GNFS.SOCL.DEFL.ZG Wholesale price index FP.XPN.RV.DOD.13 Central government expenditure Official exchange rate Goods and services GC.XOKA.CGOV.XGRT.TAX.CASH.ZS Taxes on international trade GC.XPN.TAX.ZS Interest rate.ZS Subsidies and other transfers GC.REX.DPST Net incurrence of liabilities.XPN.NUS.BMNY.CD Balance on primary income BN.INTP.RV.TOTL.XPN.TOTL 4.LBL.ZG.PPP Ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate Global links FI.GSR.COMP.ZS Claims on central governments Net incurrence of liabilities.TRFT.GD.INR.FIN.NUS.ZS Grants and other revenue GC.XPN.ZS Interest rate.CURR.ZS Claims on domestic economy Cash surplus or deficit GC.REV. Domestic FM.NUS.YPKG.REER GDP implicit deflator NY.REV.GNFS.GSRV.RV.WPI. Total debt GC.ZS Interest rate.INTT.15 Monetary indicators Revenue GC.ZS Other taxes 4.FIN.GD.ZS Social contributions GC.GD. profits and capital gains GC.M3 FM.FCRF Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor States and markets PA.GD.

STATES AND MARKETS 110 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .

mobile subscriptions. government functions. financial system development. which represents the transfer of ownership effected automatically through the exchange’s electronic order book. only domestic shares are used in order to be consistent between exchanges. and conditions in fragile countries with weak institutions. infrastructure. where companies are listed on more than one exchange in the country. States and markets also includes the latest updates to data on business regulations and the business environment. transport. the value of shares traded. The data for market capitalization and listed domestic companies are provided for each exchange. and water and sanitation infrastructure projects. additional data. thus making important contributions to improving the efficiency of public services in infrastructure and extending delivery to poor people. A new indicator of public-private partnerships has also been added to complement existing data on private participation in telecommunications. When there is only one reported exchange in a country. and their market capitalization. and each produces a different ranking of countries. including goods trade. Stock market size can be measured in various ways. and Internet use. energy. This year. stock market data from the World Federation of Exchanges replaces estimates from Standard and Poor’s. its data was used to represent that country. and the quality and availability of infrastructure essential for growth. Publicprivate partnership projects help determine the gap between infrastructure demand and available resources. Both number of listed companies and market capitalization measure market size and are positively correlated with the ability to mobilize capital and diversify risk. and management and leases but excludes merchants where private parties assume the risks without government guarantee. from the Doing Business initiative and Enterprise Surveys. telecommunications revenue. the latest trend data on various indicators related to information and communications technology are also presented. Market liquidity is measured by the value of shares traded. Finally. turnover velocity is the ratio between the electronic order book turnover of domestic shares. greenfield projects. Public-private partnership projects refer to brownfield concessions. government and policy performance. Global links Back 5 World Development Indicators 2016 111 .org). information and communication technology. These indicators measure the business environment. and World Development Indicators uses Economy States and markets two approaches to calculate country-level estimates. for example. including indicators on fixed income and derivatives and equity markets can be found on the World Federation of Exchanges website (www. obtaining electricity.States and markets indicators encompass private investment and performance.world-exchanges. and the turnover ratio. science and technology. This year. which discontinued the Global Stock Markets Factbook in 2013. Time series go back to 1975 where available. market capitalization. for indicators of listed companies. As in previous editions. the exchange that provided the most comprehensive data set was used. the public sector’s role in nurturing investment and growth. and enforcing contracts. dealing with construction permits. When there are several exchanges in a country. there are new measures of regulatory quality in registering property. the data for number of listed companies and domestic market capitalization have been aggregated to obtain country-level figures. When different companies are listed on the exchanges. care was taken to avoid double-counting.

does business.S. The digital and information revolution has changed the way the world learns. flexible deployment.S.) Individuals using the Internet. communicates. Republic Tonga Bolivia Anguilla (U. Information and communication technologies offer vast opportunities for progress in all walks of life in all countries — opportunities for economic growth. by the end of 2015 the number of Internet users worldwide reached 3.) St. Virgin Islands (U. improved health.and middle-income countries. Vincent and the Grenadines R.K. better service delivery.) Paraguay Antigua and Barbuda U.) St.) Dominica Martinique (Fr. According to the International Telecommunication Union. and treats illnesses. Through mobile phones. 2014 (% of population) 80 or more Canada 60–79 40–59 20–39 Less than 20 United States No data Bermuda (U. and social and cultural advances. learning through distance education.and private services.S.) Argentina St. and increases productivity and participation.S. Martin (Fr. de Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago IBRD 41454 112 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . de Panama Venezuela Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana (Fr.) French Polynesia (Fr.) Uruguay Barbados St. improves public Internet users Greenland (Den.) Ecuador Kiribati Brazil Peru Samoa Fiji American Samoa (U. The mobility. The Internet delivers information to schools and hospitals. Internet access is expanding in low. Kitts and Nevis Chile Guadeloupe (Fr.) Haiti Honduras Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica R. (U.K.) Caribbean Inset Puerto Dominican Rico.B.B.) Sint Maarten (Neth.) Mexico The Bahamas Cuba Jamaica Belize Turks and Caicos Is.2 billion.K. and declining rollout costs of wireless technologies enable mobile communications to reach rural populations. ease of use. U. Lucia Curaçao (Neth.

from 10 percent in 2005 to 38 percent in 2014. from 7 percent in 2000 to 41 percent in 2014. the lowest Internet penetration rate among all regions.) Vietnam Cambodia Uganda Kenya Rep.S.Rep. In South Asia 17 percent of the population was online at the end of 2014. The Internet penetration rate nearly quadrupled in the Middle East and North Africa. Armenia baijan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Greece Turkey Bulgaria Tunisia Morocco Algeria Libya Niger Chad Senegal The Burkina Gambia Faso Guinea GuineaBenin Bissau Central Nigeria CôteGhana Sierra Leone African d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Liberia Togo Equatorial Guinea São Tomé and Príncipe Sudan China Afghanistan Islamic Rep.S. In 2014 more than 680 million people were using the Internet in China.) Russian Federation Iceland Finland Norway Sweden Estonia Latvia United Kingdom Denmark Lithuania Ireland Germany Poland Belarus Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Liechtenstein Switzerland Ukraine Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Romania France Dem. But the Internet penetration rate shows disparity—49 percent in China.) Australia Hungary Slovenia Romania Croatia San Marino Bosnia and Serbia Herzegovina Italy Montenegro Kosovo Bulgaria Cabo Mauritania Verde Syrian Arab Rep.The worldwide Internet penetration rate has increased almost sixfold. of Yemen Djibouti South Ethiopia Sudan Japan Nepal Pakistan Singapore Nauru In d o n esi a Papua New Guinea Seychelles Kiribati Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Angola Zambia Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia Madagascar Botswana La Réunion (Fr. Iraq Cyprus Lebanon Israel West Bank and Gaza Malta Rep.of Korea Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Georgia AzerRep. Greenland (Den.) Lesotho Europe Inset Vanuatu Poland Germany Mali Jordan Arab Rep.) Swaziland South Africa Tuvalu Mauritius Mayotte (Fr.of Korea Ukraine Spain Monaco Portugal Andorra New Zealand FYR Macedonia Albania Greece Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 113 . of Egypt Western Sahara Czech Republic Slovak Republic Austria Fiji New Caledonia (Fr.) Federated States of Micronesia Palau Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Philippines Brunei Darussalam Sri Lanka Somalia Comoros N.People’s Rep. of Iran Saudi Arabia Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Bhutan Bangladesh United Arab Emirates Oman India Thailand Guam (U. Mariana Islands (U. 87 percent in the United States. and 18 percent in India. China Macao SAR. Burundi of Congo Tanzania Hong Kong SAR. followed by 282 million in the United States and 228 million in India. China Myanmar Lao PDR Eritrea Rep. of Gabon Congo Rwanda Dem.

114 Hightechnology exports World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .... 15 ... Colombia 2.111.8 Antigua and Barbuda 3..8 159 65 6. .4 67..5 2.6 . . .1 1.6 .2 45.3 123 59 3.4 63 21 ..53 21 .2 53.2 0. 60 .6 2.8 .. 1..4 Benin .5 26. ...3 .9 .. . .9 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.8 111 61 7..6 1. Andorra .9 ... .5 138 55 6..6 Cabo Verde .4 Burkina Faso Bhutan Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam 0.8 Bahamas.8 15. .. ..7 62..3 139 58 10.0 ..2 Algeria 0.0 108 7 2. 25 4 0..6 Armenia 1. 10 . 8. 23.. 132 64 0.0 4..5 . 31 58. . .4 .. 91 97 27.0 50. 1.0 Chile China Hong Kong SAR.. 82 34 0. .0 25.6 .. 65.6 . 323 70 0..3 19... 84.. 18 61... .1 110 69 7.. 4 . 36 .. .. 51.5 1.7 93.2 35.1 4.6 .1 1.6 8.4 70. 42.5 . .. 60.8 .5 1...0 51 39 0.0 54.7 1.1 91 61 2. China Macao SAR. 47. 33.6 75. 12 .91 3 88. 22 .99 3 .6 1.8 . . 0.00 11 38. 8. . . Austria 0... –4. 57. 20..0 116 46 2..6 Channel Islands ....000 business sector people ages 15–64 days % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP 2014 June 2015 2014 2014 2013 Overall statistical capacity % of GDP per 100 people % of population % of manufactured exports (0.0 100 5 4. 1. –2..57 50 16.11 6 .6 1..5 . Canada Cayman Islands Central African Republic .. Dem. 26..0 105 60 0. The .7 133 9 0..5 113 53 7... 5. . 135 84 5.0 . .4 ..6 122 40 0.3 7. 154 74 .6 18. 25.2 51. 47. 14 .1 Albania 1. 2.5 States and markets Business Individuals Time Stock Domestic Tax revenue Military Mobile entry using the required market credit collected expenditures cellular density to start a capitalization provided by by central subscriptionsa Interneta financial government per 1..8 1.9 167 19 0. . 102.. 18.5 4.05 4 71. . Bulgaria 8.1 13.3 55.2 116.... .1 42.. .. 15 . .. 83 96 . low. China Congo. 8.9 55.6 . 16. 40 3 .8 .5 .73 22 22.1 1.0 67...4 ..6 165.4 55.05 3 .2 0.6 67..4 2.0 81 87 14.1 . ...3 .6 65...88 83 34... . .. 234 75 42. 11.2 1..9 Bolivia 0.. Congo.9 1.0 52.8 Argentina 0. . ..0 68. Azerbaijan Aruba Australia 0.7 Bermuda ..7 84..2 5. 76.6 93 18 0..6 9..8 13..3 American Samoa ...7 1. 87 .2 80 10 . Bahrain . 47.2 126.3 10.. 33.5 18.15 7 .. .7 22.05 11 ..8 .3 .0 114 85 12..4 Comoros ...7 95. 11..7 152 81 13.7 Cambodia .2 173 91 1..5 96 39 8.. . .3 17..3 4.1 b 92 49 25..8 Burundi .28 2 117. .. 25.6 .1 66. .. 57. 0..7 Cameroon .... 129 77 16..6 1.9 17...2 .7 .4 53 3 ..0 169.4 120.86 18 9.11 48 . .. 84..0 66.2 95. .1 14.83 67 .1 37. Angola .4 3.3 .4 15.43 25 11.3 17.0 57. 51 7 0...8 16.2 Chad . 68.0 37.4 236.03 6 90.8 71..8 .... 9 65.0 133 72 6. 14.9 87.. . 1.2 76. 16. 0.0 31.0 ..3 76 11 4..... 29.52 3 1.2 11. 0. 29 .2 . 28..08 43 ..0 30 1 1.. 1.5 1..2 .1 58.15 13 .8 13.8 Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium 2. Rep..3 . 53 . ...9 84..30 2 1.6 . .9 22. .06 15 .7 1. 3. . .8 131 85 13.. high) 2014 2014 2014 2014 2015 Afghanistan 0. ..3 72 9 10.6 .9 26..2 . .1 72.58 20 . Rep. to 100.3 75 6 ..9 105. 0.1 78. 82 77 0. . . Belize 3.09 20 20..

9 5.6 1.4 76... The 5...3 84..1 68.. 40. .4 74 18 8. ..2 Iran.12 29 76. .2 . ..2 .. 47..8 . . 53. .4 0.7 32 3 8. 13.1 .06 97 .8 96 69 6.1 66 19 .8 1.4 113. .52 17 45..... .2 Guinea Grenada Guam 0.5 61..8 1.52 19 .1 73. 13.4 13. 1....7 . Fiji .3 91. 135 .. 73. ..4 1.9 4. 50. . French Polynesia . 18 21..3 0. 69 . Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Economy 5.9 Germany 1.1 29. 2. 27.4 ...2 . 3.3 38.States and markets 5 Business Individuals Time Stock Domestic Tax revenue Military Mobile entry using the required market credit collected expenditures cellular density to start a capitalization provided by by central subscriptionsa Interneta financial government per 1.8 118 76 13. ..1 .. .....7 22..4 . .. 91 61 14.4 ...9 ...5 1. .05 4 10.2 .3 110 63 10. 1..8 19. 31...10 24 .8 0... . .11 13 65.4 15. France 2.2 14...1 1. 68.5 1.70 8 17.7 ..3 126 96 14. 9 . 2.0 84.0 .5 104 69 8.. . 13 23.1 22... 45..8 .4 18.8 2.. 58 11. low.2 Eritrea ...4 . .6 Haiti Honduras Hungary 3.... .000 business sector people Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia ages 15–64 days % of GDP % of GDP 2014 2014 % of GDP % of GDP per 100 people 2013 2014 Hightechnology exports Overall statistical capacity % of population % of manufactured exports (0. India 0.2 14.. 25 .. 2. . 122 .7 85...3 15.. Denmark 4. Gabon ..4 138.7 63 3 .1 75.43 14 .. .63 12 38... . . 52.7 20.. . 124 95 . ...1 1.9 65..42 15 .2 165.1 61. 14 ..2 88 39 . 32 11 .0 88. 60...9 161 84 11.9 .20 15 .8 0.5 1. ..1 .9 116..5 11. 4.9 140...1 2.3 95 11 . ..0 . .7 .48 4 19..4 .6 2.0 15.29 11 44... ..7 120 16 0. Curaçao .4 60. 224.0 1.5 105 80 21.6 79 50 3.. 1.13 29 . .6 1..7 Iceland 9.6 90. 144 49 43..5 0.7 52. .4 Guyana .5 1.0 65.4 171 10 .9 35. .66 5 10. 7 34.2 0.8 Indonesia 0. . 41..2 56. 1.4 80.7 10. ..6 22. .8 23.. 46. Greenland ..9 .2 121 71 16..3 94 19 2.5 13. 42...8 72. 106 67 4. 63..1 .8 72 2 4.... 164.8 . Czech Republic 3. .78 6 57..8 Estonia 16. ..1 23. 51. 50 .6 11. .03 15 .0 144 30 4.3 .0 72.1 Equatorial Guinea .65 2 6..5 10.5 43. . 3. 33.3 ..7 104 43 4.0 48. 110 37 .. 19 .5 1.. Arab Rep.1 99 42 2. 60. . 1. ...9 0.29 48 47.9 0. ...2 101 84 26.6 Georgia Gambia..4 307.0 13. .3 Guinea-Bissau .. 12 . States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 115 ....2 120 86 16.. 6 1 . .1 22..7 58.90 14 10.0 130 80 14. ..4 . high) 2015 2014 June 2015 2014 2014 2014 1.... 15 27.9 . to 100.. .5 106 15 3.0 Cuba . ..7 148. 14 .. 84 .5 22 30 .6 Greece .7 114 32 1.. 4. . .1 Finland 3.7 78...2 88. 127 63 8..1 4...8 2. Ethiopia .9 .. . 8 23..5 115 19 4.4 107 23 5.6 85.1 ..3 140 92 7. Ghana 0.1 111 98 16.5 24..6 77.0 .27 .4 .7 . Islamic Rep. 44.. 17. 1.. .8 129 17 7.1 0. 29.2 12..36 3 . 73. .9 El Salvador Faroe Islands .1 22. .2 71 37 0.8 0. Guatemala 0..8 91.5 . 9.7 0. .9 53.. 51 ..3 125 49 3.. 3.13 8 .2 Cyprus Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt. 65 11 ... 0.26 4 73.

16 .0 Kenya 1.5 States and markets Business Individuals Time Stock Domestic Tax revenue Military Mobile entry using the required market credit collected expenditures cellular density to start a capitalization provided by by central subscriptionsa Interneta financial government per 1. 12..6 58.5 148 44 1.. 109 95 .1 71.9 105 27 19. ..3 82. 37.3 3.9 107 41 0.14 6 69.80 26 40.2 Micronesia. 66. . . Fed.0 .4 23.9 18.7 .6 Malaysia 2.0 Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic . People’s Rep.0 1.0 . ..7 .9 94 11 .5 20..4 .31 6 10. 28. 34.0 44 2 57.4 Kazakhstan 1. .6 Malawi Mali Malta ...8 21.5 67.6 1. .. 37. 35.3 .6 23.1 83.6 88 75 2.0 120 91 16. 94 70 13..2 67 14 .7 147 72 10..1 0.. 2.7 ...6 72..5 15.9 3.5 18.1 4..2 55. ..63 1 37. .6 16.5 28.69 17 22....5 15..1 .7 47.6 Latvia 1.7 34. 189 49 .. .6 116 84 26..4 194.0 162.2 15.6 77.55 29 .30 4 86. . 13 . .8 10.6 2.6 1.. 51. 88 92 .6 65. 9 ..6 Lesotho 65. . . .4 26.00 3 21.3 115.0 93. Sts.1 71..0 117 76 15.5 74..8 1.1 0.9 1..0 1.7 .7 54.2 71. 9 .2 106 68 3.5 36.. .. 2.54 10 47. .... 3. .6 ..4 149 7 1..1 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .0 23. .3 74 43 3. 2. . 27.6 .. 35 .. 1.9 . 15 ..7 . –42.8 14. Rep..4 2.1 . Luxembourg 6. . 1.4 Korea.. Macedonia.. 1.8 Nepal 0.. .8 73 5 .. ..7 0.3 .4 72. 8...6 Mozambique Myanmar . 0.7 13... 5 ..4 Maldives ... 70.0 Niger . Dem..6 Monaco . 38.1 15.5 82 15 0... 22.6 Moldova .5 44...4 194. Korea..08 10 2.1 .7 132 57 5.2 72..1 172 55 37...7 115 18 0..27 11 ... . Nicaragua ...7 20..9 18..1 65.4 14.2 15. 73 ..5 25. . 17 .1 Lao PDR . 60.1 Libya . . .6 0.2 1..9 1. Jamaica 1..85 10 92.8 54.8 . 31 .99 12 71.. .7 . 173.1 .. 55...7 163 61 .2 Liechtenstein 1.1 3.2 Netherlands 5..8 54. 31 ..71 5 10.1 151.2 90. 3.. 0.0 Liberia .2 .0 161 18 .5 149 95 5.3 132 41 0... . .2 ... . 26.85 66 14.19 4 9.37 4 135.7 41 4 0. .. ..34 4 89.61 6 4.8 95.9 74.8 Japan 0.. Lithuania 4.3 218 79 0. low. ..9 14.8 10. 30 30 ..3 1... 1. .6 127 73 34.17 .2 112 86 9.3 0...3 81.6 74... 14.2 114 15 2.5 75.94 6 37.. 10. . .32 6 .4 154 62 7.70 13 ...2 17.4 1.7 Mauritius 5.2 15. .9 112....0 76. Morocco 1.70 1 5. Lebanon .6 0.1 50. 38 17. high) 2014 2015 2014 2013 2014 2014 2014 Italy 2.8 0.3 Madagascar 0..9 . 40. Namibia 0..7 54 2 .8 140. New Caledonia New Zealand 116 % of GDP per 100 people Hightechnology exports 16.9 .10 19 97.. 8 . . 11 0 ... 19 .4 134 28 5. .0 92.. 31.2 13.6 15.1 52.. Kosovo 4.1 373. 16.2 33 6 2.2 .2 85 11 0....5 230..2 13.1 116 93 19.15 10 95.2 Mongolia Montenegro 6...3 Mexico 0. Jordan 0. 17 12 0.3 108 47 4.9 4.4 Kiribati . 6.0 70 6 5.8 Marshall Islands Mauritania . 13 . 23.4 70.5 149 68 43.1 0.9 . 29 17 .5 15. ..5 .. FYR 3. 15 24. 4 .1 .7 0. 47.. 0. .4 1. to 100. 1.000 business sector people ages 15–64 days % of GDP 2014 June 2015 2014 % of GDP % of GDP Overall statistical capacity % of population % of manufactured exports (0.26 28 44.7 82 44 16..3 106.

