Analysis of portal frame building

In accordance to EN 1993-1-1(2005)
1 description
A/ The portal frame is the main structural element of the

building.
The frame is designed for the following loads

Roof loads such as workmen, snow or hail

Wind loads
Wind loads can be positive as on AB or negative (suction)as on BC,CD and DE. Roof loads are
positive and up to down direction
B/ If The joints at B,C and D are not rigid,they will open up and the frame will be unstable

C/ 1) Vertical loading on the frame results in A and E tending to be pushed outwards.if the foundation
cannot resist this horizontal push,outward movement will occur,and the frame will l oose structural
strength

2) Wind subjects the portal frame to uplift forces(the roof tends to fly-off)like an
overturning forces on the sides and ends of the building,

plane wing,to

These destabilizing forces are resisted essentially by the weight of the building,and in this regard,the
foundations contribute significantly to this weight. Generally speaking it is a fact that portal frame
buildings of this kind are light weight structures, and as such they tend to collapse “sideward” and
“upwards” rather than do wnwards”. The effect of wind on a light building cannot be overemphasized.
The destabilization it causes is a major design consideration, and in this context, foundations can be
regarded as the building’s “anchors
D/ the rafter of the portal frame is a slender structural element,and it is restrained it will buckled when
loaded.

In a braced roof this restraint is provided by the purlins acting together with a braced bay.The purlins
provide the restraining force for the rafters,and the braced bay acts as a “buttress” wich absorbs these
purlin restraining forces.

While this system is effective in restraining the top flange of the rafter I-beam,the bottom flange
remains relatively unrestrained, and to achieve the requisite restraint,short lengths of angle iron are
connected at intervals between the bottom flange of the I-beam and the purlins.This simple and
necessary anti-buckling feature is sometimes neglected in the design of the portal frames.

E/

while a building with a braced side bay as shown below will be stable.0m .5 m Cladding rail spacing Sp’=2.A building frame subjected to wind forces along its length will tend to collapse as shown above .since the braced bay will functions as a “buttress” to resist the wind forces. and transform them to the foundations 2 portal frame design 2.1 Basic data Total length b = 70 m Bay width d= 25 m Spacing s= 7 m E=210000N/mm 2 G=80770N/mm 2 Steel:S235 Height h= 7.5 m Roof slope α= 5° Purlin spacing sp=1.

5 m 25.45 KN/m α=5° 6.41m 25.2 Loads 2.5m 6.35*7=2.2.45 KN/m G=-2.35 KN/m 2 G=0.1 Permanent loads Self-weight of the beam Roofing with purlins For an internal frame G= 0.0 m .Articulated purlin purlin cladding rail column I nternal portal frame door 4*5m α= 5° 7.406 m 7.0m Int ernal portal frame 2.

3%).34(D) 1.5 KN/m 2 EN 1991-1-6 clause 4.2.74 (I) -8.0 (F1 etF2 ) w1 -2.74 (H) -3.11(2005) For an internal portal frame Q=0.5 11 1.3 Wind loads Take from the document treated “ wind actions to EN 1991-1-4(2005) as a values described below -3.55 (G) -3.2 Construction loads Q=0.2.2.5% to 1. In this case they will be neglected for calculations.34 (E) +2. .88(F) 92.74 (J) -6.2.5*7=3.5 11 2.5 KN/m 2.4 Approximation calculations 1/ wind forces applied to duopitch roofs and partial variables live loads These actions are very small in ccomparison with the wind actions on vertical walls(0.

