Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being

:
Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations

Matthieu Wargnier

Executive Master Thesis
INSEAD
January 2014

Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being
Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations

Abstract
The concept of emotional labor – the regulation of feelings and expressions for organizational
purposes – has shown exponential attention since its naming by sociologist Arlie Russel
Hochschild in 1983. However, most of the studies on this subject focus on employees on nonprofessional jobs in the service sector. Over the same 30 years, following the realization that
competitive advantage could be seized and sustained through the wise utilization of human
resources, the HR profession has emerged as a strategic partner and is more and more
expected, beyond its original “people care” role, to regulate others’ feelings, as a change and
culture champion or supporting managers who lack the skills, energy or time to perform
emotion management. So far the impact of these emerging emotional responsibilities on the
psychological well-being of HR professionals has not been explored. This study examines the
effects of the full human resources emotional labor on HR Managers and organizations.
Results from the analysis of semi-structured interviews of HR Managers in large corporations
confirmed the transferability of several findings made on other professions. It was in
particular established that emotional labor was a key constituent of current HR Management
and that its impact on the psychological well-being and performance of the HR manager was
correlated to several individual differences and contextual factors. Further, practical
suggestions are proposed to increase the effectiveness of HR emotional labor in organizations
and reduce its psychological impact on HR Managers.
Keywords:
Emotional Labor, Interpersonal Emotional Regulation, Human Resource Manager, Wellbeing, Dissonance, Change Management, Toxin Handler, Authenticity, Personality Traits,
Social Support

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Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being
Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations

Introduction:
The focus and context of human resources management, both in its practice within
organizations and in its study within academia, have undergone major development in the past
30 years (Schuler & Jackson, 2007). The successive HR evolutions to business partnership
(Ulrich, 1998) and human capital management (Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank, & Ulrich, 2013)
have deeply modified the responsibilities and required competencies of the HR profession. A
large part of these emerging requirements are extending the emotion regulation activities of
HR managers beyond their historical “caring for the people” key contribution : change and
culture management, employee engagement and support to leaders who lack the skills, energy
or time to perform emotion management with their teams.
Recent studies (Kulik, Cregan, Metz, & Brown, 2009) have leveraged the work of Frost
(2003) on “toxin handling”, i.e. the managerial activities associated with helping
organizational members cope with difficult, volatile emotions in the workplace, to start
exploring the psychological impact of HR emotion management at work while “caring for the
people”.
However, no work has so far captured that the extension of the emotional requirements on HR
managers made the profession move further to a true context of emotional labor. This concept
was described by Hochschild (1983) as the regulation of feelings and expressions for
organizational purposes and its psychological impacts have been well documented, albeit
mostly for non-professional jobs in the service sector. Emotional labor, as opposed to emotion
management at work, occurs “when emotion regulation is performed in response to job-based
emotional requirements in order to produce emotion towards – and to evoke emotion from –
another person to achieve organizational goals” (Grandey, Diefendorff, & Rupp, 2013).

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Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being
Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations

This study therefore takes a unique approach in that it explores the current human resources
management job requirements through the emotional labor lenses to identify how they impact
the HR manager and the organization in terms of well-being and performance. As
organizations are striving to make the HR function leaner and more ‘strategic’ (Francis &
Keegan, 2006) and as their much needed strategic agility appears increasingly related to
emotion management (Huy, 2011), the exploration of HR emotional labor is critical to
maintain the well-being and performance of HR managers despite the changes in job
requirements and therefore to ensure, through transformation and employee engagement, the
realization of organizational goals.
In this study the literature on emotional labor (EL) will be reviewed through the main lines of
research to propose an integrated view. A specific attention will be given to the transposition
of EL beyond non-professional service jobs, to its impact on well-being, and to its relation
with individual differences.
Findings from the analysis of semi-structured interviews of HR Managers in large
corporations will be discussed with respect to the extent to which emotional labor is actually
experienced by HR managers and in what way contextual and individual factors affect the
psychological impact and effectiveness of HR emotional labor. Coping strategies by HR
managers and social support by their managers will be examined. The impact of emotional
labor on the feeling of authenticity by HR managers and organization members will be
discussed.
Finally, implications of these findings will be suggested and areas for future research
identified. It is proposed that the impact of emotional labor on HR managers can be reduced
through the integration of personality traits in selection and development of HR managers, if

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Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being
Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations

specific social support measures are put in place, if the emotional requirements are formalized
or if HR managers are trained to antecedent based emotion regulations and relaxation.

Research aims and objectives:
This study aims to confirm the existence of emotional labor in the role of modern HR
managers, to explore how it is experienced by the HR managers themselves and to identify
the main factors that influence the effectiveness and psychological impact of HR emotional
labor. This will allow us to draw practical recommendations for HR managers and their line
managers with regards to the selection, development, support and training of HR managers.

Literature Review:
Emotional Labor
Three decades ago, sociologist Arlie Russel Hochschild published a seminal and
groundbreaking book: The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feelings (1983). In
this book she was proposing that the growth of the service sector and the increased attention
to interpersonal job demands gave birth to a new type of occupation called “emotional labor”,
a parallel concept to cognitive labor or physical labor. The term “labor” allowed to
differentiate emotional labor (i.e. managing feelings and expressions in exchange for a wage)
from emotion management that could be performed for personal use and potentially in a
private context.
Three main perspectives have been used to study EL (Grandey, Diefendorff, & Rupp, 2013):

5

Diefendorff. identifying EL jobs that require managing feelings and expressions (display rules) in exchange for a wage. It shows EL as functional for organization and employee. seeing EL as as intrapsychic processes (Morris & Feldman. The emotions that are required to be displayed can be either integrative (such as love. Bringing Emotional Labor into Focus. when there is a tension (emotional dissonance) between feelings and expressions. - Seeing EL as emotional displays (Rafaeli & Sutton. It shows EL to be functional for the organization but dysfunctional for the employee. First. building on previous attempts (Diefendorff & Gosserand. 2011) (Grandey. & Totterdell. 1997) (Grandey. by the organization for a given job. 2000) to effortfully manage one’s feelings (deep acting) or expressions (surface acting) when interacting with others at work. unless it is highly effortful and inauthentic. 2013). Proposed integrative model For the purpose of this study. 6 . by opposition to emotion work done in private for personal motives. we propose to integrate these views in the following model (Chart 1). seeing EL as occupational requirements. Martinez-Iñigo.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations - The original view of Hochschild. & Rupp. differentiating (such as fear. 2003) (Holman. anger or contempt that “cause group differences”) or masking (such as emotional neutrality and restraint) (Wharton & Erickson. display rules (or emotion requirements) are set. implicitly or in a formalized way. 1993). - More recently. loyalty and pride that “bind groups together”). It shows EL as functional for organization and employee in the case of deep acting but dysfunctional in the case of surface acting. 1987) (active or effortless expression of work role-specified emotions) that can be congruent or incongruent with feelings and can be authentic or inauthentic.