States and markets 5
Business
Individuals
Time
Stock
Domestic Tax revenue
Military
Mobile
entry
using the
required
market
credit
collected expenditures
cellular
density to start a capitalization provided by by central
subscriptionsa Interneta
financial government
per 1,000 business
sector
people

Nigeria
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

ages
15–64

days

2014

0.76

Hightechnology
exports

Overall
statistical
capacity

% of
population

% of
manufactured
exports

(0, low, to
100, high)

2014

% of GDP

% of GDP

% of GDP

% of GDP

per
100 people

June 2015

2014

2014

2013

2014

2014

2014

2015

31

11.2

21.8

1.6

0.4

78

43

2.1

71.1

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

7.72

4

43.9

..

25.2

1.4

116

96

20.7

..

Oman

1.02

7

46.2

41.2

2.6

11.8

158

70

4.3

..

Pakistan

0.04

19

..

47.5

11.2

3.4

73

14

1.4

75.6
42.2

Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay

..

28

..

..

..

..

91

..

20.2

14.10

6

29.8

83.7

..

..

158

45

0.2

78.9

..

53

18.6

51.0

..

0.6

45

9

3.5

45.6

..

35

..

40.8

12.8

1.5

106

43

6.1

72.2

Peru

2.44

26

38.9

24.8

16.5

1.4

104

40

3.8

93.3

Philippines

0.27

29

91.9

55.8

12.9

1.2

111

40

49.0

82.2

..

30

31.0

71.0

15.5

1.9

149

67

8.7

85.6

4.62

3

25.1

173.3

22.1

1.8

112

65

4.4

..

..

6

..

..

..

..

87

79

..

..

Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar

1.70

9

88.5

80.4

..

..

146

91

0.0

..

Romania

4.07

8

11.2

38.0

17.4

1.3

106

54

6.4

82.2

Russian Federation

4.20

11

20.7

52.4

14.3

4.5

155

71

11.5

..

Rwanda

1.49

6

..

..

13.4

1.1

64

11

11.9

73.3

Samoa

1.04

9

..

77.4

0.0

..

56

21

1.7

53.3

..

17

..

..

..

..

119

..

..

..

3.04

5

..

26.2

13.9

..

65

24

0.8

65.6

San Marino
São Tomé and Príncipe
Saudi Arabia

..

19

64.1

1.8

..

10.7

180

64

0.7

..

Senegal

0.30

6

..

34.1

19.2

1.5

99

18

3.6

75.6

Serbia

1.62

12

..

52.8

19.7

2.2

122

54

..

90.0

..

32

..

33.1

28.4

1.1

162

54

..

65.6

Sierra Leone

0.32

10

..

14.8

..

0.8

77

2

0.0

63.3

Singapore

9.51

3

244.5

126.3

13.8

3.2

147

82

47.2

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Slovak Republic

3.10

12

4.9

65.7

13.2

1.0

117

80

10.2

86.7

Slovenia

4.44

6

15.2

68.7

17.6

1.0

112

72

5.8

..

..

9

..

22.2

..

..

66

9

0.0

48.9

Seychelles

Sint Maarten

Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa

..

..

..

..

..

0.0

51

2

..

20.0

6.54

46

266.7

185.6

25.5

1.1

149

49

5.9

81.1
34.4

South Sudan

0.33

14

..

..

..

8.2

25

16

..

Spain

2.97

14

71.9

210.6

13.9

0.9

108

76

7.0

..

Sri Lanka

0.51

10

30.0

43.0

10.4

2.3

103

26

0.9

73.3

St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Martin
St. Vincent & the Grenadines
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland

..

19

..

81.1

20.2

..

119

65

..

56.7

0.56

11

..

108.2

22.9

..

103

51

5.2

61.1

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.37

10

..

57.9

..

..

105

56

0.1

55.6

..

36

..

20.9

..

..

72

25

..

51.1

1.36

84

..

38.9

19.5

..

171

40

20.7

62.2

..

30

..

16.5

..

1.8

72

27

..

58.9

Sweden

6.87

7

..

157.5

26.3

1.2

128

93

13.9

..

Switzerland

2.53

10

213.3

176.0

9.5

0.7

137

87

26.4

..

..

13

..

..

..

..

64

28

..

47.8

0.26

11

..

19.5

..

1.1

95

17

..

81.1

Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan

Economy

States and markets

Global links

Back

World Development Indicators 2016

117

5 States and markets
Business
Individuals
Time
Stock
Domestic Tax revenue
Military
Mobile
entry
using the
required
market
credit
collected expenditures
cellular
density to start a capitalization provided by by central
subscriptionsa Interneta
financial government
per 1,000 business
sector
people
ages
15–64

days

% of GDP

% of GDP

% of GDP

2014

June 2015

2014

2014

Hightechnology
exports

Overall
statistical
capacity

% of GDP

per
100 people

% of
population

% of
manufactured
exports

(0, low, to
100, high)

2014

2014

2014

2015

2013

2014

Tanzania

..

26

..

20.2

11.7

1.0

63

5

2.7

75.6

Thailand

0.90

28

106.3

168.6

17.3

1.4

144

35

20.4

85.6

Timor-Leste

4.63

9

..

–1.1

..

2.1

119

1

9.8

62.2

Togo

0.26

10

..

39.7

18.8

..

65

6

0.2

65.6

Tonga

1.91

16

..

29.5

..

..

64

40

2.4

47.8

..

12

..

29.1

..

0.8

147

65

..

56.7

Tunisia

1.52

11

19.2

84.6

21.1

1.9

128

46

4.9

76.7

Turkey

1.13

8

27.5

88.1

21.4

2.2

95

51

1.9

82.2

Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

136

12

..

33.3

Turks and Caicos Islands

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.9

..

Tuvalu

..

..

..

..

..

..

38

37

..

37.8

Uganda

1.17

27

31.4

16.8

11.0

1.2

52

18

2.4

72.2

Ukraine

0.92

7

11.8

109.9

18.3

3.1

144

43

6.5

91.1

United Arab Emirates

1.38

8

50.5

83.0

0.4

5.7

178

90

..

..

12.90

5

106.5

168.8

25.4

2.0

124

92

20.6

..

Trinidad and Tobago

United Kingdom

..

6

151.2

253.5

10.5

3.5

110

87

18.2

..

Uruguay

United States

2.49

7

..

35.5

18.8

1.6

161

61

7.9

88.9

Uzbekistan

0.64

7

..

..

..

..

78

44

..

51.1

..

35

..

72.1

16.0

..

60

19

..

45.6

Venezuela, RB

..

144

..

61.9

..

1.4

99

57

1.1

82.2

Vietnam

..

20

24.7

113.8

..

2.3

147

48

26.9

82.2

Vanuatu

Virgin Islands (U.S.)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

50

..

..

West Bank and Gaza

..

44

25.0

9.8

4.8

..

72

54

..

80.0
55.6

Yemen, Rep.
Zambia

..

40

..

33.9

..

4.6

68

23

1.2

1.33

8

..

25.9

16.0

1.6

67

17

1.7

60.0

..

90

..

..

..

2.6

81

20

1.7

62.2

97 w

Zimbabwe

4.01 u

20 u

94.3 w

173.6 w

14.0 w

2.3 w

41 w

18.4 w

East Asia & Pacific

World

8.28

23

91.8

205.6

11.7

1.8

103

47

27.4

72.0 c,d

.. u

Europe & Central Asia

4.63

10

64.3

142.6

18.8

1.8

126

69

15.5

77.1c,d

Latin America & Caribbean

1.98

29

36.2

75.8

..

1.3

115

50

10.9

77.3c,d

Middle East & North Africa

4.20

19

51.4

50.8

..

6.5

110

38

..

64.4 c,d

North America

1.28

4

148.0

253.5

10.6

3.3

107

87

17.6

..

South Asia

0.23

16

70.3

70.1

10.7

2.4

75

17

8.1

71.1c,d

Sub-Saharan Africa

2.28

27

..

61.4

13.5

1.0

71

19

4.0

59.9c,d

Low income

0.55

27

..

23.4

..

1.5

57

6

5.3

59.8d

Lower middle income

1.69

20

65.1

61.3

11.0

1.8

88

23

11.5

70.4 d

Upper middle income

2.89

24

55.7

132.8

13.5

1.9

101

48

20.6

71.5d

High income

6.41

15

111.2

202.2

14.6

2.5

126

81

18.5

..

a. Data are from the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. Please cite ITU for third party use of these data. b. Differs from the
official value published by the government of China (1.3 percent; see National Bureau of Statistics of China, www.stats.gov.cn). c. Excludes high-income countries. d. Excludes countries
with a population below 1 million.

118

World Development Indicators 2016

Front

?

User guide

World view

People

Environment

States and markets 5
About the data

Entrepreneurial activity

refer to businesses in the economy’s largest business city and

The rate new businesses are added to an economy is a measure of

may not represent regulations in other locations of the economy. To

its dynamism and entrepreneurial activity. Data on business entry

address this limitation, subnational indicators are being collected

density are from the World Bank’s 2015 Entrepreneurship Database,

for selected economies, and coverage has been extended to the

which includes indicators for more than 150 countries for 2004–14.

second largest business city in economies with a population of

Survey data are used to analyze firm creation, its relationship to eco-

more than 100 million. Subnational indicators point to substantial

nomic growth and poverty reduction, and the impact of regulatory and

differences in the speed of reform and the ease of doing business

institutional reforms. Data on total registered businesses were col-

across cities in the same economy. Second, the data often focus

lected from national registrars of companies. For cross-country com-

on a specific business form—generally a limited liability company of

parability, only limited liability corporations that operate in the formal

a specified size—and may not represent regulation for other types

sector are included. For additional information on sources, methodol-

of businesses such as sole proprietorships. Third, transactions

ogy, calculation of entrepreneurship rates, and data limitations see

described in a standardized business case refer to a specific set of

www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploretopics/entrepreneurship.

issues and may not represent all the issues a business encounters.

Data on time required to start a business are from the Doing Busi-

Fourth, the time measures involve an element of judgment by the

ness database, whose indicators measure business regulation, gauge

expert respondents. When sources indicate different estimates,

regulatory outcomes, and measure the extent of legal protection of

the Doing Business time indicators represent the median values

property, the flexibility of employment regulation, and the tax burden

of several responses given under the assumptions of the standard-

on businesses. The fundamental premise is that economic activity

ized case. Fifth, the methodology assumes that a business has full

requires good rules and regulations that are efficient, accessible,

information on what is required and does not waste time in complet-

and easy to implement. Some indicators give a higher score for more

ing procedures. In constructing the indicators, it is assumed that

regulation, such as stricter disclosure requirements in related-party

entrepreneurs know about all regulations and comply with them. In

transactions, and others give a higher score for simplified regulations,

practice, entrepreneurs may not be aware of all required procedures

such as a one-stop shop for completing business startup formalities.

or may avoid legally required procedures altogether.

There are 11 sets of indicators covering starting a business, registering property, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity,

Financial systems

enforcing contracts, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes,

The development of an economy’s financial markets is closely related

trading across borders, resolving insolvency, and employing workers.

to its overall development. Well functioning financial systems provide

The indicators are available at www.doingbusiness.org.

good and easily accessible information. That lowers transaction costs,

Doing Business data are collected with a standardized survey

which in turn improves resource allocation and boosts economic growth

that uses a simple business case to ensure comparability across

(Beck and Levine 2001). At low levels of economic development com-

economies and over time—with assumptions about the legal form

mercial banks tend to dominate the financial system, while at higher

of the business, its size, its location, and nature of its operation.

levels domestic stock markets become more active and efficient.

Surveys in 189 countries are administered through more than 10,700

Open economies with sound macroeconomic policies, good legal

local experts, including lawyers, business consultants, accountants,

systems, and shareholder protection attract capital and thus have

freight forwarders, government officials, and other professionals who

larger financial markets (Claessens, Klingebiel, and Schmukler

routinely administer or advise on legal and regulatory requirements.

2002). The table includes market capitalization as a share of GDP

Over the past two years Doing Business has introduced important

as a measure of stock market size. Market size can be measured in

improvements in 8 of the 10 sets of Doing Business indicators

other ways that may produce a different ranking of countries. Recent

to provide a new conceptual framework in which the emphasis on

research on stock market development shows that modern communi-

efficiency of regulation is complemented by increased emphasis on

cations technology and increased financial integration have resulted

quality of regulation. Moreover, Doing Business has changed the

in more cross-border capital flows, a stronger presence of financial

basis for the ease of doing business ranking, from the percentile

firms around the world, and the migration of trading activities to

rank to the distance to frontier score. The distance to frontier score

international exchanges. Many firms in emerging markets now cross-

benchmarks economies with respect to a measure of regulatory best

list on international exchanges, which provides them with lower cost

practice—showing the gap between each economy’s performance

capital and more liquidity-traded shares. However, this also means

and the best performance on each indicator. This measure captures

that exchanges in emerging markets may not have enough financial

more information than the simple rankings previously used as the

activity to sustain them. Comparability across countries may be lim-

basis because it shows not only how economies are ordered on

ited by conceptual and statistical weaknesses, such as inaccurate

their performance on the indicators, but also how far apart they are.

reporting and differences in accounting standards.

The Doing Business methodology has limitations that should be

Domestic credit provided by the financial sector as a share of GDP

considered when interpreting the data. First, the data collected

measures banking sector depth and financial sector development in

Economy

States and markets

Global links

Back

World Development Indicators 2016

119

Tax The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) estimates that revenue as a share of GDP provides a quick overview of the fiscal there were 7 billion mobile subscriptions globally in 2015. The Although national defense is an important function of government. Considering these Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. including historical and cultural traditions. and other research and development intensity into account. SIPRI puts loan institutions. ease of use. Also Military expenditures important are data on actual use of telecommunications services. so information on subscriptions has been a sizable parallel economy with unrecorded and undisclosed incomes. and the United States. and savings and data are not always comparable across countries. Mobile communica- tries. However. and relatively low and declining where provincial and municipal governments are large or have con- rollout costs of wireless technologies enable them to reach rural siderable tax authority. Low ratios of tax revenue to GDP may reflect weak administration Operating companies have traditionally been the main source of and large-scale tax avoidance or evasion. Security and Co-operation in Europe. development banks. and other banking institutions. The table shows only central government data.sipri. whose primary source of military expenditure data is ucts may also produce low-technology products. Other secondary sources include country reports of the disseminate high-quality data about its population and economy. the product approach official data provided by national governments. but other characteris- public documents from official government agencies. No tech- obligations and incentives facing the private sector across coun- nology has ever spread faster around the world. It takes a “product approach” (rather than many factors. military expenditures are The method for determining high-technology exports was developed not directly related to the “output” of military activities. with higher income coun- but a more precise measure is the penetration rate—the share of tries relying on taxes to finance a much broader range of social ser- households with access to telecommunications. and may impede growth. mobile subscribers will consist mainly of the rural poor. In the many cases where SIPRI cannot make independent estimates.org/research/armaments/milex. resulting in a negative value Infrastructure for domestic credit provided by the financial sector. Low ratios may also reflect telecommunications data. when unavailable. During the past few vices and social security than lower income countries are able to. deposit money banks. The financial corporation survey includes monetary authorities (the it uses country-provided data. In a few countries governments may hold inter- a high priority on ensuring that the data series for each country is com- national reserves as deposits in the banking system rather than parable over time. and the role of the armed forces in the body politic. flexible deployment. such as those of the North Atlantic Treaty Statistical capacity Organization (NATO) and the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics Statistical capacity is a country’s ability to collect. The method takes only derived from budget documents. Italy. tistics or. scientific government responses to questionnaires sent by SIPRI. Taxes are the main source of revenue for most governments. Sweden. Tax revenue ratios tend to rise with income. the Netherlands. Japan. is an important element in investment Tax revenues decisions and economic development. Claims on the central government are a net project can be found at www. World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . The quality of an economy’s infrastructure. Military expenditures as a share of GDP are a rough indicator of the portion of national resources used for High-technology exports military activities. The next billion Finance Statistics Manual 2014. capabilities. defense white papers. or the Organization for characteristics would yield a different list (see Hatzichronoglou 1997). widely available for most countries. and Yearbook. the United personnel. The mobil- significantly understate the total tax burden. including tics of high technology are also important. by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in or security. country reports by IMF staff. Comparisons across countries should take into account collaboration with Eurostat. such as knowhow. Data are based on the IMF’s Government populations with low levels of income and literacy. many. the length a “sectoral approach”) based on research and development intensity of borders that need defending. including information and communications technology. These data are is more appropriate for international trade. More information on SIPRI’s military expenditure in the central bank.5 States and markets terms of size. analyze. particularly in countries ity. and technology embodied in patents. Because of differences in definitions central bank). Secondary sources include 120 international statistics. item (claims on the central government minus central government deposits) and thus may be negative. and spe- the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) International Financial Sta- cialist journals and newspapers. Data are from the Stockholm International Peace Research Insti- Because industrial sectors specializing in a few high-technology prod- tute (SIPRI). such as finance companies. from its depository corporation survey. which may tions have a particularly important impact in rural areas. Data are taken from the financial corporation survey of Economist Intelligence Unit. As an “input” measure. the quality of relations with neigh- (expenditure divided by total sales) for groups of products from Ger- bors. and the difficulty of verifying the accuracy and completeness of data. This gives a general idea of access. years more information on information and communication technology use has become available from household and business surveys. quality of data varies among reporting countries as a result of differ- high expenditures for defense or civil conflicts burden the economy ences in regulations covering data provision and availability.

public switched telephone network using cellular technology. and most social security contributions are excluded. however. unit trusts. The analytic framework of the IMF’s Government of Exchanges. which is net. whether military budgets cover civil defense. Data on market capitalization are from the World Federation negative revenue. Internet can be used via a Definitions computer. The financial sector includes monetary authorities. paramilitary forces.doingbusiness and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as . • Overall statistical capacity is the composite dure. DC. This definition cannot be applied for all coun- Claessens. and auxiliary forces.org). and R. and telemetry services. statistics offices worldwide identify gaps in their capabilities to col- telepoint. World (for example. Directorate for Science. and Growth: are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activi- Correlation or Causality?” Policy Research Working Paper 2670. and periodicity and timeliness. reserves Bank. mobile phone. except to as simple average of all three area scores on a scale of 0–100. such as in to start a business is the number of calendar days to complete the aerospace.doingbusiness. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines. Data on domestic credit are from the IMF’s Inter- Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001) is based on accrual national Financial Statistics. and use data. • Domestic credit provided by finan- country input.worldbank. deposit money banks. such as for veterans benefits. • Mobile cellular subscriptions are the number of subscrip- Product Classification. games machine.. Postpaid Technology. Paris. Investment funds.org). Data on time required to start a business are ties.and middle. 1997. police and paramilitary forces. or similar device. if judged to be trained and trade) database.org/research/armaments/milex/milex_database/milex the table. • Military expenditures are SIPRI data derived from NATO’s _database). Data on ment finance data on a cash basis. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 121 . • High-technology exports are liability corporations per 1. Such World Bank’s Bulletin Board on Statistical Capacity (http://bbsc expenditures include military and civil personnel. Banks. personal digital assistant. procurement. using publicly available information and listed companies are excluded.000 people ages 15–64. and military space activities. It is price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several based on a diagnostic framework that assesses methodology. The overall statistical capacity score is then calculated cial sector is all credit to various sectors on a gross basis. and Industry. For countries still reporting govern- enue are from the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics. • Stock market capitalization is the share score assessing the capacity of a country’s statistical system. ties. Organisation for tions to a public mobile telephone service that provides access to the Economic Co-operation and Development. • Individuals using the lect. 2001. and weapons con- World Bank. Data on central government tax rev- accounting and balance sheets. defense ministries and other government agencies engaged from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Commodity Trade (Com- in defense projects. • Business entry density is the number of newly registered limited digital television. computers. this results in better develop- been used during the last three months) are included.” Policy Research Working Paper 2816. which includes all current and viduals using the Internet are from the ITU’s World Telecommunica- capital expenditures on the armed forces. Washington. Excluded Beck. 2002.” STI Working Paper 1997/2. and military pen- Hatzichronoglou. Countries are scored against and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other 25 criteria in these areas. data classes) for listed domestic companies. penal- /entrepreneurship). version and destruction.. S. Schmukler. sub- capacity of low.org/data/exploretopics public purposes. since that would require more detailed information than the Migration of Stocks from Exchanges in Emerging Economies to is available about military budgets and off-budget military expenditures International Centers. produce. including peacekeeping tion/ICT Indicators database. Washington.income countries and helps national scriptions to public mobile data services. “Explaining tries. and References military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). sources. operation and maintenance. These countries are footnoted in (www. the IMF adjusts reported data to military expenditures are from SIPRI’s Military Expenditure Database the GFSM 2001 accrual framework. pensions and social services for military personnel. scientific instruments. Data on high-technology exports are forces. private-trunked mobile radio. The indicator ment policy design and outcomes. accounts that have statistics to inform their decisions. Internet are the percentage of individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 12 months. “Stock Markets. and S. DC.sipri. the central government. T. military research and development. The Statistical Capacity Indica- applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communica- tor is an essential tool for monitoring and tracking the statistical tions and excludes subscriptions for data cards or USB modems. radio paging. L. Levine. “Revision of the High-Technology Sector and sions). Data on mobile cellular phone subscriptions and indi- former definition (in use until 2002). • Time required products with high research and development intensity. Refunds from the World Bank’s Doing Business project (www. Data on Statistical Capacity Indicator are from the equipped for military operations. Klingebiel. T. including retirement . pharmaceuticals. independent of cost. and other banking institu- Data sources tions for which data are available. demobilization. • Tax revenue collected by central Data on business entry density are from the World Bank’s Entre- government is compulsory transfers to the central government for preneurship Database (www. and procedures for legally operating a business using the fastest proce- electrical machinery.States and markets 5 When statistical capacity improves and policy makers use accurate subscriptions and active prepaid accounts (that is. D.