5%.2/ wind forces (up-to fly) The actions applied to duopitch roofs are oriented as described above (perpendicular to rafters).For simplifications we admit that these forces will be oriented vertically as gravity forces.wich act in opposite sens.will be converted to linear forces.3 Simple cases 1/Case 1 Vertical actions  dead (G) variable (Q) loads .conduct to increase the moment at C and decrease moments at B and D. 2.It will be compensated by the simplification applied to purlin calculations.justified by the presence of the haunchs . (are ponctual forces and must be applied in calculations of rafters).The error caused by this simplification is ≈0.and conduct to increase the moments at B and D 4/ Stiffness at B and D To conduct manually calculations we consider that the inertia of the column and the rafter are equals Ic =IR The coefficient of stiffness k IR h will be S IC k h s This simplification . 3/ Forces transmitted by purlins The forces transmitted to rafters by purlins.

of . In any ordinate point .then dM  y and dH h 1   0 Hy 1 .y.rafter  R stiffness.is: x 2 cos2  M  H  h  x sin    q  Vx cos  2 dM  h  x sin  dH and   x 2 cos2  2    H  h  x sin    q  Vx cos    h  x sin   dx 2  0 s HE 1 Hh3 EI R 3 x .dy  EI R EI R h 2  Hy dy  0 Displasment  2 in BC rafter The moment expression at abscissa . the moment is M  H . y .of .09 + - B D - h=6.Y C s IR - + f=1. of the column AB .x. y.41 HA A - E VA VE Rigidity coefficient at B and D K  I h stiffness.comumn S IC In application of Castigliano théorem and with the structure symetry  M dM ds  0 ABCDE EI dH where H is the horizontal force Displacement 1 in AB column.

s  hl 2 s   3 12  96     Then the equation   1  2  0 give the result ql 2 s 32 I R H  3 h IC 5 f  8h h s  f 2 f   3  3   2 IR  h h  2 and may be reduced if we use the rigidity k h s k IR h s IC in place of the real expression We obtain the simplified expression H ql 2 5 f  8h 2 32 h  k  3  f  3h  f  Conclusion M B  M D  Hh ql 2 MC   H h  f  8 H A  HE  H  VA  VE  ql 2 5 f  8h 2 32 h  k  3  f  3h  f  ql 2 2/Case 2 Vertical actions( wind up to fly) M B  M D   Hh MC   ql 2  H h  f  8 H A  HE  H   ql 2 5 f  8h 2 32 h  k  3  f  3h  f  VA  VE   ql 2 .s   h.s   q  l .  H .  h 2 . f . f .cos  We have 1 EI R 2  l and 2s f then s sin      f 2s 1  5 2  .

h 2 M D  H E .h  H E x .Y q C - - + B HA + D A E VA VE 3/Case 3 Horizontal actions( wind 1 pressure) qh2 MB   H E .h HE 5kh  6  2h  f  qh2 HE  16 h2  k  3  f  3h  f  H A  q.

h 2 HA  M B  H A .qh2 MC   HE h  f  4 qh2 VE  VA  2l Y C - + + B + D q - HA A E VA HE x VE 4/ Case 4 Horizontal actions( wind 1 succions) MD   qh2  H A .h 5kh  6  2h  f  qh2 2 16 h  k  3  f  3h  f  H E  q.h  H A qh2 MC    H A h  f  4 qh2 VE  VA  2l Y C + + B + D q - HA A VA E HE VE x .

668*7  4.I.68 KN / m wc.e  c p .2   0.Calculation of the rafter in bending Dead loads G=2.9 (6)note 2) wc .i  q p s   0.2.e  c p .668*7  4.2  2.and J this value is .45KN/m W1 wind in long span (internal surpressure) Wc.1 Take c p .3 Wc.1   c p .34KN / m wc.3 Wc.1 Wc.3  0.3   c p .74KN / m W2 wind in long span (internal depressure) Wc.2  0KN / m We have choose the max value of G zone for wind calculation but not the better wc .i  q p s   1.21KN / m And For the zones H.1  2.2 wc .3  3.i  0.7   0.3  0.3 Wc.2 EN 1991-1-4(2005) (7.34 KN / m see fig above wc .