putting oneself in emotional deviance which is dysfunctional for both the organization and the individual. Complying with the display rules creates an emotion-display dissonance (Grandey.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Chart 1: Proposed integrative Emotional Labor Model Employees are then constantly comparing their feelings with the display rules associated with their job. In case of congruence. through cognitive reappraisal of the event that 7 . 2013) that can be solved through: - Antecedent-focused emotion regulation strategies also called deep acting to modify feelings before they are fully present. Martinez-Iñigo. & Totterdell. & Rupp. Otherwise. 2011) that can result in either the employee not complying with the display rules. there is an emotion-rule dissonance (Holman. they can release a genuine expression of their feelings or automatically regulated emotions and are said to be in emotional harmony (Ashforth & Humphrey. 1993). Diefendorff.

Metz. & Croyle. Human Resources Although some recent research (Kulik. 1999). Pollack. health care providers. These strategies are functional for the organization and the employee. Such regulation is dysfunctional for the employee and often for the organization due to its perceivable inauthenticity. energy or time to perform emotion management with their teams (Huy. human capital management (Ulrich. volatile emotions in the workplace) (Frost & Robinson. 2011). 2013) and the associated emotion regulation requirements: change and culture management. Brockbank. 1998). employee engagement and support to leaders who lack the skills. - Response-focused emotion regulation also called surface acting to suppress. However. & Hawver. & Brown. Younger.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations generated the feeling or through refocusing one’s attention. The service sector has been the primary focus of EL research. 8 . 2009) has started investigating the emotion regulation activities of HR managers in their traditional “toxin handler” role (helping organizational members cope with difficult. mainly around professions such as flight attendants. paralegal or call center workers (Erickson & Ritter. 2008). amplify or fake the observable expression while fully keeping the original feeling internally. In particular. Cregan. the academic literature is silent on the potential psychological impact of the successive extensions of the HR mandate to business partnership (Ulrich. & Ulrich. Richard. more recent work consider EL to be a central component to other jobs requiring interpersonal contact (Diefendorff. 2001). the EL component of HR roles as not been studied yet and literature only refers to HR as a factor to the EL of other organizational members. 2006) and leadership roles (Humphrey. teachers.

through recorded semi-structured interviews. 2008). the main goal of this study is to identify the individual and contextual factors that can affect the effectiveness and psychological impact of HR EL and to propose theoretical and practical implications for the HR profession. 2008) and are “particularly well-suited to developing theoretical models from unstructured data” (Harper. In organizational and job analysis. i. The basis was the collection. Incidents can be “any specifiable human activity sufficiently complete in itself to permit inferences and predictions about a particular activity” (Silvester. CIT has been used to collect role-related behavior information from role incumbents directly and from managers of role incumbents. Data Collection Interviews were led following the critical incident technique (CIT). combination of events.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Methodology: Beyond the confirmation that EL is a key component of the HR Manager role. successive analytic strategies for constructing inductive theories from the data” (Charmaz & Henwood. of “grounded events”. Critical incidents were defined as any event. between an HR Manager (the interviewee or one of his subordinates) and one or more interlocutors. 1954). or series of events. That interest led to a qualitative research methodology being chosen and in particular to the use of the grounded theory approach which provides “flexible. a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior (Flanagan. 9 . 2008). The incidents were then analyzed to reveal patterns. that caused the HR Manager to regulate his/her feelings and expressions for organizational purposes.e. actual incidents that could potentially require emotional labor from HR Managers.

first pilot interviews. considering that adequate coverage was achieved when the addition of critical incidents to the sample was not adding critical behaviors anymore. Therefore. main 10 . 2011) (Joseph & Newman. & Royer Krimmel. personality traits appeared to be a potential significant factor of the nature. All interviewees were therefore asked to complete a web based Big Five personality trait inventory (Potter. 2010). in relation with Emotional Intelligence (Chi. Diamond. Data Analysis Following Glaser’s guidelines (Glaser. effectiveness and impact of HR EL. 1999). it can usually be assumed that this information is accurate. progressing as the interviews were performed and analyzed in four successive waves: informal discussions. verification interviews. main series of interviews. the incidents were removed from the data collection. Flanagan suggests that “if full and precise details are given. when situations remained vague. The sample size was determined using a post hoc method. Following the analysis of the main wave of interviews. 2009) based on the works of UC Berkeley psychologist Oliver John (John & Srivastava. As the term “critical incident” can refer either to a complete story or to discrete behaviors contained within a story. 2012). Several studies on other professions have established a relationship between Emotional Labor and some of the Big Five personality traits. the first step was to delineate the unit of analysis. Grandey.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Interviews were performed either face to face or remotely through phone or video and audio recorded with interviewee’s consent. It was determined that discrete behavior would better preserve the specificity of the data. the coding of incidents and subsequent grounded theory generation was made in an inductive way. Vague reports suggest that the incident is not well remembered and that some of the data may be incorrect.” Interviewees were therefore probed to provide details and.

For each incident.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations incidents were. Plutchik’s psycho-evolutionary theory of emotion is one of the most influential classification Chart 2: Robert Plutchik's circumplex model 11 . four emotions were described: the one required to be displayed by the HR Manager (“Required”). coded into separate critical behaviors. when applicable. either integrative. based on Robert Plutchik's circumplex model (Chart 2). the four previously mentioned emotions were classified as per: - their expected effect on groups. 1993) - and their nature. the one experienced by the HR Manager (“Felt”). In order to categorize the different incidents. differentiating or masking (Wharton & Erickson. For instance. the one expressed by the HR Manager’s interlocutors (“Received”) and the one actually expressed by the HR Manager (“Actual”). when an HR Manager was experiencing different emotional stages during a same meeting. each stage was recorded as a separate incident.