CBK.ZS Value of shares traded CM.TAX.PPI.FRM.BUS.PSRC.DISC.FRM.ZS Bank capital to assets ratio FB.ZS Arms transfers.ZS Military expenditure. robbery.0714.ZS Losses due to theft. Entry density IC.7 Military expenditures and arms transfers Firms offering formal training IC.ZS Domestic credit to private sector by banks FD.TAX.POP.OR SM.BRCH.ZS Firms with female top manager IC.CD Strength of legal rights index Energy investment IE.BRWR.TOTL.MKT.CMPU.TRNR Listed domestic companies CM.TAX.FRM.DURS International Development Association Resource Allocation Index Time required to get electricity IC.IHR.DURS Arm forces personnel.BUS.TAX.EX 5. Imports MS.AST.NO S&P/Global Equity Indices 122 IC.NDNS. and arson IC.ZS MS.ZS Businesses registered.CP.DURS IC.1). stability.TRAN.TRAD.ZS Business labor tax and contributions IC.MKT.CP.WATR.CRIM.ZS Firms formally registered when operations started IC.DURS Interest rate spread FR.CUS.CBK.ZS MS.TOTL.MIL.XQ Peacekeeping troops.MKT.PPI.MIL.ZS Value lost due to electrical outages IC.PPI.REG.ISOC.ZS Commercial bank branches FB.TOTL.ZS IC.4 Stock markets Military expenditures MS.PPI. % of central government expenditure Cost to start a business MS.FRM.MIL.GD.TELE.FRM. and military observers IQ.ZS Market capitalization.PRP.ZS Refugees. % of GDP Tax revenue collected by central government 5.MKT.FRM.TOTL.NPER. file and pay taxes Firms using banks to finance working capital IC.GD.PRVT.XPND.GD.CD).ZS Turnover ratio CM.worldbank.UN Battle related deaths VC. and arson IC.MKT.FRM. By country of asylum World view People SM.DURS Number of procedures to build a warehouse IC.LGL.ZS Time required to resolve insolvency IC.PRFT.TLF.PKP.P5 5.PC.NREG Automated teller machines FB.OTHR.METG Time required to obtain operating license IC.INFO.REG.org/indicator/ the URL http://wdi.FRM.ZG Front ? User guide Children in employment SL.GD.PROC Arm forces personnel Time required to start a business IC.CP.2 Business environment: enterprise surveys Ratio of bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans FB.PRP.P1 MS. and efficiency Telecommunications investment IE.ENGY.CAPA.ZS Business profit tax IC.XPRT. % of GDP CM.PAYM IC.INDX.DETH Intentional homicides VC.ZS Total business tax rate Average time to clear exports through customs IC.COST.TRNG.P5 IC.CRD.GOV.FREG.MPRT.ATM.TIME Time required to enforce a contract IC. To view a specific /indicator/IE.TF.worldbank.CD Depth of credit information index Transport investment IE.IRAI.FEMM.WRH.XQ 5.TAX.CBK.CD Borrowers from commercial banks FB.DURS.CRED.ZS Internationally recognized quality certification ownership Other business taxes IC.MIL.PPI.ZS Time dealing with government regulations IC.CRIM.INR.LDOM.MIL.P5 IC.worldbank.MIL.DPTR.LNDP Risk premium on lending FR.ELC.KD IC.FRM.OUTG.MIL.CD Market capitalization.MKT.AST.DURS CM. $ Losses due to theft.TOTL.REG.RISK 5.POP.DURS Business disclosure index IC.INR.ISV. vandalism.WRH.P3 Water and sanitation investment IE.BUS.ZS Time for businesses to prepare.org/table/5.BNK. % of total labor force Number of procedures to register property Time required to register property GC. vandalism.XPND. use indicator online.org/table/ and the table number (for and the indicator code (for example.TOTL.1 Private sector in the economy 5.3 Business environment: Doing Business indicators Number of procedures to start a business IC.REFG.FRM.PRVT. Exports MS.PROC 5.ZS IC.PROC Arms transfers.DURS.ZS IC. use the URL http://data.GD.LCAP.GD.LABR. By country of origin Refugees. 5. http://wdi.BTL.XPND. http://data.AST.TAX.ZS Average number of times meeting with tax officials IC.KD IC.org example.XQ World Development Indicators 2016 CM.LGL.GD.LCAP.TAX.8 Fragile situations Time required to build a warehouse IC. police.BRIB. robbery.P3 Domestic credit to private sector FS.worldbank.CD Depositors with commercial banks FB.FRM.CPA.CP.REFG Environment .ZS Military expenditure.TAX.XQ VC. New Businesses registered.BKWC.6 Tax policies Bribery incidence IC.ZS Number of tax payments by businesses Firms competing against unregistered firms IC.TELE.5 States and markets Online tables and indicators To access the World Development Indicators online tables.5 Financial access.

SRCE Periodicity and timeliness assessment IQ.IDP.XQ High-technology exports.TECH.KM Railway goods hauled IS..14 Statistical capacity Overall level of statistical capacity IQ.CPA.UN BX.SETS.P6 Property rights and rule-based governance IQ.a Debt policy IQ.XQ Information and communications technology services.XQ IT.XPD.ROYL.CPA.RRS.ACSN Population covered by mobile cellular network .CPA.K6 Port container traffic IS.STA.a Maternal mortality ratio.TOTL 5.States and markets 5 Internally displaced persons VC.XQ Structural policies.ZS TX..HE Access to an improved water source Access to improved sanitation facilities Fixed telephone international voice traffic .PROP.13 Science and technology Policies for social inclusion and equity.XQ Research and development (R&D).CPA.XQ Gender equality IQ.NET.ZS Mobile cellular network international voice traffic .PRES.TOTL.ECON.TOTL.PAT.P2 IT.GSR.ZS IQ.XQ Fiscal policy IQ.PSGR Air freight IS.MMRT.MORT Depth of food deficit SN.a Fixed telephone sub-basket .TECH.SCI.TRAD.CD Patent applications filed.a Trade IQ.CD Transparency..ZS.FINS.a Mobile cellular and fixed-line subscribers per employee .VAL.ENVR. % of manufactured exports TX..CPA.NE Maternal mortality ratio.K1 GB.CPA.TECH.GD.MACR.GOOD.JRN.IRAI.P6 Quality of budgetary and financial management IQ.ARTC.DPRT Air passengers carried IS.NRES Trademark applications filed.CPA.XQ Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions Economic management.RD.ITK.SCI..AIR.MTHD Source data assessment IQ. and corruption in the public sector Public sector management and institutions. Nonresidents IP.XQ Research and development (R&D).SOCI.MT.STA.RRS.SCIE.MMRT Under-five mortality rate SH.LOSS.HRES.a Mobile cellular sub-basket .a SH..USE.GNDR. Modeled estimate SH.XQ IQ.ZS Equity of public resource use IQ.P2 Mobile cellular subscriptions IT.ZS Fixed telephone subscriptions IT.MLT.FISP.DEBT. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 123 . Available online only as part of the table.PUBS.CPA.TU Registered air carrier departures worldwide IS.RSDV.SAFE.CPA.VAL. National estimate SH. a.RD.XQ Charges for the use of intellectual property.XQ Social protection and labor IQ.KH.MAIN.PRDC Data disaggregated by sex are available in the World Development Indicators database.GSR.STA.BREG. Imports TM.PRM..10 Transport services Rail lines IS.VAL.ENRR Primary gross enrollment ratio 5.PADM.UN Information and communications technology goods.BBND..KM Railway passengers carried IS.GSR.SCI.ROYL. Receipts BX..11 Power and communications Electric power consumption per capita Electric power transmission and distribution losses EG.CPA.a Households with a computer .CPA. Payments BM.XQ Households with television . Total IP.NET. Residents IP.FINQ.12 The information age IQ.XQ High-technology exports.CPA.XQ 5.PASG.GOOD.9 Public policies and institutions International Development Association Resource Allocation Index Macroeconomic management 5. Exports Policies and institutions for environmental sustainability IQ.CPA.PROT.a SH.XQ Building human resources IQ.GOOD. Average IQ.VAL.PC EG.ELC.CCIS.a Individuals using the Internet ..DYN.CPA.MT.SECR.POP.AIR. Average IQ.CEL. Technicians SP.CPA. not as an individual indicator.a IQ.XQ Fixed broadband sub-basket .REVN. accountability.CPA. Average IQ.ZS.ELEC.OVRL Methodology assessment 5.PAT.. Researchers SP.a Telecommunications revenue .P2 Economy States and markets IQ.CPA.ICTG.RESD Patent applications filed.SHP. $ IQ.XQ Secure Internet servers Financial sector Business regulatory environment IQ.CPA.CPA.POP.CPA.ICTG.AIR..SC Efficiency of revenue mobilization IQ.SCI.RRS. Exports TX.TRAN.CD Charges for the use of intellectual property.MF.TMK.P6 Information and communications technology goods.CPA.XQ Expenditures for R&D Quality of public administration IQ.XQ International Internet bandwidth .DFCT SE.STRC.H2O.XQ Scientific and technical journal articles IP. Average 5.

GLOBAL LINKS 124 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .

were Belgium. and movements of people. improved liquidity in financial markets. In 2014 inflows of international personal remittances totaled $528 billion. due mainly to a 30  percent decrease into high-income economies. trade facilitation. The accommodative monetary policy implemented by the major central banks in 2014 through unchanged interest rates lowered risk premiums. financial flows. Bond issuance by public and private entities remained an important source of external financing. and Germany. global markets remain surrounded by uncertainties related to geopolitical tension in some regions. the three top receivers. to $12 billion. totaling $242 billion in 2014. only 36 percent of the levels prior to the financial crisis. and India account for more than half. The indicators in Global links measure the size and direction of these flows and document the effects of policy interventions. Global inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) declined 20 percent in 2014. at $12 billion. India recorded a 40 percent decline. As national economies develop. International lending to low. Global links Back 6 World Development Indicators 2016 125 . equivalent to 60 percent of total bond issuance in 2014 (compared with 46 percent in 2013). Although many economies receive FDI. Global portfolio equity flows rebounded substantially. their links expand and grow more complex. and equity flows to middle-income economies increased 27 percent. Personal remittances are calculated in balance of payments statistics as the sum of personal transfers (payments between resident and nonresident individuals) and compensation of employees (the income of short-term nonresident workers and of residents employed by nonresident entities). Just over half of long-term debt inflows went to nonguaranteed private sector borrowers. with about 37 percent. China recorded a 58 percent increase in net portfolio equity flows. driven by a sharp 60 percent contraction in short-term debt. to $52 billion. High-income economies received $150 billion. compared with 62 percent in 2013.The world economy is bound together by trade in goods and services. accounting for more than 40 percent of global FDI. leading to some diversification in the destination of portfolio equity flows. China. with an overall annual increase of 41 percent at the end of 2014. and buoyant and expanding domestic markets. A principal driver was the purchase of domestically issued bonds by nonresidents. Equity flows to high-income economies increased 42 percent. reflecting fresh turbulence and uncertainty in the global economy. growth prospects.and middle-income economies fell 18 percent in 2014. a 6 percent increase over 2013. Investors continue to be attracted by improved business and regulatory environments. such as tariffs. Some 72 percent ($378 billion) of personal remittances were received by low- and middle-income economies. FDI inflows to these economies amounted to $899 billion. However. and aid flows. and supported economic growth. Investors sought emerging markets perceived as offering high returns. flows remain highly concentrated: Brazil.and middle-income countries proved Economy States and markets more resilient and were about 4 percent higher than 2013 levels. on the development of the world economy. mostly as compensation of employees. There was also an important shift in borrower composition: bond issuance by public sector borrowers rose 32 percent to $146 billion. France. FDI inflows into low. and Brazil’s net inflows remained unchanged. but in general portfolio equity flows remained highly concentrated in only a handful of middle-income countries.

and improved access for exports abroad.9 1.6 trillion. Over the past decade flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) to low.) French Polynesia (Fr.) Haiti Honduras Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica R.9 2.0 or more Canada 4.) St.9 Less than 1.0–1. they Foreign direct investment Greenland (Den.) Mexico The Bahamas Cuba Jamaica Belize Turks and Caicos Is.) Argentina St.K. Moreover.S.) Uruguay Barbados St.S.income economies continued to prove more resilient.) Sint Maarten (Neth. (U. Kitts and Nevis Chile Guadeloupe (Fr.S. due mainly to a 30 percent decrease into high-income economies. Republic Tonga Bolivia Anguilla (U. It has long been recognized that FDI flows can carry the benefits of knowledge and technology transfer to domestic firms and the labor force.0–5.creating.K.0–3.) Paraguay Antigua and Barbuda U.B.) Dominica Martinique (Fr. Martin (Fr. Vincent and the Grenadines R. Lucia Curaçao (Neth.) Ecuador Kiribati Brazil Peru Samoa Fiji American Samoa (U.are the preferred source of capital for financing a current account deficit because FDI is non-debt. to $1. U. de Panama Venezuela Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana (Fr.0 United States No data Bermuda (U.4 percent. enhanced competition. de Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago IBRD 41455 126 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . Low- and middle.) Foreign direct investment net inflows.S. Global inflows of FDI declined 20  percent in 2014.) St.B. with FDI inflows decreasing only 1. productivity spillover.K.) Caribbean Inset Puerto Dominican Rico. Virgin Islands (U.and middle-income economies have increased substantially. 2014 (% of GDP) 6.

Greenland (Den. Mariana Islands (U.) Vietnam Cambodia Uganda Kenya Rep. Armenia baijan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Greece Turkey Bulgaria Tunisia Morocco Algeria Libya Niger Chad Senegal The Burkina Gambia Faso Guinea GuineaBenin Bissau Central Nigeria CôteGhana Sierra Leone African d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Liberia Togo Equatorial Guinea São Tomé and Príncipe Sudan China Afghanistan Islamic Rep. FDI inflows in the United States dropped 54 percent in 2014. of Egypt Western Sahara Czech Republic Slovak Republic Austria Fiji New Caledonia (Fr.) Lesotho Europe Inset Vanuatu Poland Germany Mali Jordan Arab Rep.People’s Rep.) Federated States of Micronesia Palau Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Philippines Brunei Darussalam Sri Lanka Somalia Comoros N.) Swaziland South Africa Tuvalu Mauritius Mayotte (Fr.Rep. China Myanmar Lao PDR Eritrea Rep. with $97 billion. China Macao SAR.S.) Russian Federation Iceland Finland Norway Sweden Estonia Latvia United Kingdom Denmark Lithuania Ireland Germany Poland Belarus Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Liechtenstein Switzerland Ukraine Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Romania France Dem.) Australia Hungary Slovenia Romania Croatia San Marino Bosnia and Serbia Herzegovina Italy Montenegro Kosovo Bulgaria Cabo Mauritania Verde Syrian Arab Rep. Burundi of Congo Tanzania Hong Kong SAR. Iraq Cyprus Lebanon Israel West Bank and Gaza Malta Rep. Brazil is the top receiver of foreign direct investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. of Gabon Congo Rwanda Dem.of Korea Ukraine Spain Monaco Portugal Andorra New Zealand FYR Macedonia Albania Greece Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 127 . China was the top overall recipient of FDI in 2014. of Yemen Djibouti South Ethiopia Sudan Japan Nepal Pakistan Singapore Nauru In d o n esi a Papua New Guinea Seychelles Kiribati Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Angola Zambia Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia Madagascar Botswana La Réunion (Fr.S. of Iran Saudi Arabia Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Bhutan Bangladesh United Arab Emirates Oman India Thailand Guam (U. with $289 billion.A large share of the Republic of Congo’s GDP—39 percent in 2014— is from FDI inflows.of Korea Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Georgia AzerRep.

. ..505 .384 0.0 .857 .4 . 1 7 248 . Armenia 50.9 7.014 12..811 1. 6... ..8 95.184 73 .4 Cameroon 36.6 114.6 7..4 116.925 5.2 121 1.000 8.3 –2.916 959. 4 ..537 4.550 ...5 5. 239.6 . ..3 53..289 ...8 202.0 30 502 6.9 113.3 –16 1.. 28.0 107.901 .142 1.8 49.508 3.7 .0 8.7 122.. Argentina 25..8 0.9 165. .8 2.9 –60 . . trade index expenditure assistance received Portfolio equity Total external debt stock Total debt service % of GDP 2000 = 100 % of exports % of GNI thousands $ millions Net inflow $ millions Net inflow $ millions $ millions % of exports of goods.3 Bosnia and Herzegovina 91.6 . ..1 10 14 8 . 0. . . 2.127 . .2 12.332 46.. .5 0.833 102.. Canada 53. 137..1 Belgium 173. 568 . .0 .4 3. 147 3.5 .231 1.0 –125 121 342 66 2. 8 80 141 .980 17.1 –62 1.184 57.3 102. 18.5 84.0 .3 –96 22 –344 –14 5.544 2. .3 135.773 556...5 1.6 Bermuda Brunei Darussalam 82. 6.6 Global links Merchandise Net barter Inbound Net official Net Personal trade terms of tourism development migration remittances.840 12.. ..800 29.6 .1 0. .0 215... ..9 137.895 11..4 Benin 46.551 31.3 6.. .5 2.8 100. .1 201 136 22.3 0. . 10 .9 2. 761 ... 11.1 94.226 14... .8 12. The 48.862 5 40.3 84.9 115.. . .8 68. 112.290 –17 –57 .4 138...5 3.0 2. China 41.9 ...7 .4 .. .689 .8 . .1 .9 –11 191 132 . 1.7 . .3 –145 4...4 87. .0 .097 51.. 40... Chile 57. .. 1. Andorra . Austria 82.6 125...079 404 1 8. .2 Aruba Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados 49.7 Burundi 28.2 .0 59. .4 7...2 –10 2. 102 0 1.502 .7 196.7 . 1... 5. .2 Bolivia 68.6 Brazil 19. China Macao SAR.2 2. Belarus 101.8 0. Rep...151 3. –50 1.846 4. Cabo Verde 45.. . 266 . 0. 16.6 64. 133.6 28.5 2.730 . 5. .0 89...1 ...430 10 11.. 30 .2 Burkina Faso 49.3 –10 217 377 . Azerbaijan 50... .9 386...453 –20.232 . . . and primary income 2014 2014 2014 2014 2010–15 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 Afghanistan 41.5 170.202 1. 150 372 115.0 66..8 264.497 358 34.984 .3 0. Bhutan 69.1 –143 304 1. 2 . . 1. 1.1 –150 377 1.7 93.510 1.0 73. .450 Antigua and Barbuda 45.. Dem..7 9..8 122.002 2.. .. .. 958 –7..2 8. 9.. 1. 1.7 0.5 200....288 8. 11.4 –3 2..742 15.645 96.7 19.4 101.4 ..168 23.6 5. ... .1 12. 2...0 –1. services. 145 0. ..6 .. 113..3 473 268 49 .6 .971 –77 48.. . 35. 657 . 101.591 11... 270 11..7 –60 251 501 .206 .6 0..6 0..9 Bulgaria Cambodia 144. Cayman Islands Channel Islands .0 184.2 130.5 70.8 86.. .4 81.887 . 0.7 Congo..2 Bahamas. .3 35..086 497 . ..3 . 35 50 2. 3. 10.9 –10 121 14 .693 5.8 . .. .1 . Hong Kong SAR..0 7.871 21.2 40 51 ...983 2.4 ..023 2.684 1.315 8.345 19. Australia 32.555 1.6 Algeria 56..8 Botswana 98. Colombia 31.. Chad 56.9 Angola .2 0 21 167 .... 128 Foreign direct investment World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . . .5 4..781 7..8 112..4 .6 20 48 393 0 2.5 57.9 100 .8 Albania 58.5 0.2 125. .. 42..176 1. ..321 . . 3 .1 11..9 2.6 ..097 3.7 29.9 156..648 .. Belize 93.4 3.149 34 8.0 16 2.. 690 .4 3...2 98.9 23. Central African Republic 20.553 .5 Comoros 48. 5.166 16. Rep..333 10.3 10 ..453 0. 2 87 275 . .055 –688 .4 American Samoa .....1 –92 1..... 8.922 . 22.3 0.. 2...911 289. .5 145. 61.. China Congo. . . 2..