H and I as described in wind actions to EN 1991-1-4(2005) We take also a middle value of the zones A.41 H A  HE   16.41  1. H E .09 .09   67.3  0.3  1.412  0.55.45*252 MC   16.3 Wc.41.668*7  4.668*7  1.e  c p .45*252 5*1.1 W3 Wc.494KN 32 6.09  8*6.4 KN / m W3 wind gear ( with internal surpressure) Wc.625KN 2 2.1  wc.09 3*6.B and C then we will have wc.i  q p s   0.2 We take a middle value of the zones G.494  6.676  4.41  105.wc .3   c p .2  0. h=6.6   0.VA and VE -.511 2.73KNm .09  VA  VE  2.0*7  7 KN / m Calculus actions It is to determinate: --the support reactions HA .494*6.511  3  1.68KN / m wc.41  1.the max bending moments M B . f=1.7 KNm 8 M B  M D  16. k=0.M C and M D These forces are obtained from the actions mentioned in tables above Values for calculations: S=12.45* 25  30.

04 23.03 87.85 49.3 295.61 87.92 1.5 87.68 22. j GK .24 56.03 31.W c.54 Total W 2 .85 49.31 23.85 3.03 28.625 30.0 permanent loads  Q  1.5 298.79 3.0 46.92 23.requiring the actions to be combined.1 3 2.31 43.74 24.21 22.75 43.63 52.61 39.2 4 4.04 24.9 QK .2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 W 2 .48 48.90 17.W c.5 295.933 3.93 6.68 179.3 2 7 46.7 105.0 49.34 3.1 3 4.42 98.06 Total 3 Load combinations Partial factor  G max  1.44 111. the expression is ULS :  j g.9  Q .actions case q(KN/m) H A(KN) HE(KN) VA(KN) VE(KN) M B(KNm) M C(KNm) M D(KNm) G 1 2.i i 1 .61 1.494 30.45 Total W 3 .85 46. j j  0.34 11.12 50.39 1.68 22.85 3.22 6.75 159.77 197.73 Q 1 3.9 24.2 4 2.21 28.68 133.79 7.35 permanent loads  G min  1.93 W 3 .W c.92 1.59 42.62 149.3 2 4.91 207.i i 1 SLS G K.77 31.21 3.625 105.3 298.i QK .73 67.69 7. j  0.85 3.W c.06 185.22 W 2 .61 11.45 16.67 50.03 52.W c.92 24.W c.3 2 3.67 118.21 3.5 87.68 7.50 variable loads When there is more then one variable action acting.0 46.93 6.9 46.68 105.22 W 3 .75 149.14 3.44 159.1 4 4.6 124.933 W 1 W c.61 46.14 W 1.61 105.494 16.42 W 1 . W c.W c.39 3.78 229.5 23.75 46.63 179.72 35.

63 100.47 110 1.87 242.1/Resistance The maximum moment in: .38 31.5W2 53.5W2 59.23 57.19 45.04 .We have W pl .4 109 1.55 49.8W1 49.87 4/ Rafter 4.85 186.5W1 VA Bending moments (KNm) VE MB MC MD 57.33 366.46 270.86 210.81 30.35G  1.97 366.17 60.45 107 G  1.09 98.03 97.35G  1.56 299.8W2 69.85 105 G  1.37 239.5W1 43.72 35.17 116.28 89.79 90.25 336.national annex ) the coefficient 1.23 106.87 KNm .97 106.59 33.55 238. f y M0 must be verified for bending .37 69.2 applied for wind will be omitted if we use combinations above ULS combination combination Reactions (KN) HA 101 1.35G  1.35G  1.17 116.66 95. M 0 fy 58.5Q HE 57.58 106 G  1.89 231.32 46.37 54.35G  1.Apex connection : M B= M D=-366.74 205.These combinations are obtained from the NADF2 (French.37 The maximum values are collected in the table Reactions (KN) HA Bending moments (KNm) HE VA VE MB MC MD 57.03 41.15 388.59 43.28 24.03 41.23 102 1.05 100.46 61.97 106.67 119.17 388.33 KNm The expression With M Rd  M  M Rd M W pl .5W3 30.63 57.91 89.09 42.54 133.35G  1.44 104 1.63 336.87 useless 103 1.32 94.91 299.87 239.05 30.8W3 33.Eave connection : M C=+239.5W3 24.26 33.59 116.59 36.37 242.33 388.17 366. f y M0 then W pl  M .83 201.17 116.23 106.36 9.55 8.35G  1.15 366.97 388.86 108 1.