Finally. interviewees have been carefully identified and selected to have a wide variety of experiences. Description of the Research Setting: In order for interesting patterns to emerge from the data. are captured. heavy industrial relations or working with dysfunctional leaders) and/or have shown signs of potential psychological distress (burnout. restructuring. all potential informants had experience mostly in large organizations. the strategies used by the role incumbent to manage the situation and/or to later recover from it. and joy.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations approaches for general emotional responses. excessive stress. This bias was actually thought to be positive as large companies are the most likely to reflect the HR evolutions to 12 . following a grounded theory approach. disgust. or compounds of eight primary emotions: anger. mixtures. sadness. potential informants have been selected from my professional network with the goal to interview generalist HR Managers whom have been expected to perform significant emotion regulation (through change management. Given my experience in large multinational corporations. trust. anticipation. response focused emotion regulation or emotional deviance. fear. It considers that all emotions occur as combinations. auto regulated expression. as per the integrative EL model proposed above : Genuine expression. either harmony or dissonance - and the kind of emotional work performed by the HR Manager. The emotional work performed by the HR Manager is then described as: - the emotion-rule relation. refusal to comply or to continue as HR) or visible emotional serenity and/or don’t have an HR boss to support them (remote jobs or Chief HR Officer roles). surprise. antecedent focused emotion regulation. For convenience. for each incident.

Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations business partnership (Ulrich. Younger. Both were former colleagues and had been informally discussing work situations before this study. 2013) described above. having experienced intensive labor relations or not. 21 potential informants were identified as covering a wide enough range of profiles and were invited for interview. & Ulrich. Brockbank. The first 15 of them to be available were actually interviewed before the sample was considered adequate. being from different countries. The interview notes and recordings were later analyzed with the goal to codify the incidents. Interviews respectively lasted 60 and 90 minutes and confirmed the necessity of emotional labor in the HR Manager function and the existence of an impact on the psychological well-being of the role incumbent. 1998) and human capital management (Ulrich. having showed signs of stress or burnout or not. having HR peers in the location or company or not. Due to a lack of details in the description of the situations. Potential interviewees were then categorized according to known information (experiences or profiles) that could be predictors of a wide enough variety of experiences: showing strong emotional stability or not. Pilot wave The first two people to answer were invited for pilot interviews for the calibration of the questions. Ten critical incidents were described during these two interviews. this first classification would not have been possible without the information gathered before the interviews and my knowledge of the described organizations. having experienced restructuring or not. having worked previously in other functions or not. working in different industries. having considered or decided to leave the HR function or not. 13 . From this list. This realization led to a revised interview structure for the second wave.

The expected elements of the story were: - the emotional landscape of the organization and of the HR function in the organization (what emotions were promoted. antecedents and availability for support - the stakeholders - the factual events - the emotional displays of various stakeholders - the felt emotions of the informant - the impact on the informant and the strategies used to manage. The various levels of impact on the psychological well-being of the incumbents and the diversity of the strategies used by different people to manage. mitigate or recover from similar situations were an obvious learning from this wave but could not immediately be linked to the critical incident categories identified at that stage. Participants were asked to report “stories” (critical incidents) when they thought their role elicited them to manage the level or nature of their emotional displays. for 45 to 90 minutes each. whether they actually did it or not. Eleven HR managers were interviewed in this phase. and 39 critical incidents were captured.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Main wave Building on the return of experience from the pilot wave. mitigate or recover from the incident. open ended questions were asked to clarify the context of the situations and to include enough details. accepted or proscribed) - the context for the role incumbent and in particular the stakes. coded and analyzed. subsequent interviews consisted of open-ended questions and individually adapted follow up questions. - When not covered in the narratives. As extraversion and emotional stability had been spontaneously 14 .

these personality traits appeared as promising factors but interviewees were difficult to categorize accurately on such scales. Out of fifteen interviewees. asking them to return the test results by email. 1999) has been selected. a web based Big Five Personality Test (Potter. All could be described as HR Managers although at different level : 3 held the top HR role in large international corporations and. two more participants were interviewed and ten critical incidents were captured. 2009) based on the work of Oliver John (John & Srivastava.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations discussed by participants. two interviewees were below 35 and five above 50 years old. Agreeableness (A) and Neuroticism (N). 15 . Five were women and ten were males. The red dotted line represent the median score of all respondents. Each full line represents the percentile scores of one respondent on each one of the five personality dimensions: Openness to Experience/Intellect (O). The URL was sent to all interviewees. Although most respondents had international roles and experience. For reason of scientific validity. All received answers were incorporated in the coding of the critical incidents for analysis. at the other end. Extraversion (E). Validation wave To validate the findings of the first two waves. Conscientiousness (C). two were professionals and individual contributors. convenience for the respondents and free availability. Rather than guessing or relying on auto-evaluation from interviewees. In terms of age. twelve accepted to communicate their Big Five test results. it was decided to ask all informants to take a personality test inventory. The results are displayed below (Chart 3 and Table 1). only one was not a French citizen and was German. Demographics of interviewees All interviewees were from the HR function although three had previously worked in other functions.

0 56.6 23.1 26. Although the standard deviation is quite high (19.5 0.42).4 0.0 62.8 0.8 Table 1: Analysis of Big Five Personality profiles of interviewees Three personality dimensions of the respondents significantly differ from the comparison sample (general population): - only 18% of the comparison sample have a lower Neuroticism score than the median of the interviewees.0 50. 16 .Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Chart 3: Big Five Personality Traits of Interviewees Openness Median Standard Deviation Mean Coefficient of variation 35.0 19.0 23.6 Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 66.4 18.8 57. We can consider that there is a significant prevalence of low neuroticism scores among the respondents compared to the general population.4 0.8 51.4 40.96 for an average score of 23.5 23.8 0. only two respondents have a Neuroticism percentile above 50 and none have a percentile above 60.0 23.