...0 101..1 107.5 . . 47 ...105 . ... France 44.986 1.230 18... 18.. 100. .9 5.0 ..389 33. Gabon French Polynesia 65.0 219.0 3. .0 .7 Haiti 51. 10. 0. Isle of Man Israel Economy .1 7.4 3.7 81..349 3..2 .937 –21 . 17. .9 99...6 94..6 3..708 18. 0.551 26. .766 230.7 5 ...... and primary income 2014 2014 .. Guyana 95. . Finland 55. Islamic Rep. –140 719 86. Djibouti 69..0 20 . Arab Rep...0 5..7 .472 773 1 26. Costa Rica Cuba Curaçao 20 594 Total debt service % of exports of goods.. 6.. . 271 .. 973 . 9.857 11...974 21...937 1..407 ..3 0.4 6.0 3.369 463. 159..6 .7 3.2 99. 4.570 4...1 –2.9 183..1 Côte d’Ivoire 69. 2.0 . Gambia..4 33.0 ..9 25.5 0.178 .. 14. 97 1.6 28. –12 544 1.624 12.1 ..5 . . 47.259 293.. 61.6 6.377 –677 11.5 Iraq 64. 102.5 Ecuador 53.871 270 . .5 97.3 134. 1..2 89..0 181..1 –10 95 566 ..4 –296 1.8 88.3 –80 3.167 ..3 130. 864 .....3 Guinea 51.8 0. –1 669 129 .. 10...195 7. ..6 549 271 4. .2 86.0 .1 –50 2. 80. 7.810 2.250 17..1 Dominica 46.3 87.4 62.. .2 –27 330 238 .4 . 30 1. .893 4. . . 20..812 3.1 0. Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia 129.. Iceland Hungary 61.. . 2...600 .5 Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic 42. 35 260 861 1. Guinea-Bissau 38..977 99 .1 Greece 42. .5 5. . 98.612 5..0 103..761 14. .8 50 378 Croatia 64.2 .7 5. 0..3 209. Ireland 75.400 –341 .0 –700 8.656 12. .3 .536 19. .2 19...4 ...294 .267 ..8 84. . .5 89.. .326 ..4 .. 30 4.1 Iran. 80.5 ..598 70.1 –29 209 279 .9 4.495 0.764 ...2 103.. .5 88.. 291 10.0 .370 1..2 . 36... 651 .6 –10 47 21 . 32..6 Guam Guatemala 155.783 485 39.1 81.3 0.3 –153 4..871 12. 10.008 3. 1...8 . . . . . . 161 . .2 0.5 –120 5.4 –150 1.4 99.4 4...7 3. .578 . Georgia 69.6 Indonesia 39..2 –216 19.4 ..4 –240 4.9 .2 Germany 70..0 123.. 24 41 .379 4. .9 . . 112.8 6.2 –38 2..390 3.5 .. 2.. 5. services. . 2.. 83.... 16.. 500 .. 98.5 –60 646 1. 3... 49.1 136.287 . .6 16. ...957 15.2 10.. 31.9 .363 . .4 Honduras 98. .. 107 974 14.4 .7 3.683 11. . .205 . 0 206 746 –61 .Global links 6 Merchandise Net barter Inbound Net official Net Personal trade terms of tourism development migration remittances. .585 .7 50.9 .. .... Ethiopia 42. –160 . 1. 957 6. States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 129 ... 19 859 6.3 15....9 121.1 –13 191 28 . 6 143 69 ..629 8.966 .3 34....647 210 13.1 .4 67. –300 .. ...149 .9 12. The 56.2 11.235 475 ..8 . .333 13. 332 25.738 3.7 .1 .782 . . .9 1.933 .6 214.. 2.571 –58 .397 23. . .7 El Salvador 62.. –16 36 153 .5 100.8 92..8 96.003 . 12.837 1.6 –4 31 40 .0 106.2 . –20 2.0 158. .4 149..3 37... . ... . ..7 3. –80 .3 86. 1.8 0. .. Ghana 71.1 462 . .912 23. ..4 96....1 .385 .4 Greenland Grenada 41..8 . . 908 ..8 9...9 178. –136 735 1. .8 Egypt. 4. 0 .200 . Faroe Islands Fiji ..331 10... .. India 38..8 18. 26. trade index expenditure assistance received Foreign direct investment Portfolio equity Total external debt stock % of GDP 2000 = 100 % of exports % of GNI thousands $ millions Net inflow $ millions Net inflow $ millions $ millions 2014 2014 2014 2014 2010–15 2014 2014 2014 57.

...7 10..257 14.8 13.0 –20 380 47 0 876 3.2 Montenegro 61.9 75.2 22..1 Mozambique 84...4 . Sts. .8 215.7 –5 432 351 .1 –311 6.598 –135 157.6 74.732 . Lebanon 56. Front ? User guide World view People Environment .179 11..2 .2 3.7 . . .9 –5 367 61 –4 7.2 .8 –30 38 716 0 1.0 Kiribati 60.. 26 9 .6 Kenya 40.9 Mauritius 69.3 –20 495 363 .404 2. ..1 35.103 1..7 Japan 32. 77. 67. . . .154 4.5 94...573 10.481 9. 6. 139..9 Libya 97. 11.853 ..7 100. services. . 182.8 1.1 Liberia 80.9 ...7 91.3 7.026 2...256 8. . ..753 .2 99..1 2.. Korea.9 Mexico 62... . 102..7 77.540 48..8 74.250 7.084 350 10 6. 2.243 211 6 7.8 10.7 5.9 0 3 363 –1 1.8 2.8 84.2 .. 502 .0 96.4 0 1 418 801 11. 0. . Nepal 42.288 . .5 84.2 .416 . 4. . .2 221. 7.6 44. . 7.. 1..7 .1 6.4 . 6 196 –13 –139 .4 115...1 104..8 Kuwait 83. 3.. Malawi 102.7 36.9 0..7 Myanmar 42.7 .7 –135 1. Moldova 96. 7 462 4..522 9.5 97.454 2.0 4.608 16. 6 479 2..5 0. .524 .241 17. Fed.0 0..9 52. .216 14..1 1.9 –8 22 1 .7 7.676 .962 3. 42. 528 9.0 75.1 140. Lao PDR 49.. 24. Kyrgyz Republic 99. 70.087 385. 3. Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger 130 Foreign direct investment World Development Indicators 2016 42..8 1...609 .760 –31 24. .0 450 1...247 . Jamaica 52..9 94.9 .7 –114 2. ...454 12.8 0.2 4..982 13. 350 3. 78.8 90.8 27.269 595 140 14.8 51.4 Lesotho Latvia 143.595 35. 5.6 Morocco 63.. ...2 9.. .772 15. ..4 2. 210.1 –118 60 721 . 10.582 ..6 105.6 1.8 8.463 14.. .8 71. 52...4 –372 5. . –170 2. FYR Madagascar 50.192 200 .1 –524 24.462 24. ..9 127..997 .5 138.6 230 3.0 0.954 496 30.. .2 ..9 157. 91. 300 6.. Malta Marshall Islands 131. .5 1..826 21.113 351 16 .1 138.2 88.999 .9 –302 923 199 .. . Rep.9 –10 2. 0 ..6 4.5 4. 2.2 107..2 94.0 ....0 Malaysia 131.2 79.7 8. . 49 1. Korea... 110 1.5 –502 . 10.5 9.3 0.9 3... Kosovo ... 33. trade index expenditure assistance received Portfolio equity Total external debt stock Total debt service % of GDP 2000 = 100 % of exports % of GNI thousands $ millions Net inflow $ millions Net inflow $ millions $ millions % of exports of goods.2 143...2 –2 431 497 16 2.784 7.6 123.288 26.4 2.9 .2 .793 3.0 211..3 21.637 4.140 884 .9 25.. .7 –97 2.1 16.046 32.5 .225 4. 50 .4 –25 155 4.1 2. 107. Dem...441 944 954 16.1 4. .820 4. .0 9.1 2.242 8.. .. .733 9. .7 105.9 Maldives 75.899 6.3 87.3 92. .6 –28 157 769 . .8 .1 .. People’s Rep..1 16. ..4 3.398 .8 45..9 2. 10. .0 ...4 –50 1.724 103.727 26.. 2..6 .0 160 229 7..2 125. .2 Micronesia..8 –15 255 384 –1 20.. ..070 32.774 878 58 .5 Kazakhstan 54.6 Mauritania Monaco Mongolia ..4 –20 . 518 4 486 586 .7 –2 16 8 .2 .602 12.. 4.585 .3 12..7 5.6 Global links Merchandise Net barter Inbound Net official Net Personal trade terms of tourism development migration remittances..737 1..5 Namibia 92.5 1. 2.. Jordan 86.7 3..2 70.8 –1 10 493 15 ...5 Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia.. and primary income 2014 2014 2014 2014 2010–15 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 Italy 46.3 Mali 50. .833 432.770 6 .7 58.1 99.9 5. –73 1. 633 1. 91.351 0.. ..010 8. . 134 . .8 0..2 4..2 –474 3.3 . .6 172.8 . 126..8 . .4 16...

885 –79 66. . . –74 7..Global links 6 Merchandise Net barter Inbound Net official Net Personal trade terms of tourism development migration remittances. 1....9 Philippines 45..238 2. .8 104. . 3 . .... . .2 –5 9 –210 .....5 7.403 6..0 11. .. 450 7. 82...609 14..741 2.. .103 118..0 –6 24 27 .920 ..2 –100 1.6 0..7 83.. . ..7 Saudi Arabia 68.1 3.5 –6 27 27 . .2 93.2 –87 507 523 .. ...8 Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Sudan . 69. 398 ... ..0 3. ..7 21. .. –104 .. Qatar 79. .7 –2 15 108 –21 .000 –22 33.5 11. 382 2. 1.3 91.4 108.3 0. Rwanda 40. 9.741 3..3 .9 –117 3..5 3. .. .202 1.. . 60.442 –2..410 2.5 ..4 –1. Pakistan 29.523 –1.1 –400 .5 88.5 0 10 –30 –6 20.551 144..5 13..3 –5 16.8 103.6 865 ....9 .975 261 1 4.047 13. Romania 74.2 ..759a . Switzerland 83...2 239.5 0. 438 1.3 18.3 252....022 4. 4. .8 . ..008 . ..8 122.8 135. 41.6 . ..9 65.9 19.4 2.9 . . .0 –0.3 0 30 75 .8 94.. . Slovenia 141.4 San Marino Serbia 80. ...535 2.. 16.5 Samoa 57...8 102. Panama 74.3 88.. .4 a Suriname 79. ...087 . .. ..5 .8 2.8 3..030 1.. 187 2.9 .4 a 1..940 . 1... 60. 106 .920 13.119 34.0 0. .3 –75 128 292 1 2.. .3 7. 52 120 .. trade index expenditure assistance received Nigeria Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Foreign direct investment Portfolio equity Total external debt stock Total debt service $ millions % of exports of goods..... . . 14.2 Poland 80.. São Tomé and Príncipe 55.659 7..623 .1 77. .0 24.7 102. . ... 236 761 10.2 –700 28. 5.5 ...036 944 184 43. ... 7.. 1 2. Kitts and Nevis 37. 273 4.6 Papua New Guinea 57..0 105.1 9. .8 .778 772 62.3 4. .6 210. –700 .639 7. Slovak Republic 168.4 91.. 46. .....1 98.922 . .9 Puerto Rico Russian Federation 43.. .1 35. 364 499 1.343 4. .6 157..3 600 913 5. . Swaziland 79.092 19.1 68.030 123 ...9 . Senegal 60.0 Paraguay 70. 2.9 8.8 64..290 .082 17..5 96.9 2.4 133. St..0 0.349 22.469 10. –140 424 12. .037 26. .. . . and primary income 2014 2014 % of GDP 2000 = 100 % of exports % of GNI thousands $ millions Net inflow $ millions Net inflow $ millions 2014 2014 2014 2014 2010–15 2014 2014 2014 27.0 0.3 182.4 28 760 5.7 0.5 .2 –240 2.655 .4 2. 139. 0. 850 269 8. . 528 . 62 48 .864 535 111.... 21. Sudan 18.4 79.3 205..9 95.3 93. 67.3 Sweden 57. .8 56..7 St. Lucia 53.0 18.. .1 4. .482 ..290 28.696 2. .4 12. Sri Lanka 39.2 Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 131 .2 8. .6 ..118 7. .0 –13 141 23 .7 102. Martin . .012 ..7 . .8 . Portugal 61.1 .6 0.040 2.1 12.5 . 1.2 88. –593 3.5 181.858 .211 39 739 910 .. –437 3..3 2.656 1.395 85 18 .9 –21 62 690 .4 . ..753 .184 19. .8 2... .597 . services....066 1.0 0.381 3.. 4 757 1.4 a St...8 .275 3.5 –300 20.4 20.1 107. 81.9 7..1 189.1 3.9 14.8 3.829 4... ....6 4.7 58.6 205.0 .5 65. 19. 2a 339 21.006 8. 111...233 27. 1.2 1. .214 .9 –100 3. Vincent & the Grenadines 56. 212 13.891 –12.0 0.7 0.7 .0 3.. St.7 –485 7. 4. ..290 .409 17..777 22.2 107... 2 40 .7 .4 0.2 –800 33 139 507a 1. –4. Spain 49. .6 5.. .2 213... .196 77....0 .5 Peru 40.7 ..1 –12 16 21 .1 Palau 74.644 343 ..251 .586 –414 .

655 3.. .353 119.5d Upper middle income 46.8 111..203 25.9 Thailand 112.0 8.849 s 93.980 178.101 160. 900 4.561.9 7..1 –10 343 292 . Vanuatu 45.2 0. 18.. 5.. . 6..5d Middle East & North Africa 71.8 0.653 50.799 5.147 South Asia 37.4 –200 ...5 12.. 159. ..3 3.6 –6..7 Zambia 71. w 120. 405 .147 5 5. 5.8 –220 .7 23. Includes South Sudan. United Kingdom 39..135 2.5 95.116...710 3.9 . .2c w 54.. Trinidad and Tobago 69.633 410. 161. 5. Rep. 0.347 1.093 826 North America 25.2 –30 122 2.5 ..824 135. 39.6 –50 44 34 .8 95.0 6. .249 46.2 5.8 .. . . 751 .4 135. 9..908 131. Uzbekistan 43..0 ....005 72 26..508 6 7.039d 7.082 527..890 4.0 0...679 .. United Arab Emirates Uruguay 35.2 114. 6. .7 .4 171..6 0. .7 180. d.166 13.8 .5 2.077 .9 –34 58 1. 3.416 3....914 16. Tonga 50.6d Lower middle income 44.587d 3.1 195 7.529 39.2 108. 6.0 0.8 100. 71. . Covers only Debtor Reporting System countries.811d 7. .2 0.388 214.5 145.8 4.8 –1.4 5. Uganda 30.6 –44 2. Yemen....140 s 611.8 2.074 5.0 Turkmenistan 58.4 .0 0.923 45.8d 775.281 115.040 899.0 16.8 ...025. RB Vietnam Virgin Islands (U. –69 121 .821d 15.6 Global links Merchandise Net barter Inbound Net official Net Personal trade terms of tourism development migration remittances.9 w . .3 91. .915d 23. . trade index expenditure assistance received Foreign direct investment Portfolio equity Total external debt stock Total debt service $ millions % of exports of goods.8 ..050 20. West Bank and Gaza . 15.. 7. 63.. Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu 32. ..719 –5.5d High income 50.6 37.4 .9 . ..9 128.408 402.2 0.... Tunisia 85. 0...4 . .4 .002 248.4 .2 –150 887 1. 13. 5.6 85. 5.559 408..4 .457 5.. and primary income 2014 2014 % of GDP 2000 = 100 % of exports % of GNI thousands $ millions Net inflow $ millions Net inflow $ millions 2014 2014 2014 2014 2010–15 2014 2014 2014 Tanzania 35.351 –738 . ..987 1.402 .6 17. 6...878d 5.5 .0 223.2 0s –1. –213 49.1 719 115.2 155.4 2. 8.7 . 196 .2 .1 2..4 . 132 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .3 . 10..1 –25 .3 .5 1..3 . 5..105d 6.0 .5 –195 .699.382 188.9 –16.1d .128 12.1 1 28 13 .547 –2... .9 . . . 441 ... .683 613...947 64..686 25.805 . –5 131 2.0 63. . Based on the World Bank classification of economies and thus may differ from data reported by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.. services. 545 . ...066 .. . .6 17.373 Zimbabwe 51.902 . ..541 525..7 Turkey 50.. .1 91. 10. 77..1 100 5.1 6..4 71. .. . Togo 91.816.. c..0 6.8 17..846 62 167.570 World East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean 48..908 1.0 –33 2.246d 14.2 –8 114 56 . .) .021.5 13.134 1.457 49.2 Timor-Leste 67..405 8.365 s 1.182 127 53 ..0 .045 4 14.. Calculated using the World Bank’s weighted aggregation methodology (see Sources and methods) and thus may differ from data reported by the World Tourism Organization. a.1 Ukraine 82..575 1.0 ..S.458 150.354 847 –391 130.7d 22.8 3..894 73..2 95. . .184 9..4 23..1 7.200 252 71..0 0.. –4 .. . . 181 1. United States 23.760 1. s .2 11.6 14..517 13.5d 187.2 0. ..765 2. 4 .3 3.0b w 0..2 15... 5...389 .008 6..9 9.689 34.379d Sub-Saharan Africa 45.1 .4 d Low income 50.346.527.0 129.000 1.035 1. –50 3. . Venezuela. .829 155.164 . 17...8 –1.436 2. 995 ..5 0. b.5 115... . . .423 .6 –200 389 2. .. 5.1 172.

which include tour- border statistics. Migrants contribute to the economies in places outside their usual environment for no more than one year of both their host country and their country of origin. emergency assistance. grant commodity aid may not always be recorded in trade try’s exports and imports. or postconflict peacekeeping assistance). and the influx of refugees nonresident tourists (overnight visitors) at national borders. For foreign policy reasons some countries have traditionally trade flow estimates from customs reports and balance of pay- received large amounts of aid. surveys. which often excludes all or some technical assistance— on trade in goods. and censuses. multilateral organizations. Several international agencies process trade reveal as much about a donor’s interests as about a recipient’s data. and other purposes not related to an activity tistics on migration are difficult to collect and are often incomplete. Data on inbound tourism show the arrivals of area. The “terms of trade” index measures the relative prices of a coun- Similarly. Balance of payments data from Committee (DAC). include travel recorded as personal transfers in the balance of payments. outbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals and departures. expenditure nonresident individuals. become more expensive or its imports cheaper. Since data on emigrant stock is difficult for countries to collect. When a Bank classifications of economies and therefore may differ from country’s net barter terms of trade index increases. The aggregates refer to World the ratio of the export price index to the import price index. remunerated from within the place visited. or military and antiterrorism purposes. The most detailed source of data on interna- ing both the numerator (aid) and the denominator (GNI). The historical data series based on Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Development Assistance BPM5 ends with data for 2005. DAC statistics exclude aid for of trade is the net barter (or commodity) terms of trade index. or food aid. When in recent periods to derive estimates of net migration. Increases in aid dependency ratios can reflect events affect- other differences. sender (irrespective of whether the sender receives income from Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 133 . the World Bank Official development assistance changed its presentation of balance of payments data to conform Data on official development assistance received refer to aid to to the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Balance of Payments eligible countries from members of the Organisation of Economic Manual. The IMF and sistent with information recorded by recipients in the balance of the World Trade Organization also collect customs-based data payments. particularly payments to expatriates made directly by the donor. taking into account the past migration history of a country or time as a new arrival. ists. The most common way to calculate terms data or in the balance of payments. These data. gram. net migration is derived through aggregates are calculated using the World Bank’s weighted aggre- the difference between the growth rate of a country’s population gation methodology (see Sources and methods) and differ from the over a certain period and the rate of natural increase of that popu- World Tourism Organization’s aggregates. the World Tourism Organization uses bal- death rate).org/external/np/sta middle. gross capital for- moving into or out of an economy or from reports of financial mation. which are individual countries. When the transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and IMF does not report data on passenger transport items. Personal and passenger transport items as defined by the BPM6. Because of differences in timing and definitions. including table shows the arrivals of international visitors. not to the number of unique individuals. and non-DAC donors. The data to data on international tourists are unavailable or incomplete. most often through migration. and crew members. is a signifi- Tourism is defined as the activity of people traveling to and staying cant part of global integration.htm. The When there are insufficient data. Yet reliable sta- for leisure.and odology. and government spending measure a country’s transactions related to merchandise trade recorded in the balance dependency on aid. lation (itself being the difference between the birth rate and the For tourism expenditure. which can be accessed at www.imf. 6th edition (BPM6). leading to needs. sions. its exports have those reported by the OECD. 2005 forward have been presented in accord with the BPM6 meth- Data do not reflect aid given by recipient countries to other low. which may have different effects on the Trade in goods economy. shown in the table. ance of payments data from the IMF supplemented by data from Migrants often send funds back to their home countries. Migration and personal remittances Tourism The movement of people. the calculate these estimates come from various sources. Data on inbound and making international comparisons a challenge. imports. each correcting unreported or misreported data.Global links 6 About the data Starting with World Development Indicators 2013. project. the migration policy of a country. same-day visitors. cruise passengers. Thus a person who makes the United Nations Population Division provides data on net migra- several trips to a country during a given period is counted each tion. administrative records. Care must be taken in drawing policy conclu- of payments. business. tional trade in goods is the United Nations Statistics Division’s Data are based on information from donors and may not be con- Commodity Trade Statistics (Comtrade) database.income countries or distinguish among types of aid (pro- /bop/bop. Data on merchandise trade are from customs reports of goods Ratios of aid to gross national income (GNI). independent of the source of income of the data for travel items are shown. Thus aid dependency ratios may ments may differ.