1 cm4 Wel.y = 1448.52 cm It = 32 cm4 Iw = 722861 cm6 Zane = 270 mm Zanp = 270 mm Yane = 85 mm Yanp = 85 mm .6 mm tw = 8 mm bf = 170 mm tf = 12. Caractéristiques géométriques Caractéristiques mécaniques Axe neutre élastique Axe neutre plastique h = 540 mm hw = 514.z = 191. the table below show it’s characteristics Caractéristiques du profil P.7 cm4 Wel.4 cm3 Wpl.33 eave connection Wpl  235000 .1cm3 .21 kg/m A = 84.7 cm3 iz = 3.z = 122.87 apex connection Wpl  235000 239.1 cm3 iy = 21.7 mm g = 66.6 cm3 Wpl.In apex connection Wpl  1561.5 IPE360 section is considered as welded beam .y = 1668.S.In eave connection Wpl  1018.35 cm2 Iy = 39105.For 366.R.53 cm Iz = 1042.4cm3 IPE 360+(1/2) IPE 360 IPE 360 The 1.

95* 25.1*108 *16270 *10 8  0.x  4 x  6 x  M B .15 KNm For IPE 360 the vertical deflection is  5*5.l 2  E=210000 MPa=210000N/mm 2=2.15* 25.73+149.1  4 ymax  48* 255.2cm In this case we must upgrade to IPE 500 and we obtain a limit value but less because we haven’t consider the presence of apex . 2  24   dx  For x=0 we have y=0 then ymax  1 384 EI  5ql 4  48M B .1x108 KN/m 2 I=16270 cm 4 q= G  Q =2.42=255.45+3.5=5.95KN/m L=25.This choice is preliminary and will be completed by others 4.12  384 * 2.1m M B=105.3119m  31.2/ Vertical deflection Vertical deflection of the rafter The vertical deflection will be calculated under G  Q The moment in a section is q   ql M x  M B   x  x2  2  2 By integration of the equation d2y M   dx 2 EI We have l 2 dy M 1  dx   dx 0 EI EI For x 1 y EI l 2 l 2 ql q 2  M  x  0  B 2 2 x dx dy  0 we have dx then l 2  ql 2 q 3 l ql 3 0  M B .

00 cm 3 iy = 20.90 cm 3 iz = 4.29 cm 4 We remark that IPE 500 is very suffisant to resist under positif and negative bending moment 4.3/Classification The section is class 1 as a similar (but not the same) verification for the column (see§5) 4.00 cm 4 Wel.55cm 200 200 CARACTERISTIQUES GEOMETRIQUES h = 500 mm b = 200 mm tw = 10.87 cm 2 Iz = 2 142.1*108 * 48200*10 8  0.31 cm It = 89.z = 214.52cm l 2510   12.20 cm 3 Wpl.15* 25.43 cm Avz = 59.00 cm 3 Wpl.70 kg/m A = 116.1   4 ymax f adm   48* 255.y = 1 928.2 mm tf = 16 mm r = 21 mm d = 426 mm IPE 500 CARACTERISTIQUES MECANIQUES g = 90.5*5.00 cm 4 Wel.1052m  10.y = 2 194.12  384* 2.4/Buckling resistance This figure shows different Sections categories and buckling modes .00 cm 2 Iy = 48 200.z = 335.95* 25.

5m Lateral restraints (purlins) IPE 500 ● 4.18m ● .Lateral torsional buckling check using the simplified assessment methods for beams with restraints in buildings: 8*1.19m Lateral restraints (bracing system) 3*4.