Only three respondents have a Conscientiousness percentile below 50 but the standard deviation is too high (23.75) to consider the low openness prevalence as significant. and by type of situation (Table 2): - Crisis : facing life threat.41 for an average of 40. who the interviewee is facing during the critical incident. accidents or death of employees - Dismissal : managing the departure of employees through individual or collective redundancy or dismissal - Integrity : being confronted to divergent values or ethical dilemmas - Interviews : face to face discussions with employees or candidates for any other purpose than dismissal - Labor relations : dealing with employee representatives.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations - only 34% of the comparison sample have a higher Conscientiousness score than the median of the interviewees. - only 35% of the comparison sample have a lower Openness score than the median of the interviewees.e. trade unions and authorities - Communication : communication or retention of information and opinions 17 . They were categorized by type of main interlocutor. Specifications of critical incidents Fifty nine critical incidents were recorded.09 for an average of 62. i. Only four respondents have a Openness percentile above 50 but the standard deviation is too high (23.75) to consider the high conscientiousness prevalence as significant.

differentiating or masking (Wharton & Erickson.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Interlocutor / Situation Crisis Boss Candidate Coachee Employee Ext. a clear over representation of France (Table 3). 1993) - 18 C2: Nature of received (C2r). due to the demographics of interviewees. in terms of country. Country / Industry Algeria France Germany Morocco Sweden Switzerland USA Total Construction High Tech Industrial Insurance Total 1 1 19 22 4 4 1 1 1 4 1 3 23 29 4 1 46 4 1 1 5 1 59 Table 3: Distribution of narratives by country and industry Data Gathering and Analysis As the interviews were performed and analyzed. felt (C2f). The contextual dimensions are: - C1: Purpose of felt. stakeholder Managers Representatives Total Labor Dismissal Integrity Relations Communication Interviews Total 3 2 2 7 2 2 2 2 3 12 1 7 1 24 1 1 2 2 21 21 3 15 3 22 11 5 59 Table 2: Number of narratives by type of interlocutor and type of situation The settings of the stories are. multiple dimensions progressively appeared as promising for a better understanding of the emotion regulation strategies during these situations. required (C2q) and actually displayed (C2a) emotions as per Robert Plutchik's circumplex model . required and actually displayed emotions : integrative. quite balanced in term of industry but with.

communication or interviews - C6: The estimated relative level of emotional intensity during the critical incident: low. based on Robert Plutchik's circumplex model. “I started to develop phobias” or “I could not concentrate for the rest of the day” or “For the first time in many years. coachee. response focused emotional regulation or emotional deviance - C4: The type of interlocutor: boss. in line with the proposed integrative model above (Chart 1): genuine expression. employee.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations - C3: The kind of emotional response performed.g. dismissal. 19 . labor relations. - C7: The estimated relative level of impact of the critical incident on the emotional well-being of the interviewee: low. antecedent focused emotion regulation.g. This classification was based on either direct or indirect feedback. candidate. a situation was ranked with a high impact when the interviewee directly stated the impact (e. medium or high. This ranking was based on the description of the emotional display of the interlocutor or of the emotional state of the interviewee. the emotional intensity was ranked as high when the interviewee used words of the same level as in the center of the model such as “rage”. palpable” or “there was an extreme tension in the room” or “he suddenly became purple and threw away the report across the meeting room”). “this situation deeply impacted me and my colleagues”) or described consequences of the impact (e. “admiration” or “grief” or when the interviewee directly described the intensity level (e. auto-regulated expression. “fear was everywhere. “terror”. For instance. I completely lost my temper”) or was showing obvious signs of agitation and stress when referring to the incident during the interview. external stakeholder. managers or representatives - C5: The type of situation: crisis. integrity. medium or high. For instance.g.

it is usual that my political opinions are known at work”). HR innovator and integrator or strategic positioner. Younger. The categorization of all incidents on each one of these dimensions was made based on the careful analysis of the interviews and of the biographies of the interviewees. 2013): capability builder. either a peer or above in the hierarchy of the corporation but excluding subordinates. - C9: The availability or not of another HR person in the workplace. ie. when respondents were seeking a full alignment between the opinions and emotions of their personal and professional selves. “I am someone else when I am at work” or “There is no such thing as an HRD me or a personal me. based on the Ulrich model (Ulrich. credible activist. there are no boundaries”) or indirect indications (“I tend to protect my family and friends from anything that is work related” or “although it is not always appropriate. or “separation” when respondents were seeking to dissociate the emotions and opinions of their personal selves from their professional ones. - I2: The Big Five personality profile of the interviewees and especially Agreeableness (I2a) and Neuroticism (I2n) - I3: The experience of the interviewee across companies and/or functions - I4: The demographics of the interviewees: age (I4a) and gender (I4b). The individual dimensions are: - I1: The type of strategy to deal with the emotional situations in general: either “congruence”.g. change champion . The results were then consolidated in a database in order to perform crossed analysis of all parameters. Brockbank. This classification was based on direct statements (e.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations - C8: The main HR competency put in practice or expected from the interviewee during the critical incident. & Ulrich. 20 .

Employees and Representatives are the two most recurring interlocutors (C4) in the narratives. the HR dimension at stake as per the Ulrich model. interactions with bosses are the ones most often highly impactful: more than half of the highly intense situations are involving representatives but “only” one third of them have a high impact while more than 70% of narratives with bosses resulted in a high impact.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Several interesting patterns emerged around five main angles : the interlocutors faced. the personality traits of the HRM and finally the Emotion Regulation strategy used. the type of situations. followed by bosses. the results indicate that although interactions with representatives are the most often involving intense emotions. as shown below (Table 4 and Table 5). It is also interesting to note that these three categories of interlocutors are also the only ones associated to situations with high Intensity (C6) or high Impact (C7). Unsurprisingly. Analysis by interlocutor As shown above. Interlocutor / Intensity Boss Candidate Coachee Employee External stakeholder Managers Representatives Total High 4 Medium 1 10 1 7 13 27 1 5 15 Table 4: Distribution of narratives by interlocutor type and intensity level Low 2 2 1 7 1 1 3 17 Total 7 2 2 24 1 2 21 59 21 .

Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Interlocutor / Impact Boss Candidate Coachee Employee External stakeholder Managers Representatives Total High 5 Medium 5 12 7 17 1 7 20 Low 2 2 2 7 1 1 7 22 Total 7 2 2 24 1 2 21 59 Table 5: Distribution of narratives by interlocutor type and impact level Analysis by Situations Given the frequent occurrence of Representatives in the narratives. followed by Dismissals. although representing more than 18% of the situations. are never described as highly intense or having a high impact (Table 6 and Table 7). Communication situations. Labor Relations is the main type of highly intense and highly impactful situation (C5). Situation / Intensity Communication Crisis Dismissal Integrity Interviews Labor Relations Total High 3 8 2 1 13 27 Medium 3 Low 8 6 1 1 3 4 17 Total 11 3 15 3 5 22 59 Low 5 1 3 1 4 8 22 Total 11 3 15 3 5 22 59 1 5 15 Table 6: Distribution of narratives by situation type and intensity level Situation / Impact High Communication Crisis Dismissal Integrity Interviews Labor Relations Total 2 5 2 1 7 17 Medium 6 7 7 20 Table 7: Distribution of narratives by situation type and impact level 22 .