or merger and acquisition. End-of-period exchange rates are used for the compilation of stock where the investor starts a new venture in a foreign country by con- figures (amount of debt outstanding). based on control countries report to the DRS. social benefits. other than those nonguaranteed debt is estimated based on national data from the included in direct investment or reserve assets. Direct investments may take the form of greenfield investment. entrepreneurial or property income. private nonguaranteed debt are reported annually in aggregate by Portfolio equity investment is defined as cross-border transac- the country or estimated by World Bank staff for countries. investment in indirectly influenced or controlled enterprises. Exchange tor enters into a partnership agreement with a company abroad to rates are taken from the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. goods. wages and salaries in kind. or any by different parties during their lives. debt (except selected debt). Many countries fail to report reinvested earnings. Included in portfolio investment are investment fund shares or or unrelated individuals). Debt data are reported in the cur- and influence. and employers’ social contributions. and the reported to the DRS on a loan-by-loan basis. Equity securities are World Bank’s Quarterly External Debt Statistics. components: wages and salaries in cash.income ship results in a direct investment relationship. from creditors investment associated with equity that gives rise to control or influ- through the reporting systems of the Bank for International Settle- ence. Private tions and positions involving equity securities. World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . Personal remittances are External debt the sum of personal transfers and compensation of employees. data on long-term definition of long-term loans differs among countries. Currently. stock to be counted as FDI. equity instruments that are negotiable and designed to be traded. and External Debt Statistics.” The negotia- primary income provides a measure of a country’s ability to service bility of securities facilitates trading. 120 low. joint venture. These data are supplemented by informa- reverse investment. and projected debt service structing new operational facilities. allowing securities to be held its debt out of export earnings.S. those issued by investment funds) that are evidenced Compensation of employees refers to the income of border. Negotiability allows investors other types of transfers or disposes of assets) and the relationship to diversify their portfolios and to withdraw their investment read- between the households (irrespective of whether they are related ily. rency of repayment and compiled and published in U. or services and debt with a investor acquires an existing enterprise abroad. The IMF suggests provision for maintenance of the value of the currency of repayment that investments should account for at least 10 percent of voting are shown at book value. exchange-traded financial economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by derivatives are not included in portfolio investment because they nonresident entities. including mation on short-term debt collected by the countries. dollars. The internationally accepted definition of FDI (from BPM6) long-term public and publicly guaranteed borrowing and using infor- includes the following components: equity investment. units (that is. Data on external debt are gathered through 134 Equity flows the World Bank’s Debtor Reporting System (DRS). where the repayable in multiple currencies. services. and other short-term workers who are employed in an Although they are negotiable instruments. by securities and that are not reserve assets or direct investment. The Framework for Direct Investment Relation- tion from major multilateral banks and official lending agencies in ships provides criteria for determining whether cross-border owner- major creditor countries. ments. where the inves- and annual average exchange rates are used for the flows. In practice many countries set a higher While data related to public and publicly guaranteed debt are threshold. Total debt service as a share of exports of goods. Debt establish a new enterprise. Indebtedness Equity flows comprise foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio is calculated using loan-by-loan reports submitted by countries on equity.6 Global links labor. or based on national data from the World Bank’s Quarterly investment in fellow enterprises.and middle. and usually on organized exchanges or “over the counter. seasonal. Compensation of employees has three main are in their own category. External indebtedness affects a country’s creditworthiness and investor perceptions.

Parts 1 and 2. Madrid. and the during the period. Various years. • Net barter terms of trade index is the percent- Data on trade indexes are from the United Nations Conference on age ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) annual Handbook of Statistics. It is the sum of long-term external debt. the IMF. Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook. Various years. Compendium of Tourism Statistics 2016. with tries and territories on the DAC list of aid recipients. Madrid. and use of IMF credit. World Bank. Handbook of Statistics. 2015. They may include receipts from same-day . Exports of goods and services and primary income are the total nomic and Social Affairs. DC. Data on net official and any other prepayment made for goods or services received in development assistance are compiled by the OECD (http://stats the destination country. Various issues.income countries are published annually in fers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to the World Bank’s International Debt Statistics and International Debt or from nonresident households) and compensation of employees Statistics database. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 135 . of the world involving a change of ownership from residents to non- Data on portfolio equity are from the IMF’s Balance of Payments residents of general merchandise.aspx). nonmonetary gold. When passenger transport items are Bank staff estimates. New York and Geneva. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. or services by public and private entities in the country. or services on long-term debt. • Inbound tour- Data on tourism expenditure are from the World Tourism Organiza- ism expenditure is expenditures by international inbound visitors. Exports based on IMF balance of payments statistics and UNCTAD data refer to all transactions between residents of a country and the rest (http://unctadstat. World Population Prospects: tors • Total external debt stock is debt owed to nonresident credi- The 2015 Revision. ———. direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign inves- United Nations Population Division. including shares. Department of Eco- tors and repayable in foreign currency. receipts of compensation of nonresident workers. Data on net migration are from United Nations Population visitors. International Finan- associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. • Net official development to the World Bank through its DRS from member countries that assistance is flows (net of repayment of principal) that meet the DAC have received International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- definition of official development assistance and are made to coun- ment loans or International Development Assistance credits. expenditure data for travel items are shown. Data on personal remittances are from the IMF’s rate classification. and primary investment income from abroad. DC. • Portfolio equity is net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment or reserve assets. interest paid on short-term debt. New York: United Nations. tion’s Yearbook of Tourism Statistics and World Tourism Organization including payments to national carriers for international transport (2016) and updated from its electronic files. the (immigrants less emigrants. value of exports of goods and services. received. Summary tables of the external tances. indexes. including both citizens and noncitizens) Asian Development Bank and Asian Development Fund. Data include travel and passenger transport Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook supplemented by World items as defined by BPM6. DC. • Personal remit- Inter-American Development Bank. Washington. ———. depository receipts. 1 and 2. and services. Various years. Data on external debt are mainly from reports repairs. • Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency. measured relative to the base year 2000. World Tourism Organization. trade in services. 2016.unctad. goods. • Net migration is the net total of migrants the African Development Bank and African Development Fund.Global links 6 Definitions Data sources •  Merchandise trade includes all trade in goods and excludes Data on merchandise trade are from the World Trade Organization. goods sent for processing and Statistics Yearbook. Various years. Washington. divided by World additional information from the files of the World Bank. and cial Statistics. Vols. Data are five-year estimates. except when these are important enough to justify sepa- Division (2015).oecd.org). are the sum of personal transfers (current trans- debt of low. goods. stocks. • Foreign direct investment is cross-border investment IMF (International Monetary Fund). Bank estimates of GNI. Data on FDI are World Bank staff estimates not reported. short-term debt.org/ReportFolders/reportFolders.and middle. Yearbook of Tourism Statistics. International Debt Statistics. Washington. (remuneration for the labor input to the production process contributed by an individual in an employer-employee relationship with the References enterprise).

TAX.XD.ZS Present value of debt.org/indicator/ the URL http://wdi.XD. Private nonguaranteed DT.ZS Manufactured products.MRCH.WM.BLAT.ZS DT.PRI.10 Net official financial flows 6.DECT.LPI.XQ IQ.ZS Primary products. Simple mean tariff TM.DOD. Weighted mean tariff TM.CD IMF.WEF.CD 6.AR.VAL.WD Logistics performance index Import volume TM.IMFN.ZS Exports to high-income economies TX.a DT.XD.MD Net barter terms of trade index TT. IBRD DT. To view a specific /indicator/TX.QTY.MANF.ZS Net financial flows from bilateral sources Simple mean bound rate TM.DOD.RDBC.AR. .WD Foreign direct investment net inflows.MANF. Nonconcessional DT.5 Primary commodity prices BX.DURS.MIDA.CD.BC.NFL.WR.TOTL.IMFC.CD Total external debt.KLT.VAL.TDS.WD Lead time to import LP.org/table/6.MLAT. % of GNI DT.CD Long-term debt.TAX.GD.2 Direction and growth of merchandise trade IC. Nonconcessional DT. Binding coverage TM.MRCH.XD. $ BX..CD Commercial banks and other lendings DT.MRCH.CD World Bank. 6.DPPG.NFL.TAX.1 Growth of merchandise trade 6.4 Direction of trade of low- and middle-income Short-term debt.VAL.WD Bonds DT. Public and publicly guaranteed DT.CD Regional development banks. IDA DT. IS.MOTH.SHP.CD World view People Environment .WD Lead time to export LP.CD 6.TAX.org/table/ and the table number (for and the indicator code (for example.GN.ZS Imports from low- and middle-income economies within region TM. % of total reserves Total debt service This table provides historical commodity price data.WM.SR.ZS Weighted mean tariff TM.XD.GN.DURS.WD).MRCH.8 External debt 6.CD economies Short-term debt.PCBO.3 High-income economy trade with low- and DT.ZS ? User guide DT.PVLX. $ DT.ZS Present value of debt.ZS Exports to low- and middle-income economies outside region TX.WD Burden of customs procedures Export value TX.7 Trade facilitation Export volume TX.MRCH.RDBN.DINV.TCOM.XD.MRCH.MRCH.NFL.BOND.MRCH.TAX.worldbank. Concessional DT.ZS DT. % of exports of goods.TCOM.SM.OR.9 Global private financial flows Foreign direct investment net inflows.MRCH.AR.SM.DOD.TAX. services and primary income DT.VAL.MRCH.NFL.QTY. use the URL http://data. http://wdi.ZS Short-term debt.MRCH.DOCS Liner shipping connectivity index .EXP.TAX. Simple mean tariff TM.BR.DOD.TAX.IMP.CD World Bank.VAL.MIBR.TAX.VAL. % of GNI This table illustrates the importance of low- and middle-income economies in the global trading system.CD Regional development banks.DOD.NFL.DOD.ZS Primary products. Documents to export IC.VAL.WD This table provides estimates of the flow of trade in goods between groups of economies.MRCH.CD IMF.WEF.DSTC. % of total debt Exports to low- and middle-income economies within region .DOD.HI.VAL. Weighted mean tariff 136 LP.MRCH.6 Global links Online tables and indicators To access the World Development Indicators online tables.EX.MRCH.MRCH.XQ World Development Indicators 2016 Front TM.CD Simple mean tariff TM.NFL.worldbank. use indicator online.QTY.MD Import value TM.6 Tariff barriers All products.worldbank.a Quality of port infrastructure IQ.HI.MRCH.GCNW. Other institutions DT.IP.TAX. Concessional DT.DECT.PVLX.worldbank.DECT.CUST.DOCS Documents to import 6.AR.SM.org example.WR.NFL.IR..IMP.CD.DSTC. % of GDP BX.DOD.NFL.OVRL.XQ 6.EXP.KLT.OR.ZS Imports from low- and middle-income economies outside region TM.MRCH.ZS 6.ZS Long-term debt.NFL.XQ Total external debt.ZS Portfolio equity 6..MRCH.NFL.WD.PEF.ZS Net financial flows from multilateral sources DT.ZS Manufactured products.DPNG.DINV.AR.1). $ middle-income economies DT.ZS TM.DSTC.a TX.DOD.PORT.AR.ZS Share of tariff lines with international peaks Share of tariff lines with specific rates TM.ZS Imports from high-income economies TM.NFL.EX.WM. http://data.CD Regional development banks.

DAC.CD France DC.WD 6.POP.INT.TRF. % of exports Outbound tourism expenditure.CD Norway DC.ZS SM.POP. b.DAC.REFG Personal remittances.ODAT.MP.CD Inbound tourism expenditure. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 137 .POP.INT.Global links 6 6.ZS International migrant stock Net ODA.ODAT.DAC.TRF.EXTA.DAC. $ ST.USAL.ODAT.TECH.GN.DAC.CD Japan DC.XPND.DAC..CD United States DC.DT 6.ODAT.ZS Grants.JPNL.DT Personal remittances.12 Distribution of net aid by Development Assistance SM.CD Germany DC.REFG.TERT.ODA. not as an individual indicator.CD Australia DC.PWKR.ARVL International outbound tourists ST.a.RCPT.ODA.ZS Net ODA.DAC.INT.TOTL. excluding technical cooperation BX.XP.PC.XPND.CD Netherlands DC.EMI.CD.TOTL Emigration rate of tertiary educated to OECD countries Refugees by country of origin Committee members SM.ODA. % of central government expenditure DT.CD United Kingdom DC.CD Economy DC.ODA.ZS SM. % of imports of goods and services and income DT.ODA. Received BX.ZS Net ODA.INT.CECL.ODA.INT.11 Aid dependency Sweden Net official development assistance (ODA) Net ODA per capita DT.MP.CD Outbound tourism expenditure.DAC.NETM SM. Paid BM.ODAT.GRT.DEUL.13 Movement of people Technical cooperation grants BX.XP.14 Travel and tourism Net bilateral aid flows from DAC donors DC.b Other DAC donors DT.NLDL. % of gross capital formation DT.ODAT.CD .CD. % of imports ST.NORL.DAC.PWKR.INT.RCPT.OR Refugees by country of asylum 6.GRT.FRAL.ZS a.SWEL.DPRT Inbound tourism expenditure. Available online only as part of the table.WD Net migration Net ODA.DAC.CD.DAC. $ ST.CD.ZS ST.AUSL.POP.CD EU institutions DC.GI. Derived from data elsewhere in the World Development Indicators database.CD States and markets International inbound tourists ST.GBRL. % of GNI DT.

138 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .

Discrepancies in data presented in different editions of World Development Indicators reflect updates by countries as well as revisions to historical series and changes in methodology.S. Consistent time series data for 1960–2014 are available at http://databank . the World Bank recognizes the importance of data documentation to inform users of the methods and conventions used by primary data collectors— usually national statistical agencies. practices. and customs services—and by international organizations. Other statistical procedures and calculations are described in the About the data sections following each table. and cross-country and intertemporal comparisons involve complex technical and conceptual problems that cannot be resolved unequivocally.worldbank. central banks. and definitions differ widely. reliability. Considerable effort has been made to standardize the data. but full comparability cannot be assured. coverage. It also describes the World Bank Atlas method for deriving the conversion factor used to estimate gross national income (GNI) and GNI per capita in U. reliability. Statistical systems in many of the poorest countries are limited. Although drawn from sources thought to be the most authoritative. dollars. Data relevant at the national level may not be suitable for standardized international use due to methodological concerns or the lack of clear documentation. This section describes some of the statistical practices and procedures used in preparing World Development Indicators.worldbank. Therefore readers are advised not to compare data series between printed editions of World Development Indicators or between different World Bank publications. It covers data consistency. Additional documentation and metadata are available in the World Development Indicators database at http://databank. and comparability. such as problems stemming from conflicts. Delays in reporting data and the use of old surveys as the basis for current estimates may further compromise the quality of data reported. Data availability.org/wdi. and comparability Many factors affect data availability. comparability. so care must be taken in interpreting the indicators. Data coverage may not be complete because of special circumstances affecting the collection and reporting of data.worldbank.org/wdi and from a dashboard of the statistical capacity of countries at http://datatopics.org /statisticalcapacity. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 139 . data should be understood only as indicating trends and characterizing major differences among economies rather than as offering precise quantitative measures of those differences. and the methods employed for calculating regional and income group aggregates and for calculating growth rates. reliability. which compile the statistics that appear in the World Development Indicators database. statistical Economy States and markets methods. reporting standards of key indicators.Sources and methods As a major user of development data.

Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus 140 CFA franc Burundi franc Cabo Verde escudo Cambodian riel CFA franc Canadian dollar Cayman Islands dollar CFA franc CFA franc Pound sterling Chilean peso Chinese yuan Hong Kong dollar Macao pataca Colombian peso Comorian franc Congolese franc CFA franc Costa Rican colon CFA franc Croatian kuna Cuban peso Netherlands Antillean guilder Euro World Development Indicators 2016 2002/03 a 1996 1980 2000 2002 2006 2004 a 1996 a 2013/14 2010 2000 a 2000 2006 2010 2005/06 1974 a a 2000 2010 2000 2007 2006 2000 1990 a 2006 1995 2000 2010 2000 a 2010 1999 2005 2007 2000 2000 a 2010 2007 2000 2005 2003 2008 2000 2007 a 2013 2012 2005 1990 2005 1990 1991 2009 a 1997 a 2010 2005 2005 Front Balance of payments and trade Government IMF data finance dissem­ ination standard Balance of Payments Manual in use External debt System of trade Accounting concept 6 6 6 A A A G S S C C B G G G A 2011 2011 2011 Rolling 1992–95 2011 2011 2011 2011 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 B B C C G G S S C C C C B C S S G G G G B C C B B G S S G G C C C G G G G S S S B C C G S G S Alternative conversion factor 1993 1993 1968 1968 1968 1993 1968 2008 1993 1993 2008 2008 1993 1993 2008 1993 B P B B B B B B B B P B 1993 1993 2008 1993 1968 1993 1993 1968 1993 P B B B B B B B B 2011 2011 Rolling 2011 1992 2011 2011 2011 1960–85 2011 Rolling 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1993 1993 1993 1993 B B P B 6 6 6 6 E A 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 2008 1993 1968 1993 1968 1993 1993 2008 1993 1993 1968 1968 1968 1993 1968 1993 1993 1993 B B P B B B 2011 2011 2011 1978–89. The Bahrain Bangladesh Afghan afghani Albanian lek Algerian dinar U. Congo.S. Rep. China Macao SAR.Sources and methods Currency National accounts SNA System of price Reference National Accounts valuation year Base year Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas. Rolling 1991–92 1992–93 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 6 6 6 6 6 6 A A A A A G G S G S G B B C B B C G G G G G S 6 6 A E S B G G G G G G S C C C C C S S G S S B B C B C S S S G S G G G S G S G C S 1993 ? B B B PPP survey year B B B B P B B B P B P B P B B B User guide Rolling 2011 2011b 1991–96 2011 2011 1971–84 1990–95 1990–95 2011 2011 2011 2011 1992–94 2011 2011 1999–2001 2011 1993 2011 2011 2011 Rolling 2011 2011 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Rolling 6 1978–93 World view G S G G G S G G G G A A P G G S G G G G G S A A A A A A A P A A P A A A People Environment . China Colombia Comoros Congo. Dem. dollar Euro Angolan kwanza East Caribbean dollar Argentine peso Armenian dram Aruban florin Australian dollar Euro New Azeri manat Bahamian dollar Bahraini dinar Bangladeshi taka Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Barbados dollar Belarusian rubel Euro Belize dollar CFA franc Bermuda dollar Bhutanese ngultrum Bolivian Boliviano Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark Botswana pula Brazilian real Brunei dollar Bulgarian lev Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cabo Verde Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Channel Islands Chile China Hong Kong SAR.

Rep. The Bahrain Bangladesh 1979 2011 2008 2010 2011c 2014 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2011c 2009 2010 2010 c 2011 Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina 2010 2009 2011d 2010 2013 2010 2005 2012 2013 Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria 2011 2010 2011 2011 Burkina Faso Burundi Cabo Verde Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Channel Islands Chile China Hong Kong SAR. 2011/12 WHS. 2008 MICS. 2014. Rep. HIV/MCH SPA. 2015 IHS.Latest population census Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas. 2012 2011 2012 2012 2010 2012 2006–10 2010 Yes Yes Yes Yesg Yes 2014/15 2013 2013e 2011 2007 2007 2014/15 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Global links 2001 2011 2015 2006 Yes Yes States and markets 2014 2014 2014 2000 2006 2012 2014 Yes DHS. 2015 IHS. 2013/14 MICS 2014/15 MICS. 2014 IHS. 2008 PS. 2015 DHS. 2006 ES/BS. 2004 1-2-3. or health household survey DHS. 2015/16 MICS. 1999 CWIQ. 2013 IHS. 2006 CWIQ. 2012 DHS. 2012/13 CWIQ/PS. 2015 DHS. 2012 PS. 2014 MIS. 2007 IHS. 2010 IHS. 2003 ES/BS. 2014 MICS. 2012 LSMS. 2009/10 IHS. 2014 CWIQ. 2011/12 IHS. 2013 IHS. 2012 2012 2010 Latest trade data Back 2014/15 2014 2014/15 2010e 2010 2000 2002 2012 2007 2012 2012 2012 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2011 2005 2012 2011 2012 2013 2002 2012 2003 2008 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2012 2014 2014 2005 2013 2009 2000 2001 2014 2014 2014 2014 2000 2010 1994 2009 2014 2014 2014 2013 2014 2014 2013 2014 1995 2005 2000 2001 2006 2000 2009 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2013 2006 2005 2008 2009 2012 2005 2005 2009 2012 2014 2013 2014 2014 2006 2008 1999 2005 2002 2013 2005 2010 2013 2012 2014 2009 World Development Indicators 2016 141 . 2012 IHS. 2011 LSMS. 2011 NSS. 2013 LSMS. 2012 DHS. 2007 LFS. Congo. 2014 MICS. 2014 IHS. 2007 ES/BS. 2010 DHS. 2013 IHS. Dem. 2003 MICS. 2014/15 PS. 2011 IHS. 2012 MICS. 2013 DHS. 2015 Source of most recent income and expenditure data IHS. 2013 IHS. 2010 Yes Yes Yes 2010 2011 2011 2012 Yes MICS. 2014. 2012 LFS. 2010 MICS. 2013 LSMS. 2008/09 MICS. education. 2011/12 MICS. 2011/12 DHS. 2014 Latest water withdrawal data IHS. 2011 DHS. 2008/09 MICS. 2009 CWIQ. 2012/13 DHS. 2005 DHS. 2012 LSMS. 1995 Vital Latest Latest registration agricultural industrial complete census data Yes 2012 Yes Yes 2008 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2007 2008 2014 2002 2011 2010 2015 2012 2012 2012 2008 2010 2011 IHS. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Economy 2006 2008 2010 2008 2005 2011 2010 2003 2009 2009/11f 2012 2010 2011 2011 2006 2003 1984 2007 2011 2014 2011 2012 2011 Latest demographic. 2012 IHS. 2014 2009e 2013 Yes Yes Yes IHS. 2007 MICS. 2013 IHS. China Macao SAR. 2000 WHS. China Colombia Comoros Congo. MIS. 2015 DHS. 2010 DHS.