5 E  93.4 1   c .3.10  0.9 and fy   fy I f .z 1 f satisfies:  c . Rd [6.z then 235 N    mm 2   3   d  tw     I z   2*  *    3  12     2 [6.10 LT .0 is the slenderness parameter of the above compression element: c .3.2.4] y . is the radius of gyration of the compression flange including 1/3 of the compressed part of the web fz area.0  0. see EN 1993-1-1 c Table 6.0  0. about the minor axis of the section. c .4  0.2.6.Ed is the maximum design value of the bending moment within the restraint spacing k is a slenderness correction factor for moment distribution between restraints. Ed Where M y.Bracing system In buildings .0 M M c .0  0.0  LT .3] then . i . members with discrete lateral restraint to the compression flange are not susceptible to lateral-torsional buckling if the length L c between restraints or the resulting equivalent compression flange slenderness f  k L i  c c f .

02   43.z  Af .322 i f .35G  1.96cm 43. Rd  Wy f y  M1 2194* 235*103   515. z    A   2*  * tw   2  3    then 1   42.6 But between restraints in the centre of the rafter where the moment are maximum.33 1.65235 M B 366.74  4.96*93.z 3   42.52cm 2 3    I f .6  2 I f . z  1069.0 f  table 6.33   0.33  0.33*0. Ed  366.6  1.9 fy 1   M c .I f . the moment distribution may be considered as constant :K C=1.6 KC LC 1.52 Wy  Wpl .9  93.87 Then KC  1 1   0.z i f .33  0. z   116   2*  *1.87 KNm We consider that the coefficient  is the same if the rafter is unrestraint then  M C 239.5Q MB=MEd=366.9 The maximum bending moment is at the origin B of the rafter then the lateral torsional buckling may be also in the origin M y .87 KNm .02     2142   2*  * 3  12        1069.647 1.0 Combination 1. z 1 4.0*150   0. y  2194cm3 E  93.74cm4 2 1  d   Af .65235 table 6.59 KNm 1.

z 1 4.0 M M f   388. Rd 1.0* 418   0.37 KC LC 1.0 M M f  y .9 0. NOTA The real comportement of the rafter is shown in the figure .6637 388.322  0. Ed  0.5* y .5* y . Rd y .M M c .644  0.59 KC LC 1.35G  1. Ed c .663 Then the lateral torsional buckling is satisfactory A detailed procedure to do verification for the rafter is sho wn below as for column When the above procedure is not satisfactory. z 1 4.9 f  0.59  0.0*300   0.9 It’s necessary to add other bracing systems each 3m spacing then LC=3m M y .37 KC LC 1.8W3  388.8975 Not verified i f .703 366.5* 515.37 KNm  0.96*93.0*150   0. Ed c . Ed 515.37 KNm c .6441 i f .59  0.96*93.322 i f . z 1 4. Ed 515.59  0.6637 388.0 c .96*93.703 Combination MB= M c . Rd  0.

D O F S x the equation of the bending moment curve is a parabolic form Y  aX 2 .1 tension flange 7 restraints 2 elastic section 8 bending moment diagram 3 plastic stable length 9 Compression flange 4 plastic stable length 10 plastic stable length 5 elastic section 11 plastic stable length 6 plastic hinge 12 elastic section Annex A y 4.5/ the haunch verification C + .

52  4 2 X 157.55 Y M C=242.50 2d w 2* 426 Then the limit for the class is §5.4 F  176  0 F  1.2* 235 d w  d N 426  44.2 N Ed 106970   44.78m Length of the rafter F=2m The same verification for buckling 1/about yy 2/about zz 3/lateral torsional buckling as for column in section 5 may be used 5/COLUMN The verification of the column is carried out for the combination 101 1.63 tw f y 10.5 (tab5.2) .97KN V Ed  57.55  F  then 2 Conclusion M0  Y  4X 2 1928*103 * 235  453.0 X 0m S=12.37+242.8 KNm 1.6   42.52 a Then Y 630.552  0.15=630.0 F 2  100.87 KNm (at the top of the column) 5.5Q N Ed  106.15 M D+MC=388.23KN (assumed to be constant along the column) (assumed to be constant along the column) M Ed  366.8KNm 1.35G  1.63   0.9 tw 10.55  F then Y  M el  Wel f y Then 454  4 12.1/Classification of the section Web: the web slenderness is dN   c 437.the point F is considered the limit of elastic moment M el  Wel f y M0 1928*103 * 235   453.5 The bending moment curve equation will be For X  12.