Interlocutor Emotion / Labor Situation Communication Crisis Dismissal Integrity Interviews Relations Total Aggressiveness 1 2 1 15 19 Disapproval 3 2 2 7 Interest 3 2 2 7 Fear 1 5 6 Apprehension 2 1 3 Sadness 2 1 3 Optimism 1 1 2 Anger 1 1 2 Vigilance 2 2 Acceptance 1 1 2 Neutrality 1 1 2 Surprise 1 1 Disgust 1 1 Annoyance 1 1 Joy 1 1 Total 11 3 15 3 5 22 59 Table 8: Distribution of narratives by received emotion and situation The most often received emotion (C2r) is by far aggressiveness and in close to 80% of the cases it comes in Labor Relations situations (Table 8). 2013) (Grenet. Beyond 23 .g. 2011). current of former French HR executives have started disclosing the personal impact of these situations on them (Vergne. the one spontaneously felt (C2f) by the HRM as a person and finally the one actually displayed (C2a) by the HRM. 2013) and relative impunity from courts and companies in case of verbal or physical abuse towards management in general and HR management in particular (Canonne. Given the wide range of seniority and industries. the one required (C2q) from an HRM (e. this could come as a surprise if such a large portion of the narratives would not have taken place in France where Labor Relations is marked by a culture of class conflict (Morvan. the “rule”).Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations For a deeper understanding of the situations. 2014). Recently. it is interesting to identify the nature of the emotions (C2) involved in each one of the four emotional components of a narrative: the emotion received from the interlocutor (C2r). 2013) (Lhoumeau.

it is interesting to note that more than half of the actually displayed (C2a) emotions are Neutrality. Restraint or Acceptance (Table 11). the most frequent dissonance is when the required emotion is acceptance. more than half of narratives reported feelings of anger. in 75% of the cases. 24 . other recurrently received emotions are fear in cases of dismissal. while the felt emotion is remorse. in Communication situations. This is true in general but also for each one of the main types of situations: communication. the most frequent dissonance is when HRMs are expected to display optimism. required and felt emotions. In cases of dismissal. for instance of the rationale of the termination. For instance. Despite significant differences by type of situation for received. it is in a labor relations context and in line with the expected behavior. disapproval for what has to be communicated and interest for what cannot be communicated. A joint analysis of required (Table 9) and felt (Table 10) emotions by situations shows the most frequent emotional dissonance experienced by HRMs. contempt or fear while neutrality and restraint was required. dismissal and labor relations. It should also be noted that anger is the fifth most frequently displayed emotion but should not be interpreted as deviance as.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations aggressiveness in labor relations. for instance about the company strategy but feel disapproval. In Labor Relations situations.

Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Required Emotion / Situation Communication Crisis Acceptance Optimism 6 Restraint 3 Neutrality Submission 1 Interest Trust 2 Anger Calm 1 Annoyance Joy Sadness 1 Serenity Total 11 3 Dismissal Integrity Interviews 6 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 15 Labor Relations 3 1 4 5 2 1 3 2 1 1 3 5 1 22 Total 10 8 8 7 6 6 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 59 Table 9: Distribution of narratives by required emotion and situation Felt Emotion / Situation Labor Communication Crisis Dismissal Integrity Interviews Relations Total Disapproval 6 4 3 2 15 Anger 1 7 8 Remorse 6 6 Contempt 1 4 5 Fear 1 3 4 Annoyance 1 1 1 3 Apprehension 1 2 3 Trust 2 1 3 Interest 1 1 2 Boredom 1 1 2 Disgust 1 1 2 Sadness 1 1 Joy 1 1 Serenity 1 1 Optimism 1 1 Disaproval 1 1 Distraction 1 1 Total 11 3 15 3 5 22 59 Table 10: Distribution of narratives by felt emotion and situation 25 .

This counter intuitive result is a strong indication of the labor relations dynamics in France where the legal requirement to consult representatives for any significant change of strategy. Ulrich defines HR credibility as a combined result of execution. 2013). organization.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Displayed Emotion / Situation Communication Crisis Neutrality 3 Restraint 4 Acceptance Interest 1 Anger Trust 3 Submission 1 Annoyance 1 Calm 1 Disapproval Serenity Joy Annnoyance Total 11 3 Dismissal Integrity Interviews 4 2 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Labor Relations 6 5 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 15 3 1 1 5 22 Total 15 10 7 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 59 Table 11: Distribution of narratives by displayed emotion and situation Analysis based on with Ulrich’s HR competency model Classifying the narratives according to the main required competency domain (C8) and the type of situation (C5) shows several associations (Table 12): - Almost all Labor Relations situations are linked to the Change Champion competency domain. - All Dismissal situations are linked to the Credible Activist competency domain. trust and reliability and expects an activist to show consistent integrity (Ulrich. Brockbank. Younger. popularity or status (Morvan. Many emotional dissonance narratives for dismissals refer to a 26 . & Ulrich. 2013). method or tool has led to opposition to change being often used by representatives to gain negotiation power.

This reflects the wide variety of information and opinions HR Managers are expected to push throughout the workforce: values. HR practices. when in a generalist role. etc. Ulrich Competency / Situation Capability Builder Change Champion Credible Activist HR Innovator and Integrator Strategic Positioner Total Labor Communication Crisis Dismissal Integrity Interviews Relations Total 2 3 21 5 1 3 2 11 2 3 15 3 3 24 27 5 15 3 5 1 22 1 59 Table 12: Distribution of narratives by HR Competency and Situation As Dismissals and Labor Relations narratives are the ones with the highest intensity and impact. showing respect. 27 . always need to control his communication. even during moments that seem informal as all other people in the workplace are employees and therefore potential subjects for HR activities.g. care and attention to employees or refusing unfair dismissals). the associated Credible Activist and Change Champion competency domains are the ones involved in high intensity (C6) or high impact (C7) situations (Table 13 and Table 14).g. Most interviewees have underlined that the HR Manager. the commitment or obligation to execute dismissals efficiently) and activist role (e. Change Champion and HR Innovator and Integrator. strategy.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations perceived disconnect between credibility requirements (e. - Communication situations are linked to three competency domains: Credible Activist.