El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Polynesia Gabon Gambia.S. dollar Guatemalan quetzal Guinean franc CFA franc Guyana dollar Haitian gourde Honduran lempira Hungarian forint Iceland krona Indian rupee Indonesian rupiah Iranian rial Iraqi dinar Euro Pound sterling Israeli new shekel Euro Jamaican dollar Japanese yen Jordanian dinar Kazakh tenge Kenyan shilling Australian dollar Democratic People’s Republic of Korean won Korean won Euro Kuwaiti dinar Kyrgyz som Lao kip Euro Lebanese pound World Development Indicators 2016 a 2010 2010 a 1990 2006 2007 2007 2011/12 1990 2006 2000 a 2010 2010/11 2005 a 2010 2010 a 1990 2001 2004 a 1996 2010 a 2006 a 2010 1990 2006 2001 2003 2005 2006 1986/87 2000 a 2010 2010 a 2011/12 2010 2004/05 2007 a 2010 a 2010 2010 2003 a 2007 a 2010 a 2005 1994 2009 2006 2010 2008 2010 a 1995 a 2010 2002 1997 Front 2008 2008 1968 1993 1993 2008 1993 1968 1968 1968 2008 1993 1993 1993 2008 2008 1993 1993 1993 1993 2008 1993 2008 1993 1968 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1968 1993 2008 2008 2008 1993 1993 1968 2008 1968 2008 2008 1993 1993 1968 1993 2008 1993 1968 B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B 2008 1993 1993 1993 1993 2008 1993 B B B B B B B ? B P B B B B Balance of payments and trade Alternative conversion factor P B B B B B B B User guide Balance of Payments Manual in use Rolling Rolling 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 1965–84 2011 1987–95 Rolling 2011 2011 Rolling Rolling 2011b 1993 2011 2011 1990–95 2011 Rolling 1973–87 2011 Rolling B B B B B B B B B B B B P B PPP survey year 2011 2011b 2011 2011 2011 1991 1988–89 2011 2011 Rolling Rolling 2011 2011 1980–2002 2011 1997.S. Islamic Rep. Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon 142 Czech koruna Danish krone Djibouti franc East Caribbean dollar Dominican peso U. 2004 2011 Rolling 2011 Rolling 2011 2011 2011 1987–95 2011 2011 2011b 2011 2011 2011 2011 1987–95 Rolling 2011 1990–95 World view 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 External debt E 6 A 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A A E A A A 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 System of trade Accounting concept S G C C S G S G G B C B C C B G G C B S G G S S S B C C G S S+ G G S G S G C C C B C G G S S+ G S B G B B G C C C C C C B C G G G G G G S S S S G G S S G S G S G G S C C C C B C B C S S+ G S S S G G G C S G C B B C B S G G S A A A A A A 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Government IMF data finance dissem­ ination standard A A E A A A G S S S S G G S A A A A A A A A A A S S A People S S G G G S S S S G Environment . Dem. Rep.S. Korea. dollar Egyptian pound U. The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Greenland Grenada Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran. Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea. Arab Rep.Sources and methods Currency National accounts SNA System of price Reference National Accounts valuation year Base year Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt. dollar CFA franc Eritrean nakfa Euro Ethiopian birr Danish krone Fijian dollar Euro Euro CFP franc CFA franc Gambian dalasi Georgian lari Euro New Ghanaian cedi Euro Danish krone East Caribbean dollar U. People’s Rep.

2012 IHS. 2013 MICS. 2014 ES/BS. People’s Rep. 2010 IHS. 2012 MICS. Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon 2010 2011 2011 2009 2005 2011d 1943 MICS. 2003 FHS. 2012 MICS. 2012 RHS. 2003 DHS. 2010 IHS. 2006 IHS. 2014 ES/BS. 2014 CWIQ/IHS. 2010/11 Vital Latest Latest registration agricultural industrial complete census data Yes Yes Yes ES/BS. 2014/15 DHS.Latest population census Latest demographic. 2013/14 FHS. 2011d 2011c 2009 2011 2010 2010 2006 2007 2002 1984 2012d 2007 2011 2007 2010c 2006h 2007 2013 2013 2014 2011 2010 2011 2010c 2011 2010 2002 2014 2009 2012 2003 2013 2011 2011d 2011 2010 2011 1997 2011 2011 2009d 2012d 2011 2010 2004 2009 2009 2010 2008 DHS. 2003 HIV/MCH SPA. 2013 IHS. 2011 DHS. 2011 LSMS. 2005. 2011/12 IHS. 2012 CWIQ. Rep. 2012 IHS. 2013 DHS. 2012 ES/BS. El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Polynesia Gabon Gambia. 2014 ES/BS. Islamic Rep. 2014 DHS. 1998 IHS. 2014 PS. 2005/06 DHS. 1998 IHS. 2011 States and markets LSMS. 2005 IHS. 1993 IHS. 2012 IHS. 2006 PS. 2002 WHS. 2011/12 WHS. 2012 LSMS. 2010/11 IHS. 2014 MICS. 2009 MICS. 2015 MICS. 1996 MICS. 1985 DHS. 2004 HIS. 2013 IHS. 2015 DHS. 2011 CWIQ. 2010 IS. 2014 HIV/MCH SPA. 2012 IHS. The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Greenland Grenada Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran. Arab Rep. 2004 IHS. 2012 ES/BS. 2012 ES/BS. 2012 IHS. 2012 IrMIDHS. 2012 Global links Yes 2010 2014 Yes Yes Yes Yes Back 2010/11 2010 2010 2012 2014 2005 2012 2010 2014 2013 2012 2007 2014 2014 2002 2006 2005 2002 2005 World Development Indicators 2016 143 . Dem. 2012 ITR. 2009 Korea. 2014 MICS/DHS. 2013 IHS. 2014 IHS. 2005 IHS. 2011/12 WHS. 2008 ES/BS. 2005 DHS. 2012 MICS. 2003 Source of most recent income and expenditure data MICS. 2012 PS. 2014 RHS. education. or health household survey Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt. 2012 DHS. 2014 IHS. 2005/06 2010 2010 2015e 2015 2012 2012 2008 2010 Yes Yes 2009/10 2007/08 2015 Yes 2010 2012 2012 2009 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2009 2010 2010 2011 2012 2012 2011/12 2004 2012 2012 2003 2012 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2010 2009 2012 2007 2013 2008/09 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2010 2010 2010/11 2013 2014 2011/12 2010 2010 2007 2010 2007 2006/07 2012 2005 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2012 Latest trade data Latest water withdrawal data 2014 2014 2009 2012 2014 2014 2014 2014 2012 2012 2000 2010 2010 2005 2000 2005 2000 2004 2012 2002 2003 2014 2014 2009 2014 2014 2014 2014 2009 2014 2014 2014 2013 2014 2014 2009 2000 2006 2010 2005 2000 2008 2010 2000 2007 2014 2014 2014 2005 2014 1997 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2011 2013 2014 2006 2001 2000 2010 2009 2003 2012 2005 2010 2000 2004 2000 2009 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2013 2013 2004 2008 2007 2009 2005 2010 2010 2005 ES/BS. 2012 MICS. 2012 IHS. 2011 ES/BS. 2010 LSMS. 2012 DHS. Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea. RHS. 2010 ES/BS. 2014 KDHS. 2008/09 IHS. 2004 Economy WHS.

dollar 2000 Libyan dinar 2003 Swiss franc 1990 a Euro a Euro Macedonian denar 2005 Malagasy ariary 1984 Malawi kwacha 2009 Malaysian ringgit 2010 Maldivian rufiyaa 2003 CFA franc 1987 a Euro U.S. dollar 2003/04 a Moldovan leu Euro 1990 Mongolian tugrik 2010 Euro 2000 Moroccan dirham 2007 New Mozambican metical 2009 Myanmar kyat 2005/06 Namibian dollar 2010 Nepalese rupee 2000/01 a Euro CFP franc 1990 a New Zealand dollar Nicaraguan gold cordoba 2006 CFA franc 2006 Nigerian naira 2010 U.S. dollar 2003/04 Mauritanian ouguiya 2004 Mauritian rupee 2006 Mexican peso 2008 U.S. Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Lesotho loti 2004 U.S. dollar 1953/54 Qatari riyal 2013 New Romanian leu 2005 Russian Federation Rwanda Samoa San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe Saudi Arabia Senegal 144 1993 1968 1993 1993 2008 2008 1993 1968 1993 1993 1993 1968 1993 1968 1993 1993 2008 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1968 1993 1993 2008 1993 2008 1993 1993 2008 1968 2008 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 2008 2008 1968 1993 1993 B B B B P B B B Russian ruble 2000 Rwandan franc 2011 Samoan tala 2008/09 Euro 1990 São Tomé and Principe 2001 1993 2008 1993 1993 1993 B P B B P dobra Saudi Arabian riyal CFA franc 1993 1993 P B World Development Indicators 2016 2010 2010 2005 1996 2010 2010 2010 2005 2010 2010 1999 Front ? B P B B B B B B B P B B B B B B B B B B B P B B P B B B B B B P B B P P B User guide Balance of payments and trade Alternative conversion factor PPP survey year Balance of Payments Manual in use 2011 2011 1986 6 6 6 External debt System of trade Accounting concept A A G B C G G G C C C C B B C B C B S S S G G S G G S G G S S G S G 1990–95 Rolling Rolling Rolling 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 Rolling 2011b 2011 2011 2011 2011b 1990–95 2011 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A A A 2011 Rolling 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 Rolling 2011b 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011b Rolling 2011 2011 2011b 2011 2011b 2011 2011 2011 Rolling Rolling 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A A A A E 1992–95 1965–95 1993 1971–98 1989 1985–90 A A A E A A G G G G G A A A A G S S G G G S S G G G G G A G G G A A A A A A C C B C C C B C B B C G G S G G G G S+ C B B B G G G C B B B C B C C B C C S G G G G G G S S S S+ B C G S S G G G G G G 6 6 A 2011 2011 2011b 6 6 6 A A G G G 2011 6 A S C B B C B 2011 2011 6 6 A G G B World view 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 S S S G G G G G G S G G S G S S G G S 2011 1987–89. Rolling 1992 1987–95 1994 6 6 6 Government IMF data finance dissem­ ination standard People Environment .S.S. FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia. dollar a Norwegian krone Rial Omani 2010 Pakistani rupee 2005/06 U. Fed. Sts.Sources and methods Currency National accounts SNA System of price Reference National Accounts valuation year Base year Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia. dollar 2004/05 Panamanian balboa 2007 Papua New Guinea kina 1998 Paraguayan guarani 1994 Peruvian new sol 2007 Philippine peso 2000 a Polish zloty a Euro U.

FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia. 2009/10 LSMS. HIV/MCH SPA. 2004 IHS. 2014 ES/BS. 2013 MCH SPA. 2000 ES/BS. education. 2013 EPSF. 2012 2011 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2008 2012 2012 2010 2009 2012 2010 2006 2013 2009 2001 2001 2010 2011 2010 2011 2011 2006 2010 2012 2012 2014 2014 2014 2014 2010 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2012 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2007 2009 2009 2010 2010 2001 2000 2002 2006 2010 2010 2011 2005 2005 2006 2003 2008 2010 2005 2012 2008 2009 2012 2007 2005 2005 2009 2014 2014 2014 2001 2000 2014 1993 2013 2014 2006 2002 Yes States and markets Global links 2011/12 2010 2014 Back 2006 2012 World Development Indicators 2016 145 . 2007 Source of most recent income and expenditure data ES/BS. 2009/10 IHS. 2007 ES/BS. 2014 IHS. 2014 IHS. 2014 PS. 1996 RHS. 2013 FHS. 2010 Saudi Arabia Senegal 2010 2013 Demographic survey. 2012 MICS. 2015 LSMS. Sts. 2010/11 IHS. 2012 MICS. 2014/15 DHS. 2013 IHS. 2006/07 DHS. 2010/11 IS. 1995/96 MICS. 2012/13 Vital Latest Latest registration agricultural industrial complete census data Yes IHS. 2015 PS. 2012 RHS-Ro. 2011 MIS. 2008 Continuous DHS. 2011/12 Economy DHS. 2009/10 RMIDHS. 2015/16 DHS. 2012 MICS. 2013 ES/BS. 2012 MIS. 2009/10 IHS. 2010 PS. 2003 DHS. 2012 IHS. 2010 CWIQ. 2013 MICS. 2014 DHS. 2013 RHS. 2015. 2014 DHS. 2007 MICS. 2007 Continuous DHS. 2010 IHS. Fed. 2015 WHS. 2010/11 MICS. 2014 IHS. 2013 IHS. 2012 ES/BS. 2009 MICS. 2013 LSMS. 2015 ES/BS. 2008/09 ES/BS. 2009/10 IS. 2014 CWIQ/PS. 2015 RHS. 2015/16 WHS. or health household survey Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia. 2003 MICS. 2003 DHS. 2007 ES/BS. 1999 IHS. 2011 IHS. 2013 DHS. 2008 IHS. 2014 DHS.Latest population census Latest demographic. Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania 2006 2008 2006 2010 d 2011d 2011 2002 1993 2008 2010 2014 2009 2011 2011 2013 2011 2010 2010 2014 2008 c 2010 2011 2014 2007 2014 2011 2011 2011d 2009 2013 2005 2012 2006 2010 2011c 2010 1998 2010 2010 2011 2012 2007 2010 2011d 2011 2010 2010 2011 Russian Federation Rwanda Samoa San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe 2010 2012 2011 2010 2012 WHS. 2015 IHS. 2014 ES/BS. MIS. 2015. 2014 DHS. 2010/11 2009/10 2010 2014/15 2011/12 2010 2012 2011 2004–08 2013 2007 2010 2012/13 2010 2012 2011 2012 2010 2002 2012 2012 2006 Yes MICS. 2012 ES/BS. 2013/14 MICS. 2012 Yes Yes Yes Yes Latest trade data Latest water withdrawal data 2010 2012 2014/15 2010 2000 2000 2000 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2012 2014 2007 2012 2007 2000 2005 2005 2008 2006 2002 2014 2014 2014 2013 2014 2005 2003 2011 2006/07 2015 2012 2011 2010 2006 2010 2012 Yes 2010 2010 Yes Yes 2014 2007 2012 2010 Yes Yes Yes Yes 2011 2012 2011 2010 2011 Yes Yes 2010 2010 2007 2012 Yes Yes Yes LSMS. 2009 IHS. 2010/11 AIS.

S. Zambia Zimbabwe 146 U.S. 6 6 6 A E E P A A S S S E A A A G S A A S G S A A E G S 1997–2007 Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela.S. dirham 2007 a Pound sterling a U.E.A.S. dollar Uruguayan peso 2005 a Uzbek sum Vanuatu vatu 2006 Venezuelan bolivar fuerte 1997 Vietnamese dong 2010 U.S. Vincent and the Grenadines Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Sudanese pound Suriname dollar Swaziland lilangeni Swedish krona Swiss franc Syrian pound Tajik somoni Tanzanian shilling Thai baht U.S. RB Vietnam Virgin Islands (U. 1998 2011 2011 2011 2011 World view G 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A 6 6 6 6 E A A A A G G S G G S G G G G G A E S G G People B C C C C C C B C C C B B G G S G S S+ S G G G S G G G Environment . dollar Australian dollar 2005 Ugandan shilling 2009/10 a Ukrainian hryvnia U. Lucia St. Rep. dollar 2009 World Development Indicators 2016 2003 Front 2010 2010 1997 1993 1968 2008 1993 1993 2008 2008 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1968 1968 1993 2008 1993 ? B B B P B B B B B B P B P B B User guide 2011 2011b 2011 1987–95 2011 2011 Rolling 2011 2011 1990–95 2011b 2011 1991 2011 1990–96 1990–92 1991. dollar 1982 Israeli new shekel 2004 Yemeni rial 2007 New Zambian kwacha 2010 U. Martin St.) West Bank and Gaza Yemen. Kitts and Nevis St. dollar CFA franc Tongan pa’anga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan dollar Tunisian dinar New Turkish lira New Turkmen manat a 2010 Balance of payments and trade Alternative conversion factor PPP survey year Balance of Payments Manual in use Government IMF data finance dissem­ ination standard External debt System of trade Accounting concept A G G C C C C G S G S S S S C C B S S G G C S S G S C B B B S+ S G G 1993 1993 1993 2008 1993 B B B B Rolling 2011 2011 2011 2011 6 6 6 6 2008 2008 1993 1968 2008 1993 2008 1993 1993 1968 1993 1993 B B B B B Rolling Rolling 2011b 6 6 6 2011 6 B P B B Rolling 2011 2011 2011 6 6 6 6 A B 2011 6 A S C G B B B B B B B B P B P B B 2011 2011 2011 Rolling Rolling 1970–2010 2011 1990–95 2011 2011 2011 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 P G G 2007 2002 2010 2000 2010/11 2000 1968 1993 1993 2008 2008 1968 1993 2008 1993 2008 1968 1993 1993 B B B C C B C B C C B C G G G S+ S G G G S G G G G 2010 1998 2005 1993 1993 1993 B B B 2011 Rolling C C S S 2006 2006 2010 a 2010 2010 a 2004 1985 2010 2009 a 2010 2010 2006 2006 2006 1981/82i 2007 2011 1996 a 2010 2010 a 2000 a 2000 1977–90 2011 2011b 2011 1987–95.Sources and methods Currency National accounts SNA System of price Reference National Accounts valuation year Base year Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten New Serbian dinar Seychelles rupee Sierra Leonean leone Singapore dollar Netherlands Antillean guilder Euro Euro Solomon Islands dollar Somali shilling South African rand South Sudanese pound Euro Sri Lankan rupee East Caribbean dollar East Caribbean dollar Euro East Caribbean dollar Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka St.