2.97KN 0. Rd  0. 4345.25*2726  681.5 V pl .5KN 6.2 /Resistance Verification for shear force Shear area AV  max  A  2bt f   t w  2r  t f .2) The limit of the class is 9  9*1.2  2*21 *16.618 ≤ 9.2.0 the flange is class 1 So the section is Class 1.396 396*1   64.84 § 6.6. Rd  N Ed Af y M0  11600* 235 *103  2726 KN 1.5 (tab5.2  235   3 3     *103  818.0 VEd 57. Rd 818.25N Pl .07  0.2  AV  max  6035.119 13  1 13*0.552  1 42. The verification of the member will be based on the plastic resistance of the cross-section.0 §6.6 AV  max 11600  2*200*16  10.9 ≤ 64.8(2) The effect of the shear force on the moment resistance may be neglected Verification to axial force N Pl .2.1.2.2  AV  6035.1(4)equ 6.9.0  9 Until 4.23   0.2mm2 V pl . hwt w  §.9  4.618 16 §5.84 KN M0 1. 5.4  106. Rd f  AV  y 6035.0*426*10.33 .2.119 Until the web is class 1 Flange: the flange slenderness is c  tf  b  t w  2r  tf 2  73.

97 ≤ 681.5 and 6. Rd  WPl .59 KNm 1.2. Rd f y M0  2194* 235  515.5hwtw f y M0 Since  0.2 * 235  510.2.0 Ok! M pl . Rd 515.5 5.87   0.56 The effect of the axial force on the moment resistance may be neglected Verification to bending moment M pl .0*1000 M Ed 366.5* 426 *10.1(4)equ 6.34 106.0.x .711  1.3 serviability limit state Horizontal Deflection Horizontal Deflection at the top of the column must be verified for two combinations and Combination 201: G+Q combination 202:G+W1 Combination 201 G+Q The moment at a point x in the column is G+Q M x HA M x  H A.0 *1000 106.9.97 ≤ 510.56 KN 1.59 §6.

56913   0.534Px  dx 2 0   0.43087   0.10786 Then we have the results RA  0.04458 .534Px The resultant moment under the two actions is M X  H A x  0.534Px the internal potential energy of the column is: 1 W 2EI h   H A x  0.17004   4.By introducing a virtual force P at the summit of the column AB This effort generate the following forces k  IR h h  s IC s    k  3  3  3 2 f h  1    3  2   1   2   RA   1    3  2   1   2   RE  P  RA   1  2 1    3  2   2 P    3  2   1   2 2  VA  VE     M B   Ph M C   Ph M D   Ph Ph l For an IPE 500 column we obtain : k  0.511   0.466P The moment in the point M is M X  0.534P RE  0.

9  23.134 P    H A  0.534 Px   dx A  2 EI 0  2  Using a similar calculation we have 1 W  2 EI 2   x2 0   H A x  q 2  0.534P  1 W 2 EI 2 1 3 x H  0.534 P   A  3  0 2 x 2 dx 0 h h3 2 W  H A  0.494  39.847 ≤ 2.534Px  dx h W 1 3  1  2  1 x  qx   H A  0.137 OK! Combination 202 G+W H A  16.847cm 6 6*2.534 Px 2 the internal potential energy of the column is: 2 h  1  x2 W  H x  q  0.413 *3980.05q 2 x 2  2 EI   4  3  W 1 3  1  2  1 h  qh   H A  0.534 P   0.07 3 h HA  P  0    dP 6 EI C 1.406KN By application a similar resolution as the above x2 M X   H A x  q  0.05q 2 h 2  2 EI   4  3  .534P  6 EI dW 1.134 P    H A  0.1*10 *48200 l 641   2.534P   0.07*6.137cm 300 300 Since 1.4   1.h 1 W 2EI   H A  0.