We called this dimension “I5”. compared to the score of 50) and in relative terms versus the group of interviewees (i. interviews were scanned to detect all references to either burn out syndromes. 28 . 18). In order to do so. Crossing this analysis with previously known situations allowed to list “impacted” HRMs. This list was then crossed with the Neuroticism (I2n) score. in relation to the emotional narratives. at any point in their career. compared to the median score of the sample. psychological distress or situations where the HRM felt he had to leave his job. i. expressed both in absolute terms versus the general population (i.e. company or the HR function. HRMs who. had their psychological well-being damaged or seriously threatened. 2004).Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Ulrich Competency / Intensity Capability Builder Change Champion Credible Activist HR Innovator and Integrator Strategic Positioner Total High 13 12 2 Medium 1 6 9 1 27 17 Low 1 5 6 2 1 15 Total 2 24 27 5 1 59 Table 13: Distribution of narratives by HR competency and intensity Ulrich Competency / Impact High Capability Builder Change Champion Credible Activist HR Innovator and Integrator Strategic Positioner Total Medium Low 7 9 1 9 9 2 17 20 Total 2 8 9 2 1 22 2 24 27 5 1 59 Table 14: Distribution of narratives by HR competency and impact Analysis by personality traits Given the significant prevalence of low neuroticism scores among the interviewees and the impact of this personality trait on emotional stress (Schneider.e. we tried to verify its correlation to the impact of emotional labor on the psychological well-being of the HR manager.e.

501 (Chart 4). This is confirmed by a positive correlation coefficient of 0. Agreeableness (I2a) is. 2005). among the Big Five personality traits. & Gosserand. Neuroticism / Impacted Absolute : High Relative : High Absolute : Low Relative : High Relative : Low Total Yes 2 2 1 No Total 2 2 10 4 6 12 9 4 5 9 1 3 Table 15: Distribution of interviewees by neuroticism score and past well-being impact 70 Neuroticism Score 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Although the numbers are too small to draw final conclusions. the only disposition to be uniquely related to all three emotional labor strategies (C3): 29 .8 1 1. Croyle. nine have not been “impacted” (I5) (Table 15).2 Impacted : 0=No. Given the very low median. the results in relative terms are less polarized but still in the same direction: the proportion of “impacted” interviews is doubled when the neuroticism score is high in relative terms.6 0. 1=Yes Chart 4: Distribution of neuroticism scores by past well-being impact As per a recent study (Diefendorff. it is striking to see that the two interviewees having a high neuroticism score in absolute terms have been “impacted” and that out of the ten having a low neuroticism (I2n) score in absolute terms.4 0.2 0.

although the direction of the correlation is the same: agreeableness is slightly positively correlated to antecedent based emotion regulation (Pearson’s r = +0.14). antecedent focused emotion regulation and response focused emotion regulation. We could not replicate these results with significant correlation levels. For interviewees not having suffered from past wellbeing impact (I5). This result would tend to confirm that individuals who tend to value highly positive interpersonal relations are more likely to seek authenticity through the unity of their professional and personal opinions. This could have very well led them to artificially re-balance their emotion regulation strategies despite their natural disposition to one approach.06) and slightly negatively correlated to response focused emotion regulation (r = -0. The weakness of the correlation could well be explained by the fact that rather than assessing general behavior of participants we were focusing on specific critical incidents identified by the interviewees when they were asked to think about different kinds of situations. a first hypothesis was that separation could be negatively correlated to past well-being impact (I5).Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations genuine expression. the existence of a past well-being impact seems to significantly change the agreeableness to congruence correlation. the agreeableness (I2a) to congruence (I1) correlation coefficient (r = +0. However.77) is 80% higher than for the whole sample (Chart 5). In order to assess the impact of Agreeableness on HRM’s emotional labor strategies. This confirms that individuals who tend to value highly positive interpersonal relations are likely to seek authenticity through the unity of their professional and personal opinions but also indicates that they may adapt their 30 . Such correlation could not be verified on our sample. showing a positive correlation of agreeableness to congruence (r = +0.42). a crossed analysis was made with the overall congruence/separation strategy (I1) of interviewees. As several respondents had justified their use of separation rather congruence by a need to protect themselves.

to more separation when they have been impacted in their psychological well-being. In Communication. 31 . 100 90 Agreeableness 80 Not impacted 70 60 Impacted 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 Congruence / Separation Chart 5: Agreeableness score by congruence and past well-being impact Analysis by kind of emotional response The kind of emotion regulation (C3) performed differs depending on the situations (C5). was handled in both ways (Table 15). In the same way that we studied. at the person level. consciously or not. As interviewees were asked to describe emotion regulation situations. the correlation between neuroticism and past impact on the well-being. the most frequent approaches have been response focused while Dismissal was mostly handled through antecedent focused ER. it is not surprising that most critical incidents show emotional dissonance rather than emotional harmony. Labor Relations. The most frequent situation.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations behavior. the relation at the critical incident level between the kind of emotion regulation and the impact of the event on the HRM is interesting. Crisis and Interviews.

antecedent focused emotion regulation has an efficiency level of 61%. which would be quite contradictory with previous studies. On the 59 studied situations.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Emotion regulation / Situation Dissonance Antecedent focused ER Emotional Deviance Emotional Deviance (Partial) Response focused ER Harmony Auto regulated expression Genuine Expression Total Communication Crisis 10 2 Labor Dismissal Integrity Interviews Relations Total 15 3 4 21 55 9 1 8 18 2 1 1 4 2 2 8 1 2 1 1 1 11 3 4 15 1 3 4 1 1 5 12 1 31 4 1 3 22 1 59 Table 15: Distribution of Narratives by kind of emotional response and situation A first raw analysis shows that more than 55% of antecedent based emotion regulation situations ended up with a medium impact while 48% of response focused emotion regulation did the same. This could seem to indicate that response focused emotion regulation is more effective in mitigating the impact of emotional events. The reason for that discrepancy probably is that events in our sample are not comparable because of their very different intensity. “effective” if intensity is higher than impact and “worsening” if intensity is lower than impact. auto regulated expression 33% and 32 . We therefore combined the intensity variable and the impact variable to calculate a third variable called “Response Effect” (C10) with three potential values : “neutral” if intensity and impact are equal. The percentage of events with an “effective” outcome gives the efficiency level of each kind of emotion regulation.