2012 IHS. Population data compiled from administrative registers in combination with other sources of data. 2012/13 MICS. 2011/12 IHS. 2014 DHS. 2011 Vital Latest Latest registration agricultural industrial complete census data Yes Yes 2012 2011 Yes Yes IS. Latest population census: Guernsey. 2014 Source of most recent income and expenditure data Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten 2011 2010 2004 2010 c 2011 Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka St. 1999 ES/BS. 2012 ES/BS. 2007 CWIQ. 2012 LSMS. 2011 IHS. 2012 ES/BS. 2011 ES/BS. 2011. 1995 2011 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2012 2012 IHS. 2009. Lucia St. f. 2013 ES/BS. 2000 MICS. livestock census. 2010 MICS. livestock and aquaculture census. h. 2008 MICS. Vincent and the Grenadines Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago 2011 2011c 2009 1987 2011 2008 2011d 2012 2011 2010 2008 2012 2007 2011c 2010d 2004 2010 2012 2010 2010 2010 2006 2011 MICS. Zambia Zimbabwe 2012 2012 2014 2001 2010 2011 2010 2011 1989 2009 2011 2009 2010 2007 2004 2010 2012 DHS. 2007 MIS. 2003 MICS. 2006/07 MICS. 2015/16 IHS. 2013 MICS. 2003. 2005/06 DHS. 2013/14 IS. 2012 ES/BS. Reporting period switch from fiscal year to calendar year from 1996. Population data compiled from administrative registers. 2014 ES/BS. 2010/11 ES/BS. 2009 IHS. Rep. Natural resources census.Latest population census Latest demographic. 2012/13 DHS. 2013 NHS.S. 2014 Latest trade data 2012 2010 2012 2011 2007 2008 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012 2008 2010 2012 2008 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2012 2011 2013 2014 2007 2005 2014 2014 2014 2014 2005 2005 2002 2002 2000 2012 2010 2009 2008 2010 2005 2011 2005 2000 2005 Note: For explanation of the abbreviations used in the table. 2009 IHS. 2009/10 IS. 2012 MICS. 2012 DHS. RB Vietnam Virgin Islands (U. 2010 IHS. 2005 IHS. 2012 IHS. Martin St. g. 2013 DHS. 2013/14 Tonga DHS.) West Bank and Gaza Yemen. 2013 IHS. d. Vital registration for Guernsey and Jersey. Kitts and Nevis St. WHS. 2012 LFS. 1992 Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan 2014 2011d 2012 MICS. Rolling census based on continuous sample survey. 1998 Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela. Jersey. 2011 BS. or sample agricultural census. or health household survey MICS. 2010 WHS. 2011 IHS. 2010 IHS. 2006 DHS. Household consumption only. such as a sample surveys. 2013/14 DHS. 2009 ES/BS. 2013. 2013 LSMS. Original chained constant price data are rescaled. 2006 MICS. 2011 ES/BS. 2003 2014 2008 2014 2014 2011 2012 Yes Yes Latest water withdrawal data 2010 2010 Yes MICS. 2003 WHS. c. 2011/12 2008/09 Yes Yes Yes Yes 2007 2012 2007 2015 2008/09 Yes Yes Yes Yes 2009 2005 2005 1975 2014 2014 2014 2010 2009 Yes Tuvalu DHS. i. 2014/15 MICS. education. 2011/12 Turkey DHS. 2014 2010 2014 2009 2013 2011 2011 2014 2014 2011 2014 2003 2000 2011 2010 2005 2012 2007 2012 2013 2012 2014 2007 2014 2014 2010 2000 2014 2014 2013 2013 2014 2010 2011 2006 2000 2010 2012 2005 2006 2002 2007 2004 2002 2013 2014 2000 2011 2003 2004 2007 2001 2003 Yes Yes 2010 2010 2012 2012 2005 2013 2007/08 2013 2010 2011 2011–14 2014 Yes 2006 2014 MICS. 2015 IHS. 2014 ES/BS. MIS. 2012 WHS. 2007 LSMS. e. 2006 DHS. 2012/13 ES/BS. Economy States and markets Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 147 . 2013 IHS. a. see notes following the table. 2012 ES/BS. 2009/10 DHS. 2003 SIDHS. 2015/16 MICS. 2010 IHS. 2006/07 IHS. 2006/07 ES/BS. 2012/13 MICS. 2007/08 MICS. b. 2014 MICS. Pre-1996 data converted to calendar year.

shows whether value added in the national accounts is System (GDDS). • Latest population census shows the most household consumption as well as on general demo- of the IMF’s Balance of Payments Manual (2009). HIS is to base year prices. and satisfaction with core PPPs. Under the special trade system cover the entire population simultaneously. MIS is Malaria Indicator Survey. Inte- • External debt shows debt reporting status for 2014 which at least preliminary results have been released. financial. able at www. • Government finance is National Health Survey. FHS is Family Health Survey. HIS. ance. Tuvalu DHS is Tuvalu 2008 SNA is an update of the 1993 SNA and retains its tries that subscribe to the IMF’s Special Data Dissemi- Demographic and Health Survey. • Alternative conversion factor identifies for member countries that have or might seek access income and expenditure data shows household sur- the countries and years for which a World Bank–esti- to international capital markets to guide them in provid- veys that collect income and expenditure data. and economic characteristics. G refers to countries detailed information on WHS is available at www.org. Core Welfare Sources and methods for further discussion of alterna- sociodemographic statistics. Budgetary central government Demographic and Health Survey. developed by tive conversion factors. special system of trade. recent year in which a census was conducted and in graphic. including health. are based on reported or collected information but could be reflected in timely revisions if basic data are education. include an element of staff estimation. In some compilations categories b and c are classi- Study. The reference year is usually the same as that have been declared for domestic consumption and IrMIDHS is Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and the base year used to report the constant price series. income. MCH SPA is Maternal and Child Health Service caled to a specific reference year to provide a consis- fied as re-exports. value added can be higher at basic prices than icity. • Latest lect information on employment. constant price data reported in World Development tries government finance data have been consolidated vey. and wages. SIDHS is Solomon Islands (2005) and currency (U. RMIDHS is Republic of the Marshall Islands Demo- Indicators are rescaled to a common reference year (C) into one set of accounts capturing all central govern- graphic and Health Survey. Expenditure survey/ the classification system used to compile and report also expected to improve the functioning of financial budget surveys (ES/BS) collect detailed information on data on balance of payments. IMF member countries Indicator Questionnaire Surveys (CWIQ). The • IMF data dissemination standard shows the coun- Demographic and Health Survey. or 2008 System of National Accounts (SNA).org). Demographic and Health Survey.childinfo. taxable income. and timeliness requirements.who at producer prices in countries with high agricultural that subscribe to the GDDS. hours goods are recorded as imports when declared for demographic. the World Bank. exports are categories a and Health Survey. The and detailed information on household surveys can be official exchange rate (line rf in the International Mon- GDDS helps countries disseminate comprehensive. For most coun- Survey. See timely. try is valued. P that data The preliminary results from the very recent censuses tion on a wide variety of topics. Labor force surveys (LFS) col- as imports at arrival. • Source of most recent subsidies. education.surveynetwork. accounts (B) exclude some central government units. dollars). Names mated conversion factor has been used in place of the ing their economic and financial data to the public. accessible.int/healthinfo/survey/en. DHS. The SDDS was established . such as the implicit deflator for gross national goods wholly or partly produced in the country.S.Country table notes 148 • Base year is the base or pricing period used for con- domestic consumption whether at time of entry or on indicates the household surveys used to compile the stant price calculations in the country’s national withdrawal from customs storage. 6 refers to the 6th edition markets. or health household survey of work. Price indexes derived from national accounts general system comprise outward-moving goods: (a) AIS is AIDS Indicator Survey.com. Health Survey. • System of National ment fiscal activities. MICS is Multiple Indica- tent time series. Direct transit trade—goods entering Provision Assessment Survey. utilization. • SNA price valuation nation Standard (SDDS) or General Data Dissemination Health Survey. A provide information on a population’s income and allow- tem goods entering directly for domestic consumption rare case. and MIS is available at www reported at basic prices (B) or producer prices (P). and WHS is World basic theoretical framework. so the data are res- c. Exports under the demographic. coverage. Tonga DHS is Tonga Accounts identifies whether a country uses the 1968. neither transformed nor declared for and Family Health. Pro- the SDDS and have posted data on the Dissemination . Living Standards World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment . period- is available at www. S refers to countries that subscribe to HIV/MCH SPA. Turkey DHS is Turkey 1993. MCH SPA. and (c) nationalized goods and Child Health Service Provision Assessment Survey. A indicates that data are as reported. and reliable economic. The SDDS is social and economic services. RHS is Reproductive Health allow for cross-country comparison and data aggrega- ing central government financial data. social. express the price level relative (b) foreign goods.imf.cdc. DHS is Demographic and aggregates. and E that data available. unemployment. and However. and utilities. and com- and wealth of households as well as various social and refers to the United Nations general trade system (G) or pleteness. detailed information on MICS is avail- ducer prices include taxes paid by producers and thus Standards Bulletin Board at http://dsbb. EPSF is National Survey on Population domestic product (GDP). • System of trade the detailed definition of counting. Under the Health Survey. • Purchasing power parity elect to participate in either the SDDS or the GDDS. NHS following a change in base year. • Reference year is the year in domestic consumption in the country. grated household surveys (IHS) collect detailed informa- data. Countries that hold register-based censuses economic characteristics. KDHS is Kiribati Demographic and However. and health data in section 2. NSS is National Sample Sur- cale the data to maintain a longer historical series. such as population by age and sex. such as gross income. as well as Income surveys (IS) collect information on the income are World Bank staff estimates. accounts. when the constant price data are chain linked. Under the general trade sys- produce similar census tables every 5 or 10 years. education.dhsprogram. HIV/MCH SPA is HIV/Maternal which the local currency constant price series of a coun- ward from customs storage. measure changes in key social indica- (PPP) survey year is the latest available survey year for Both standards enhance the availability of timely and tors for different population groups—specifically indica- the International Comparison Program’s estimates of comprehensive data and therefore contribute to the tors of access. that move out- Health Issues Survey. Detailed information on AIS. When the country has not rescaled or leaving for transport only—is excluded from both tor Cluster Survey. move outward without being transformed.org. and taxes and goods entered into customs storage are recorded the 1999 general population census was the last to by socioeconomic group.gov/reproductivehealth. S+ countries must observe additional coverage. Income tax registers (ITR) special trade system (S). housing. economic activities. found on the website of the International Household etary Fund’s [IMF] International Financial Statistics). To accounting concept is the accounting basis for report- vey on Population Changes. detailed information on RHS tend to overstate the actual value added in production. France conducts a rolling census every year. World Bank staff res- import and export statistics. and Survey Network (www. RHS-Ro is Romania Reproductive Health Sur- tion. LSMS is Living Standards Measurement the base year is changed annually. • Balance of Payments Manual in use refers to pursuit of sound macroeconomic policies.

and employment data. • Egypt. • Latest water withdrawal data show the most recent year for which data on freshwater withdrawals have been compiled from a variety of sources. Price valuation is in basic reference year is 2010. Exceptions are shown in the table at right. the new base year is 2005. Islamic Republic. In World Development Indicators fiscal year data are assigned to the calendar year that contains the larger share of the fiscal year. Price valuation collect data from a large number of households cost- improve. 31 Jun. Price valuation is in • Iraq. Statistics Indonesia effectively and quickly. 30 Jun. Arab Rep. • Latest industrial data show the most recent year for which manufacturing value added data at the three-digit level of the International Standard Industrial Classification (revision 2 or 3) are available in the United Nations Industrial Development Organization database. 30 Jul. the new reference year is 2000. Priority surveys (PS) are a light National accounts data are revised by national statisti- from the Hong Kong Census and Statistics Office. Revisions to national accounts data 2011/12. Based on official government statistics. • Thailand. the new base year is 2002. Based on data from the Malaysian Department of Statistics and Bank Negara Malaysia. the new Statistics Division and are reported in its Population and new base year is 2007. Based on data from the information on living conditions and household con- The base year has changed to 2000. The Haiti India Indonesia Iran. • Macedonia. • Kuwait. 31 Sep. data are shown in the first year of the fiscal period. Based estimates. while not comprehensive. the new base year is 2004. 30 Jun. • Saudi Arabia. 30 Jun. 20 Jun. Based on data from the Qatar Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics and the Qatar Central Bank. data on the informal sector. 31 Jun. China. 20 Mar. Ethiopia Gambia. Price valuation Central Bank of Iran. 30 Sep. • Romania. • Andorra. 30 Jun. Fiscal years for other levels of government and reporting years for statistical surveys may differ. 30 Jun. sumption. the new base year is 2005. • Vital registration complete identifies coun- is in basic prices. Based on data from the Moroccan Haut Commissariat au Plan. Based on data from the Central Statistics Office of Swaziland and the IMF. 30 FY FY FY CY CY FY FY CY FY FY CY FY CY CY CY CY CY FY FY FY CY FY CY FY FY FY FY CY CY CY CY CY CY FY FY CY CY States and markets Global links Macedonia State Statistics Office. • Latvia. the new base year is 2011. Official statistics for Vital Statistics Reports. Based on official government statistics. developed by the of payments data are reported in World Development World Bank. 30 Sep. as reported to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Based on data from Tunisia’s Ministry of Development and International Cooperation. 30 Mar. the new base year is 2007. The new mented in three phases and collect sociodemographic The following notes. 31 Mar. the new base year is 2010. • Brazil. Based on data from the Saudi Central Department of Statistics and Information under the authority of the Ministry of Economy and Planning. the National Bank of Romania. 30 Jun. data are shown in the second year of the period. 31 Mar. 31 Jun. Arab Republic. 30 Sep. Price valuation is in basic prices. Based on data from Eurostat. Based on official government statis- Libya are not available. the new reference year • Latest agricultural census shows the most recent year is 2005. 7 Jun. on official government statistics. Price valuation is in basic prices. that cal offices when methodologies change or data sources new reference year is 2013. the new base year is 2004/05. 1-2-3 (1-2-3) surveys are imple- Indicators are also revised when data sources change. • Gabon. • Indonesia. and World Bank estimates. The Sri Lankan government has changed its methodology and revised the production side of national accounts from 2010 to 2014. but some use fiscal years. 30 Mar. 30 Mar. Exceptional reporting periods In most economies the fiscal year is concurrent with the calendar year. • Tunisia. and National Institute of Statistics. The new base year is 2010. 31 Mar. 14 Mar. base year is 2007. from the Central Bank of Dominican Republic. • Morocco. Based on revisions by the year in which an agricultural census was conducted or planned to be conducted. Price valuation is in basic prices. provide a comprehensive picture of house- Indicators by calendar year. 31 Mar. 30 Sep. The base year has changed to 2001. Price valuation is in basic of vital (birth and death) statistics to the United Nations • Benin. • Mongolia. 31 Mar. 30 Jun. • Swaziland. household. FYR. Based on data is 2010. if the fiscal year ends on or after June 30. •  Iran. 31 Mar. Central Bank. Based on data and community levels. the new base year is 2007. 30 Mar. Countries with complete vital prices. • Sri Lanka. • Hong Kong SAR. the monitoring survey. the prices. Islamic Rep. • Mauritania. The reporting period for national accounts data is designated as either calendar year basis (CY) or fiscal year basis (FY). • São Tomé and Príncipe. the new reference Based on data from Eurostat. The ending date reported here is for the fiscal year of the central government. data are based on World Bank statistics registries may have more accurate and more tics. designed by the World Bank. 31 Mar. the new reference year is 2010. • Seychelles. the new base year is 2010. the new tries that report at least 90 percent complete registries producer prices. • Malaysia. Fed. 30 Jun. • Latest trade data show the most recent year for which structure of merchandise trade data from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database are available. the new base year is 2013. If a country’s fiscal year ends before June 30. • Barbados. • Dominican Republic. Barbados reports using SNA1993. 30 Mar.Measurement Study Surveys (LSMS). Most economies report their national accounts and balance of payments data using calendar years. National accounts data in World Development is in basic prices. and information on revisions from previous data. Back World Development Indicators 2016 149 . the Romanian National Institute of Statistics. Balance Economy Economies with exceptional reporting periods Economy Fiscal year end Reporting period for national accounts data Afghanistan Australia Bangladesh Botswana Canada Egypt. Based on official statistics from the Mauritania Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development. Based on data from the Bank of Thailand and the National Economics and Social Development Board. • Qatar. revised national accounts based on SNA2008. The new base year is 2003. • Cuba. Sts. • Lithuania. 30 Sep. 31 Jun. the new base year is 2010. timely demographic indicators than other countries. provide base year is 2010. • Libya. Based on data from Eurostat. Based on data revised by the National Statistics Office of Mongolia. Japan Kenya Kuwait Lesotho Malawi Marshall Islands Micronesia. they typically incorporate data collection at the individual. • Uganda. 31 Jul. Myanmar Namibia Nepal New Zealand Pakistan Palau Puerto Rico Samoa Sierra Leone Singapore South Africa Swaziland Sweden Thailand Tonga Uganda United States Zimbabwe Mar. The Egyptian Ministry of Planning rebased national accounts to hold welfare and the factors that affect it.

and value added in agriculture. • Aggregates denoted by an m are medians of the values shown in the table. No value is shown if more than half the observations for countries with a population of more than 1 million are missing. In addition. dollars. Growth rates Growth rates are calculated as annual averages and represented as percentages. • Aggregate growth rates are denoted by a w when calculated as a weighted average of growth rates. 150 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide • Aggregates of ratios are denoted by a w when calculated as weighted averages of the ratios (using the value of the denominator or. Small differences between sums of subgroup aggregates and overall totals and averages may occur because of the approximations used. Missing values in 2005 are imputed using one of several proxy variables for which complete data are available in that year. industry. aggregates for groups of economies should be treated as approximations of unknown totals or average values. dollars. Least squares growth rates are used wherever there is a sufficiently long time series to permit a reliable calculation. Depending on the judgment of World Bank analysts. In a few cases the aggregate ratio may be computed as the ratio of group totals after imputing values for missing data according to the above rules for computing totals. and geometric endpoint. Five methods of aggregation are used in World Development Indicators: • For group and world totals denoted in the tables by a t. manufacturing. Growth rates are not calculated if more than half the observations in a period are missing. unless otherwise noted. compilation errors and data reporting practices may cause discrepancies in theoretically identical aggregates such as world exports and world imports. exponential endpoint. For further discussion of methods of computing growth rates see below. in some cases. No aggregate is calculated if missing data account for more than a third of the value of weights in the benchmark year. total population. Exceptions to the rules may occur. Beginning with this edition. Rates of change from one period to the next are calculated as proportional changes from the earlier period. aggregates are based only on the data shown in the tables. and services in U. The imputed value is calculated so that it (or its proxy) bears the same relationship to the total of available data. another indicator as a weight) and denoted by a  u when calculated as unweighted averages. growth rates of values are in real terms computed from constant price series. Aggregates also contain data for Taiwan. missing data are imputed based on the relationship of the sum of available data to the total in the year of the previous estimate. exports and imports of goods and services in U. dollars.S.S. where missing or excluded values are judged to be small or irrelevant. regional aggregates include data for economies at all income levels. The imputation process works forward and backward from 2005. The aggregation rules are intended to yield estimates for a consistent set of economies from one period to the next and for all indicators.Sources and methods Aggregation rules Aggregates based on the World Bank’s regional and income classifications of economies appear at the end of the tables. The 214 economies included in these classifications are shown on the flaps on the front and back covers of the book. Because of missing data. China. In other cases. The variables used as proxies are GNI in U. Missing values are not imputed. Sums are not computed if more than a third of the observations in the series or a proxy for the series are missing in a given year. Missing values are assumed to have the same average value as the available data. Except where noted. Least squares growth rate. including most of those available online. • Aggregates marked by an s are sums of available data. No growth World view People Environment . In a few cases growth rates may be computed from time series of group totals. The aggregate ratios are based on available data. the aggregates may be based on as little as 50 percent of the available data.S. Imputed values are usually not calculated if missing data account for more than a third of the total in the benchmark year. Three principal methods are used to calculate growth rates: least squares.

adjusted for the difference between the rate of inflation in the country and the rate of international inflation. which is given by (pn – pn–1)/pn–1. The geometric growth rate is applicable to compound growth over discrete periods. World Bank Atlas method In calculating GNI and GNI per capita in U. In this equation X is the variable. A country’s inflation rate between year t and year t–n (r t–n) is measured by the change in its GDP deflator (pt): pt r t–n = p t–n International inflation between year t and year t–n SDR$) is measured using the change in a deflator (r t–n based on the International Monetary Fund’s unit of account. dollar terms. The Atlas conversion factor for any year is the average of a country’s exchange rate (or alternative conversion factor) for that year and its exchange rates for the two preceding years. r. converted to U.S. If b* is the least squares estimate of b. It does not necessarily match the actual growth rate between any two periods. in which case the compound growth model is appropriate. as modeled by the exponential growth rate. Although continuous growth. special drawing rights (or SDRs).rate is calculated if more than half the observations in a period are missing. weights are the amount of each currency in one SDR unit. the United States. the United Kingdom. most economic phenomena are measured only at intervals. may be more realistic. Exponential growth rate. and a  =  ln  Xo and b = ln (1 + r) are parameters to be estimated. n is the number of years in the period. such as the payment and reinvestment of Economy States and markets SDR$ = r t–n Global links p tSDR$ SDR$ p t–n Back World Development Indicators 2016 151 . The growth rate between two points in time for certain demographic indicators. r = exp[ln(pn/p0)/n] – 1. and the euro area. the World Bank uses the Atlas conversion factor instead of simple exchange rates. The regression equation takes the form interest or dividends. exponential growth between two points in time. is obtained as [exp(b*) – 1] and is multiplied by 100 for expression as a percentage. The least squares growth rate. This growth rate is based on a model of continuous. It does not take into account the intermediate values of the series. is calculated from the equation r = ln(pn/p0)/n where pn and p0 are the last and first observations in the period. Geometric growth rate. Nor does it correspond to the annual rate of change measured at a one-year interval. Xt = Xo (1 + r )t. is estimated by fitting a linear regression trend line to the logarithmic annual values of the variable in the relevant period. dollars for certain operational and analytical purposes. The average growth rate over n periods is calculated as ln Xt = a + bt which is the logarithmic transformation of the compound growth equation. The objective of the adjustment is to reduce any changes to the exchange rate caused by inflation. r.” it is a weighted average of the GDP deflators (in SDR terms) of Japan. Known as the “SDR deflator. The purpose of the Atlas conversion factor is to reduce the impact of exchange rate fluctuations in the cross-country comparison of national incomes.S. The calculated growth rate is an average rate that is representative of the available observations over the entire period. t is time. and ln is the natural logarithm operator. notably labor force and population. then the average annual growth rate.