RK  M1 equation 6.178H A h  EI dP  0.3 equation 6. M Z.64 *103 §6.2 210000*48200*104   24313.067qh  0.64 KN 64102 *103 2  11600 * 235  0.335 24313.41m h 500   2. y   y  2 EI y L2cr .3. y t f  16mm  40mm buckling curve :a(αy=0. y Af y N cr .6*6413    1.2 .345cm   6 2.4 Buckling Resistance The buckling resistance of the column is sufficient if the following conditions are fulfilled (no bending about the weak axis.1*10 *48200 P B M qx2 /2 x q HA A RA 5.  1 4 3 dW  P  0      0.61  M1 N Ed M Ed  k zy 1  y N RK  LT M y . y  6.2 b 200 Ncr .Ed=0): N Ed M Ed  k yy 1  y N RK  LT M y .5  1. RK  M1 §6.21) table 6.067*234*6414 *102  0.62  M1 Buckling about yy L CR .3.178*2340.1.

34 1.5 1   z   z  0.2   0.3117 .9691 Buckling about zz Buckling curve :b (αz=0.5883 1080.34) Ncr .335 2 2  0.5703  0.9973  1.5883  0. z  z   2 EI z 2 cr .58832   1.5703  0.5703  y  1 y     2 y  2 y 2  1 0.5 1  0.5*103 z  0.3352   0.2   1.5883 2 2  0.335  0.2    z  2   z  0. z L Af y N cr .9973 z  1 z     2 z  2 z 1 1.5KN 11600* 235  1.  y  0.5 1  0.9973  1.5 1   y  0.21 0.2   y   0. z    2 *210000*2142*104 6410 2  1080.

1 tension flange 2 plastic stable length 3 elastic section 4 plastic hinge 5 restraints 6 bending moment diagram 7 compression flange 8 plastic with tension flange restraint. 9 elastic with tension flange Column with restraints by cladding rail along long span Annex A Lateral torsional Buckling h 500   2.29  676.5  2 b 200 Annex A then buckling curve c(αLT=0.49) Moment diagram with linear variation :  0 then C1  1.32 KNm  2 21* 21420 . LT 2 I w Lcr .77  64102 *106 2142*104  2 210000* 2142*104 M cr  1.1* 21420 1249*105 6412 2142  6412 *8077 *89.77 The simplification of critical moment may be used: M cr  C1  2 EI z L2cr . LT GI t  Iz  2 EI z  2 210000*2142*10 4 1249000*10 6 6410 2*80770*89.29 *104 M cr  1.77  2 2.

32*10 6   2 LT  0.75*0.0  0.mod  LT   0.96632  0.8773 Calculation of the factor K yy K yy  Cmy CmLT y 1 N Ed N cr .8731 0.5 1   LT LT  LT . z   N Ed   1  N cr .4 1  LT      For   0 2 LT then 2 LT Kc    0.5 1  0.75*0.8731 676.0   y    LT  0.8731 2  0.7519  1  2  0.8773  1    0.6377 1  0.T     annex A 1 annex A .3.4  0.9663  0.9663 With a values of  LT  LT .33 Bending moment diagram and the  6.87312  0.8    0.49 0. y Cmy  Cmy .0  1  Cmy .75 and 1 0.7269  1 f 0.5 1  K c  1  2  LT  0.6377  LT .33  0. LT  Wpl .0  2 Cm .6 coefficient   2 f  1  0. LT  Cmy 1 C yy annex A  y aLT 1   y aLT aLT  N Ed 1  N cr . y f y M cr  2194*10 3 * 235  0.8731  0.5 1  0.2.7519 1.3 table 6.8    2 f  1  0.