Response / Response Effect Effective Antecedent focused ER Response focused ER Auto regulated expression Emotional Deviance Emotional Deviance (Partial) Genuine Expression Total Neutral 11 4 1 16 Worsening 7 24 2 3 2 1 39 Total 3 1 4 18 31 3 4 2 1 59 Table 16: Distribution of narratives by kind of response and response effect Findings and Discussion The first result of the study is a confirmation that.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations response focused emotion regulation 13% (Table 16). employees are the most often quoted explanations for the high number of intense and impactful situations with these interlocutors. Emotional deviance and genuine expression show efficiency of 0% but on too small a number of events to draw conclusions. HR specific contextual EL factors: Three main contextual factors differentiate HR EL. The climate of labor relations in France and the increasing expectations from. First. results show that HR Managers are exposed to intense and impactful emotional situations not only with their bosses like any worker does but also with employee representatives and with employees not seen as colleagues but as potential HR topics. The characteristics and effects of emotional labor for HR managers are comparable to what has been described for other occupations with a few specificities. and of. 33 . although the HR function has never been studied by Emotional Labor literature. modern HR Managers in large corporations do experience emotional labor.

Also. a business need for an increased pace of change and. peer support is a key mitigation and recovery strategy for HR EL. As explained below. Based on Ulrich’s competency model (Ulrich. especially in France.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations A second contextual factor is the “loneliness” or isolation of the HR Manager. Although Labor Relations and Dismissals are traditional HR activities. exponential harassment 34 . A third contextual factor is related to the specific HR situations (C5). in our sample. The main quoted reasons for this inability to get support from co-workers because of speech control are the confidentiality of the topics they worked on. most interviewees expressed that there was not a single person they could freely talk to in their workplace. region or division. obvious for the Chief HR Officer of a company. employee representatives who learnt how to use obstruction to change as a negotiation weapon. country. HR Managers are increasingly caught in between. legal uncertainty. This situation. they could very well be more emotionally demanding nowadays than a few years ago. the necessity to keep some distance with colleagues who could at any moment become “HR topics” and the ambivalent “Business Partner” relation with the General Manager. Results for the sample actually show that the two most frequent. 2013) it could be anticipated that the Change Champion competency would be significantly associated to EL situations. In 41 of the 59 analyzed narratives. Brockbank. While any other function can find relief and support from any colleague. narratives ended-up with a high impact (C7) in 32% of the cases when no HR colleague was available and in 22% of the cases when HR colleagues were available. & Ulrich. the HR Manager had no HR colleague next to him/her. also happens often when HR Managers are the highest HR person of the company in a site. This is consistent with the fact that. intense and impactful EL situations are Labor Relations and Dismissal. on the other side. in the French context of high unemployment rate. respectively associated to the Change Champion and Credible Activist competency domains. on one side. Younger. other than subordinates.

for their well-being but also probably for organizational efficiency: although through the interviews we could not measure the impact of the narratives on the 35 . Results also indicated that the Agreeableness score of the HR manager was correlated to a congruent work/life approach of emotions and opinions. Antecedent based emotion regulation is by far the most efficient response to mitigate the impact on oneself of an emotionally intense situation.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations accusations and financial constraints. response focused emotion regulation is most often of neutral effect and almost has often worsening as effective. This would indicate a clear benefit for HR Managers to use “deep acting” rather than “surface acting”. On the contrary. dismissals require a high degree of emotion management. HR specific personal factors Not only could we identify that interviewed HR Managers had significantly lower Neuroticism (I2n) levels than the general population on the Big Five personality inventory. This “congruence” preference can be expected to be a positive factor to authenticity and therefore to the effectiveness of emotional labor for the organization. However. Finally. it should be noted that all Deviance responses in the sample were performed by HR Managers having a congruent approach. absolutely no correlation could be found between the impact on the psychological well-being (I5) and Congruence (I1) or Agreeableness (I2a). This indicates that HR Managers with low neuroticism could be less prone to have their psychological well-being at risk. HR emotion regulation strategies The effect of the different kinds of emotion regulation performed in the studied narratives is consistent with what was anticipated from other studies and formalized in our proposed model (Chart 1). we also could find a correlation between the levels of Neuroticism and of psychological wellbeing impact on the HR Manager.

Interestingly. In that context. friend or partner. a preparation for antecedent based emotion regulation. for instance being social but not friendly. before the event.e. and the mental reassessment of the situation. HR mitigation and recovery strategies During the interviews. depending on the situation. leaving early enough during company parties. in the case of an HR Manager. three main practices are used by HR Managers to recover from emotional stress. Most participants quoted distancing and preparation as key strategies used prior to emotional events. some isolated HR Managers said they decided at 36 . The great diversity of answers did not allow to perform the same kind of quantitative analysis as for other variables. for each situation. During the event. often means anyone in the workplace. etc. i. Being prepared was also often quoted as key to successful emotion regulation. Most HR Managers would set themselves some boundaries. what they did before or during the event to mitigate the impact of the emotional situation on them and what they did after the event to recover from it. some patterns appeared.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations organization. However. colleague. 2000) all indicate the higher organizational efficiency of antecedent focused emotion regulation thanks to the higher level of perceived authenticity it conveys. distancing means avoiding emotional involvement with any person who may later be part of an emotional situation which. HR Managers were asked to list. After the emotional events. studies on other occupations (Grandey. mostly through the interruption of the meeting or through diversion. the most often described techniques were the escape. It involves the knowledge of the topics discussed and of the interlocutors but also the anticipation of the potential feelings and reactions of the interlocutors. The first one is to talk to a trusted peer.