S. dollars (Atlas method) for year t (Y tatlas$) is calculated by applying the Atlas conversion factor to a country’s GNI in current prices (local currency) (Yt) as follows: Y tatlas$ = Yt /e tatlas Alternative conversion factors The World Bank systematically assesses the appropriateness of official exchange rates as conversion factors. dollars can then be divided by a country’s midyear population to yield its GNI per capita (Atlas method). 152 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide World view People Environment .S.Sources and methods The Atlas conversion factor (local currency to the U. This applies to only a small number of countries. dollar) for year t. An alternative conversion factor is used when the official exchange rate is deemed to be unreliable or unrepresentative of the rate effectively applied to domestic transactions of foreign currencies and traded products. GNI in U.S.S. Alternative conversion factors are used in the Atlas methodology and elsewhere in World Development Indicators as single-year conversion factors. The resulting Atlas GNI in U. dollar) for year t (e tatlas) is given by: where et is the average annual exchange rate (local currency to the U.

Masako Hiraga. Umar Serajuddin. Mizuki Yamanaka. the Development Research Group. Adriano Miele. Saulo Teodoro Ferreira. and Dereje Ketema Wolde in partnership with the World Bank’s various Global Practices and Cross-Cutting Solutions Areas— Education. Weixin Lu. Nicholas Menzies. Stephane Raphael Dahan. Tariq Khokhar. Simon Davies. Julia Krasevec (malnutrition). Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu. Eduardo Ferreira. Randall Brummett. Emi Suzuki. Contributors included Husein Abdul-Hamid. Jobs. Robert Townsend. Malvina Pollock. Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary. Silvia Lubenova Kirova. Maddalena Honorati. Patrick Gerland. and Said Ould A. Emi Suzuki prepared the demographic estimates and projections. Naikal. and Tyler Porth (health). Teena Kunjumen (health workers). Carole Megevand. and Cristina Valdivia of the Understanding Children’s Work project prepared the data on children at work. Voffal of the United Nations Educational. and Kacem Iaych (road safety). The indicators on shared prosperity were prepared by the Global Poverty Working Group. Paola Agostini. Ana Florina Pirlea. Miguel Jorge. Rifat Hossain (water and sanitation). Habiba Gitay. Evis Rucaj. Christopher Sall. Wahyu Mahanani and Colin Mathers (cause of death). Colleen Murray. Haruna Kashiwase. Chandan Deuskar. Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili. Poverty. Hiroko Maeda. and Mark Shrime of the Lancet Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 153 . and Leanne Riley (malnutrition). Atsushi Iimi. Oya Pinar Ardic Alper. Lucia Hanmer. Fernanda Ruiz Nunez. Gender. Glenn-Marie Lange. World view Section 1 was prepared by a team led by Neil Fantom and Umar Serajuddin. Tables were produced by Parul Agarwal. Priscilla Idele. Hazim Timimi (tuberculosis). Emi Suzuki. Leslie K. Economy States and markets Umar Serajuddin. Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili. a team of poverty experts from the Poverty Global Practice. all of the World Health Organization. and Nobuo Yoshida. Rebecca Soares. Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics (education and literacy). Mary C. Rubena Sukaj. Meera Shekar. Mercedes de Onis. Elder. Rubena Sukaj. Juliana Daher and Mary Mahy of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (HIV/AIDS). Carter Brandon. Haruna Kashiwase. Callum Brindley and Chandika Indikadahena (health expenditure). Vivien Foster. Masako Hiraga. Furio Rosati. Adam Stone Diehl. Ryan Williams (malaria). Editorial help was provided by Tariq Khokhar and Elizabeth Purdie. Ellen Hamilton. Haruna Kashiwase. Monika Bloessner. Steven Jay Silverstein. Siv Elin Tokle. Esther G. Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary. The map was produced by Juan Feng and William Prince. Other contributions were provided by Sarah Iqbal. Eliana Carolina Rubiano Matulevich. Poverty estimates at national poverty lines were compiled by the Global Poverty Working Group. Evis Rucaj. and Dereje Ketema Wolde. Emi Suzuki. Roger Gorham. Elaine Borghi. Luis Benveniste. Elizabeth Purdie. Sarah Iqbal. Vandycke. Hallward-Driemeier. Shaohua Chen and Prem Sangraula of the World Bank’s Development Research Group and the Global Poverty Working Group prepared the poverty estimates at international poverty lines.Credits 1. Lewis Hawke. Aira Maria Htenas. Signe Zeikate of the World Bank’s Economic Policy and Debt Department provided the estimates of debt relief for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Debt Relief Initiative and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative. Junhe Yang. Arvind Jain. Luz Maria de Regil and Gretchen Stevens (anemia). 2. Friedrich Huebler. Juan Feng. Hiroko Maeda. and François Pelletier of the United Nations Population Division (population). and the Development Data Group. Lori Marie Newman (syphilis). Juan Feng. Victoria Louise Lemieux. Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu. Samuel Lantei Mills. Nancy L. John Meara. Raffaello Cervigni. Patrick Hoang-Vu Eozenou. and Alena Sakhonchik (gender) and Samuel Mills (health). Health. Dereje Ketema Wolde. Jessica Ho (hospital beds). Lorenzo Guarcello. and Social Protection and Labor. Elizabeth Purdie. Leila Rafei. Chiao-Ling Chien. Eliana Carolina Rubiano Matulevich. Alan Wittrup of the International Labour Organization (labor force). and Rolf Luyendijk and Andrew Trevett (water and sanitation) of the United Nations Children’s Fund. People Section 2 was prepared by Juan Feng. Danan Gu. Masako Hiraga. Ulf Gerrit Narloch. The overviews of each of the Sustainable Development Goals were prepared by many World Bank staff. Tamirat Yacob Chulta. Timothy Grant Herzog. Barbro Hexeberg. Hiroko Maeda. Joshua Ng.

Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili. The map was produced by Hiroko Maeda. and Elisa Portale prepared the data and metadata on access to electricity. and Leonor Guariguata of the International Diabetes Federation (diabetes). Sharon Burghgraeve. renewable energy. The team is grateful to the Center for International Earth Science Information Network. Aaron Cohen. 4. and the U. the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the U. 3. The national accounts data for low. access to an improved water source. Department of Energy’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center for access to their online databases. Naikal. Several other staff members from the World Bank made valuable contributions: Gabriela Elizondo Azuela. with inputs from Liu Cui and invaluable comments and editorial help from Neil Fantom and Elizabeth Purdie. Contributors from other institutions included Michael Brauer. Naikal and Christopher Sall prepared the data on adjusted savings and adjusted income. Marianne Fay. estimated. Forouzanfar.S. the 154 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide Global Burden of Disease of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Mahyar EshraghTabary wrote the introduction with editorial help from Elizabeth Purdie. and the World Trade Organization for access to their databases. Jiemei Liu. and validated the databases for national accounts. Esther G. suggestions. the Food and Agriculture Organization. Dan Dorner. The map was produced by Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili and William Prince. Vivien Foster. Macroeconomics and World view People Environment . and renewable electricity. Neil Fantom. William Prince. the International Union for Conservation of Nature. and Jonathan Edwards Sinton. 5. Christopher Sall wrote the about the data sections on air pollution. The map was produced by Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary and William Prince. the International Monetary Fund. Ulf Gerrit Narloch.S. Alagiriswamy Venkatesan.and middleincome economies were gathered by the World Bank’s regional staff through the annual Fall Survey. Mohammad H. the United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Pierre Boileau and Maureen Cropper from the University of Maryland. The World Bank’s Environment and Natural Resources Global Practices and Energy and Extractives Global Practices devoted generous staff resources. the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. access to nonsolid fuel. Emi Suzuki wrote the about the data sections on urban population growth. and JeanYves Garnier of the International Energy Agency. and Peter Speyer from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Agency for International Development. The team is grateful to Eurostat. and William Prince provided instrumental comments. and Christopher Sall prepared the data and metadata on population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2. Environment Section 3 was prepared by Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary in partnership with the World Bank’s Environment and Natural Resources Global Practices and Energy and Extractives Global Practices. Rowena M. States and markets Section 5 was prepared by Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu and Junhe Yang in partnership with the World Bank Group’s Finance and Markets. Liu Cui. and Craig Hilton-Taylor and Caroline Pollock of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Esther G. Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili. and Tamirat Yacob Chulta updated. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Urvashi Narain. and Dereje Ketema Wolde. energy intensity. the International Energy Agency. Glenn-Marie Lange. and access to improved sanitation facilities. Gabriela Elizondo Azuela.5 pollution and natural resources rents. the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research and Joint Research Centre. and support at all stages of production.Credits Commission on Global Surgery (surgery). Saulo Teodoro Ferreira.S. Sudeshna Ghosh Banerjee. Maja Bresslauer. Gorospe. the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center of the U. Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili wrote the introduction. the United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Economy Section 4 was prepared by Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili in close collaboration with the Environment and Natural Resources Global Practice and Economic Data Team of the World Bank’s Development Data Group. Armin Wagner of German International Cooperation.

Enrico Bisogno and Michael Jandl of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (homicide). Other contributors include Azita Amjadi (trade and tariffs). Aimée Nichols. Cristina Savescu (commodity prices). Transport and Information and Communication Technologies Global Practices and its Public–Private Partnerships and Fragility. Clare Spurrell (internally displaced persons). Development Prospects Group (commodity prices and remittances). Cynthia Nyanchama Nyakeri. Frédéric Docquier (emigration rates). and Barbro Hexeberg and Mizuki Yamanaka (statistical capacity). Renato Perez of the International Monetary Fund (financial soundness indicators). and Andreas Dietrich Kopp (transport). Esperanza Magpantay. and external partners.Fiscal Management. and external partners. Database management William Prince coordinated management of the World Development Indicators database. Frederic Meunier and Rita Ramalho (Doing Business). and Mondher Mimouni of the International Trade Centre (trade). Yasmin Ahmad. Vincent Valentine of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (ports). Martin Schaaper and Rohan Pathirage of the United Nations Educational. Shelley Fu. James Hackett of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (military personnel). Susan Teltscher. with assistance from Mathieu Djayeola. Azita Amjadi (high-technology exports). Ramgopal Erabelly. International Trade Department (trade facilitation). Other contributors include Fernanda Ruiz Nunez and Zichao Wei (investment in infrastructure projects with private participation). Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu wrote the introduction with substantial input from William Prince and Elizabeth Purdie. Jeff Reynolds and Joseph Siegel of DHL (freight costs). Flavine Creppy and Yumiko Mochizuki of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Sam Perlo-Freeman of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (military expenditures). The map Economy States and markets was produced by Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu and William Prince. Global links Back World Development Indicators 2016 155 . and Teresa Ciller and Leandry Moreno of the World Tourism Organization (tourism). and Diana Korka of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (information and communication technology goods trade). Torbjörn Fredriksson. Ananthanarayan Sainarayan and Antonin Combes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. the International Finance Corporation. Shelley Fu. and Violence Cross-Cutting Solution Areas. and technicians). and comprising Parul Agarwal. Scarlett Fondeur Gil. researchers. The map was produced by Rubena Sukaj and William Prince. Global links Section 6 was prepared by the Financial Data Team of the Development Data Group. and Joshua Wimpey (Enterprise Surveys). Elena Bernaldo. Carsten Fink and Mosahid Khan of the World Intellectual Property Organization (patents and trademarks). and Ivan Vallejo Vall of the International Telecommunication Union (information communication and technology). Tatiana Chekanova (World Federation of Exchanges) provided the data and metadata on stock markets. and Rubena Sukaj. Vanessa Grey. Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics (research and development. Azita Amjadi and Jomo Tariku prepared Partners. Valeria Perotti. Leora Klapper and Frederic Meunier (business registration). and Ann Zimmerman of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (aid). led by Evis Rucaj under the management of Neil Fantom. Jorge Luis Rodriguez Meza. Sun Hwa Song. Other parts of the book Bruno Bonansea of the World Bank’s Map Design Unit coordinated preparation of the maps on the inside covers and within each section. William Prince prepared User guide and the lists of online tables and indicators for each section and wrote Sources and methods with input from Neil Fantom. 6. and in partnership with the World Bank’s Development Research Group (trade). and Junhe Yang in the Sustainable Development and Data Quality Team. Conflict. Peter Bourke. and William Prince provided technical assistance. Therese Petterson (battle-related deaths). Michael Orzano (Standard & Poor’s global stock market indexes). Tarek Abou Chabake of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (refugees).

Development and maintenance of the website were managed by a team led by Azita Amjadi and comprising George Gongadze. which have helped improve this year’s edition. Design. JeanPierre Djomalieu. Publishing and dissemination The World Bank’s Publishing and Knowledge Division.Credits Operation of the database management system was made possible by Ramgopal Erabelly and Karthik Krishnamoorthy working with the Data and Information Systems Team under the leadership of Soong Sup Lee. 156 World Development Indicators 2016 Front ? User guide Neil Fantom. the DataBank application. Shelley Fu. and systems development support Elysee Kiti provided administrative assistance. Denise Bergeron. designed the report. Systems development was managed by a team led by Soong Sup Lee. Administrative assistance. which provided overall design direction. William Prince and Junhe Yang provided data quality assurance. and Diane Broadley. World Development Indicators mobile applications Software preparation and testing were managed by Shelley Fu with assistance from Prashant Chaudhari. Elaine Wilson created the cover and graphics and typeset the book. and Janice Tuten coordinated printing. programming. provided assistance throughout the production process. and Malarvizhi Veerappan provided software support on the DataBank application. Online access Coordination of the presentation of the World Development Indicators online. Ying Chi. Multilingual translations of online content were provided by a team in the General Services Department. Timothy Herzog. Jeffrey McCoy. through the Open Data website. Rajesh Danda. Nacer Megherbi. editing. Ugendran Machakkalai. and Malarvizhi Veerappan. Parastoo Oloumi. of Peter Grundy Art & Design. William Prince and Junhe Yang coordinated production and provided data quality assurance. and testing were carried out by Prasanth Alluri. and editing Azita Amjadi coordinated all stages of production with Communications Development Incorporated. with project management provided by Malarvizhi Veerappan. and distribution. of Broadley Design. Karthik Krishnamoorthy. Jomo Tariku. Gytis Kanchas. Atsushi Shimo. Ugendran Machakkalai. Systems development was undertaken in the Data and Information Systems Team led by Soong Sup Lee. Please contact us at data@worldbank. Stephen McGroarty. Soong Sup Lee. William Prince. was provided by Neil Fantom and Soong Sup Lee. Jewel Monique McFadden. and Nacer Megherbi provided information technology support. Leila Rafei. led by Bruce Ross-Larson and Christopher Trott. office technology. the table browser application. Mohammed Omar Hadi. Siddhesh Kaushik. Design.org. Peter Grundy. Parastoo Oloumi. and layout. Atsushi Shimo. production. Nora Ridolfi. World view People Environment . and Jomo Tariku. marketing. under the direction of Carlos Rossel. and Jomo Tariku. and the Application Programming Interface. Parastoo Oloumi. Client feedback The team is grateful to the many people who have taken the time to provide feedback and suggestions. Mohammed Omar Hadi.

The recycled fiber in our book paper is either unbleached or bleached using totally chlorine-free (TCF).org/corporateresponsibility. greenhouse gas emissions. Together. In support of this commitment. the Publishing and Knowledge Division leverages electronic publishing options and print-on-demand technology. The Publishing and Knowledge Division follows the recommended standards for paper use set by the Green Press Initiative. resulting in reduced paper consumption. these initiatives enable print runs to be lowered and shipping distances decreased. More information about the Bank’s environmental philosophy can be found at http://www. The majority of our books are printed on Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)–certified paper. or enhanced elemental chlorine-free (EECF) processes. processed chlorine-free (PCF). and waste.ECO -AUDIT Environmental Benefits Statement The World Bank Group is committed to reducing its environmental footprint. with nearly all containing 50–100 percent recycled content. chemical use.worldbank. which is located in regional hubs worldwide. .

K. Vincent and the Grenadines Lesotho Argentina IBRD 41312 | FEBRUARY 2016 Palau Malaysia Maldives Singapore Kiribati Nauru Papua New Guinea Indonesia Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Tuvalu Tokelau (N.K.K.K.K.K.S.) Mayotte (Fr.) Niger Sudan Eritrea Namibia Malawi Bonaire (Neth. (U.S.045 or less) Classified according to World Bank estimates of 2014 GNI per capita Lower middle ($1. de Venezuela Guyana Suriname French Guiana (Fr. Mariana Islands (U.The world by income Low ($1. of Egypt Turks and Caicos Is. Kitts and Nevis Myanmar Rep.) Islamic Rep.K.S.) Bhutan Pakistan Bangladesh Zambia Niue (N.Z. Ukraine Channel Islands (U.) Iceland Norway Faroe Islands (Den.K.) Islands (U.) Wallis and Futuna (Fr.) Guam (U. Rep.B.125) Upper middle ($4. China India Comoros Angola Paraguay Puerto Rico (U.046–$4. Lucia Curaçao (Neth.) Algeria The Bahamas Cuba Guatemala Cabo Verde Panama R.K.) Poland Australia Czech Republic Ukraine Austria Hungary Slovenia Croatia Romania Bosnia & Herzegovina Serbia San Marino Grenada R. Somalia Liberia Togo Equatorial Guinea Uganda Rep.) Kazakhstan Moldova Italy Vatican City Greece New Zealand Tonga . China Lao PDR La Réunion (Fr.S.) Aruba (Neth.) United Arab Emirates Zimbabwe Mozambique U.K.) Dominican Republic Nepal Chad Burkina Djibouti Faso Guinea Benin Nigeria Côte Ghana Ethiopia South Sierra Leone Central d’Ivoire Sudan Cameroon African Rep.K. of São Tomé and Príncipe Kenya Gabon Congo Rwanda Seychelles Dem. de Venezuela Marshall Islands Brunei Darussalam Kosovo Bulgaria FYR Albania Macedonia Montenegro Trinidad and Tobago Federated States of Micronesia Philippines Slovak Republic Chile St.S.) N.) Mexico Mongolia Kyrgyz Uzbekistan Rep. of Korea China Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Saudi Arabia Arab Rep.) Cambodia Martinique (Fr.) Afghanistan The Gambia Guinea-Bissau Costa Rica American Samoa (U.) Mauritius Germany New Caledonia (Fr.) (U.736 or more) No data Greenland (Den.B.) Haiti Jamaica Belize Honduras Armenia Greece Libya Western Sahara Cayman Is. of Yemen Madagascar Botswana South Africa Sint Maarten (Neth.S.126–$12.) Hong Kong SAR. Martin (Fr.) Vietnam Thailand Uruguay Montserrat (U.) Colombia Ecuador Kiribati Peru Cook Islands (N.) Brazil French Polynesia (Fr. of Iran Mauritania Mali Japan Rep. Burundi of Congo Tanzania Bolivia Pitcairn Islands (U. R.735) High ($12. of Korea Oman Senegal Nicaragua El Salvador D. P.) Dominica Macao SAR.Z.) Saba (Neth.) France Luxembourg Liechtenstein Switzerland Andorra Portugal United States Bulgaria Spain Turkey Monaco Gibraltar (U.) Swaziland Antigua and Barbuda St. R.) Ireland Belgium Denmark U.) St. Virgin Islands British Virgin Anguilla (U. Russian Fed.) Guadeloupe (Fr.) Samoa Vanuatu Fiji American Samoa (U. Azerbaijan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Georgia Cyprus Syrian A.) Sri Lanka Barbados St. (U. Tunisia Lebanon Iraq Israel West Bank and Gaza Jordan Malta Morocco Bermuda (U.Z.S.) Sint Eustatius (Neth.) Saint-Barthélemy (Fr.) Sweden Russian Federation Finland Netherlands Canada Estonia Latvia Lithuania Germany Poland Belarus Isle of Man (U.

Zambia Upper middle income Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Azerbaijan Belarus Belize Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Fiji Gabon Grenada Iran. Kuwait Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao SAR. Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Lebanon Libya Macedonia. Côte d'Ivoire Djibouti Egypt. Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mozambique Nepal Niger Rwanda Sierra Leone Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Togo Uganda Zimbabwe Lower middle income Armenia Bangladesh Bhutan Bolivia Cabo Verde Cameroon Congo. Martin Sweden Switzerland Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela. Rep. Lucia St. Sts. Fed. RB Virgin Islands (U. Dem. China Malta Monaco Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Russian Federation San Marino Saudi Arabia Seychelles Singapore Sint Maarten Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain St. Arab Rep.Low income Afghanistan Benin Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu High income Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas. Rep.) INCOME MAP The world by income . El Salvador Georgia Ghana Guatemala Guyana Honduras India Indonesia Kenya Kiribati Kosovo Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Lesotho Mauritania Micronesia. Moldova Morocco Myanmar Nicaragua Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Timor-Leste Ukraine Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen. The Bahrain Barbados Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cayman Islands Channel Islands Chile Croatia Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Equatorial Guinea Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Hong Kong SAR. Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia. Rep.S. People’s Rep. Kitts and Nevis St. Dem. Rep. Islamic Rep. China Hungary Iceland Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Japan Korea. The Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Korea. FYR Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Mauritius Mexico Mongolia Montenegro Namibia Palau Panama Paraguay Peru Romania Serbia South Africa St.