97 24313. LT GI t Iw  Iz  2 EI z M cr .56KN M cr .64 1 wy  Wpl .9691 24313.6 2 1.T    For a doubly symmetrical section I 0  I y  I z   y02  z02   48200  2142  50342cm 4 Ncr .29 *104   382.1*105 *124. y 1 y annex A   Wel . LT L2cr . y  2194  1.0  C1  2 EI z L2cr .6 2 2  C yy  1   wy  1  2  Cmy  max  Cmy  max  n pl  bLT     w w   Wpl .29*10   50342*104 *103  64102  Ncr .1KNm  2 210000*2142*104 .N Ed N cr .97 1  0.T  2 EI w A   GI t  2 I 0  Lcr .5 1928 Critical axial force in the torsional buckling mode N cr .9998 106.138  1. y Wel .64 y   0. y  N Ed 1  y N cr . Then we have M cr .9*104 *106  4   80770*89. y y y  Calculation of y 106.0 is the critical moment foe the calculation of  0 annex A .T  11600  2 *2.0  1* C1=1  2 210000*2142*104 1249000*106 64102 *106 for uniform bending moment as specified in 2142*104 64102 *80770*89. y 1.T  3113.

36  y  0.79  01188 106.TF     Ncr .77 4 1  1    0.TF  Ncr .0 2194*103 * 235   1. z   N Ed 1     N cr .87*103 11600   20.2 1.97 1928*103 It 89.635 *0.2 C1 4 1   N Ed N cr .lim  0.928 Iw 1249 Calculation of C my.5 3113.7895 24313.0  1  Cmy .0 Cmy . LT  Cmy N Ed N cr .162 382. z For doubly symmetrical section   106. y f y M cr .0  W pl .lim  0.928 aLT  N Ed 1    N cr .0  0.1*106   0.7895  1  0.79  0.21 y  0.0  0. y 106.635 *0.7895  2 Cm .lim Calculation of Cmy Cmy  Cmy .29  1  0.T 106.64 Cmy  0.97    0.635 Wel .2569 1080.928  0.56 Then   0   0.97   N Ed  1  N cr . Ed N Ed aLT  1   y aLT 1  y aLT A 366.0  y  M y .97  0.T      1 . y 20.9596 1  20.33 With a value y 0 table A2 then Cmy .

138  Wel . Ed  0  bLT  0 n pl  N Ed 106970   0. LT  0.58832  *0.9998 1  0.64 Verification with interaction formula N Ed M Ed  k yy 1  y N RK  LT M y .Cm.138  1  2  *0. RK  M1  M1 . y Wpl .928 106.97 0. y 1 C yy 0.9596*1* y 1 N Ed N cr .95962 Then 0.6 2  Wel .6 2 2  C yy  1   wy  1  2  Cmy  max  Cmy  max  n pl  bLT    wy wy   Wpl .5   3113.03924  0. y 1.9457  1  Cm.95962 *1.  z   z M z .978 ≥ 0.138   1.6 1.8787 2194 0.03924 N Rk 11600* 235 1.97   106.6   C yy  1  1.8787 Ok! Calculation of K yy K yy  Cmy CmLT K yy  0.9853 106.0  M1  1. y     max  max  y .56   0.5883  *0.978 1 24313. LT  1 Calculation of C yy  1. y Since  1928  0.95962 *1.97   1   1    1080.978 1.

html ibnmessaoud10 .0 OK! The buckling resistance of the section is satisfactory This figure illustrate different categories of buckling modes A similar method of calculation of the factor K yz in the equation 6.arab-eng.106970 366.87 *106  0.9663* 1.62 mentioned above May be used for the verification of the second formula(not treated for this sheet) http://www.org/vb/u355867.766  1 0.9853*  0.9691*11600* 235 2194*103 * 235 0.0 1.