for instance due to an authoritarian leadership style or diverging values. - Selection interviews should verify the ability for the candidate to function without friendship in the workplace if the role does not allow a lot of contact with HR peers. many HR Managers use a coach or a therapist in order to be able to share their burden without involving co-workers or having to open bridges between their professional and personal lives.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations some point to breach their distancing principles to “restate” a colleague as “friend rather than co-worker”. Finally. The second set of techniques involve relaxation or physical activities: breathing. The amount of Labor Relations and Dismissals or the level of requirement on the Change Champion and Credible Activist competency domains are quite easy to assess and could be considered as a good indicator of the emotional labor intensity of the role. Once an HR Manager role is identified as involving intense emotional labor. the resilience and efficiency of HR Managers could mainly benefit from developing three skills: 37 . it would be advisable to consider three dimensions for selection: - Low neuroticism could be predictive of a good resilience to HR emotional labor - Agreeableness could be predictive of the authenticity approach. A high agreeableness would tend to indicate a congruent approach which would fit well roles where a high perceived authenticity is key while deviance is either unlikely due to a participative and ethical approach or accepted by the management. etc. On the contrary. Practical recommendations The first practical implication of the findings of this study is on the selection of candidates to and HR Manager position in a large organization. a low agreeableness could indicate a separation approach well adapted to roles where the sensitivity to perceived authenticity is lower and where the risk associated to deviance is high. going for a walk. In terms of talent development and learning.

for instance by putting oneself literally in the other’s seat to simulate the conversation and better understand and anticipate the reactions. 2009) - Even when no HR peer is available in the workplace. more generally. 38 . for instance in the case of discriminations. all antecedent based emotion regulation techniques. Metz. Finally.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations - How to prepare each emotional meeting. - How to reassess situations and opinions about people and. through deep breathing. - A guideline should be agreed to make sure HR Managers are always assisted by a peer or a manager when they are facing hostile groups such as Trade Unions. & Brown. peer coaching or peer talking could be organized to make sure isolated HR Managers all have a trustable person to talk to. meditation or any relaxation technique. Cregan. in the same way as toxin handling responsibilities (Kulik. - An integrity charter should be made available and enforced to limit the situations where the HR Manager has to fight alone for ethical principles. the work environment of the HR Manager could be adapted to minimize the impact of emotional labor: - The hierarchical manager of the HR Manager should be made aware of the factors and consequences of emotional labor and prompted to provide regular support and listening to the HR Manager - The emotion regulation responsibilities of the HR Manager should be formalized. - How to relax.

the HR Managers who were interviewed were mainly coming from France and therefore cannot be considered as representative of the situation in any other country. 39 . the chosen methodology did not allow to reliably measure the efficiency for the organization of the emotional labor performed by the HR manager: all efficiency indications were given by the HR Managers and not by an independent source. Future Research Future research should further investigate the relation between the emotional labor strategies used by HR Managers and their effect on the organization. in particular through the measurement of perceived authenticity. Also. The qualitative grounded theory approach involved interpretation in the categorization of the narratives and in the identification of patterns. Also. HR Managers from more diverse geographies and profiles could be studied to investigate the potential replication of the findings of this study. given the number of variables. The resulting imprecision of measurement implied to work with lower correlation coefficients than with a more normative measurement. Finally. The number of interviewees was sized for the qualitative identification of patterns but is not large enough to validate quantitatively all hypotheses.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Limitations The main limitation of the study comes from the sample of HR Managers that was used.

This study shows that the journey is not without dangers but also that the right people. More and more. to handle the toxic emotions of employees and to regulate one’s emotions. progressively gaining credibility on more value creating activities. 40 . culture. manage emotions effectively for the organization and safely for themselves. Now true business partner. together with the excitement of being at the core of the business and the joy of working with so noble a material as people. Today’s HR Manager is getting. HR leaders are asked to design the emotional landscape of organizations. the anxiety of playing with a very special kind of fire: emotions. by combining authenticity to themselves and to others. HR is also more and more truly working on human material: engagement.Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Conclusion The Human Resources function has come a long way since Personnel Administration. with the right training and the right support can. psychosocial risks. etc.

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............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9 Data Collection ........................................................................ 21 Analysis by Situations ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Proposed integrative model .............................................................................................................. 14 Validation wave .............................................................................................. 22 52 ........................................................................................................ 17 Data Gathering and Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................ 12 Pilot wave ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Human Resources ...................................... 8 Methodology: .................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction: ............................................................................... 3 Research aims and objectives: .................................................................................................................... 15 Specifications of critical incidents ...... 10 Description of the Research Setting: ....................................................... 15 Demographics of interviewees ..........................................................................................................................................................Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Table of Contents Abstract ........................... 5 Emotional Labor .. 13 Main wave .................................. 5 Literature Review: ................................. 18 Analysis by interlocutor.............................................. 9 Data Analysis ........................................................................................

.......................................................................Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Analysis based on with Ulrich’s HR competency model ....................................... 35 HR emotion regulation strategies ........ 39 Conclusion ............................... 54 53 ............................... 40 Bibliography: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Practical recommendations ................... 39 Future Research .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 HR specific contextual EL factors: ............................................................................................................................................. 28 Analysis by kind of emotional response ................................................. 37 Limitations .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 26 Analysis by personality traits ..................... 54 Charts ............. 31 Findings and Discussion.................................................................................... 35 HR mitigation and recovery strategies .. 41 Tables .............................................................................. 33 HR specific personal factors ..............................................................................................................................................................

....Emotion Regulation Responsibilities and Psychological Well-being Effects of Emotional Labor on HR Managers and Organizations Tables Table 1: Analysis of Big Five Personality profiles of interviewees ............................................................................... 22 Table 7: Distribution of narratives by situation type and impact level .. 16 Chart 4: Distribution of neuroticism scores by past well-being impact .............................. 23 Table 9: Distribution of narratives by required emotion and situation .......................................... 22 Table 6: Distribution of narratives by situation type and intensity level .................... 28 Table 14: Distribution of narratives by HR competency and impact ...................................... 18 Table 4: Distribution of narratives by interlocutor type and intensity level .............. 29 Chart 5: Agreeableness score by congruence and past well-being impact. 27 Table 13: Distribution of narratives by HR competency and intensity . 21 Table 5: Distribution of narratives by interlocutor type and impact level .................... 33 Charts Chart 1: Proposed integrative Emotional Labor Model .................. 11 Chart 3: Big Five Personality Traits of Interviewees ........................................ 18 Table 3: Distribution of narratives by country and industry ................................................................ 28 Table 15: Distribution of Narratives by kind of emotional response and situation ........................................................................................ 31 54 ................ 26 Table 12: Distribution of narratives by HR Competency and Situation ....................... 32 Table 16: Distribution of narratives by kind of response and response effect ......... 22 Table 8: Distribution of narratives by received emotion and situation ............................................................................... 16 Table 2: Number of narratives by type of interlocutor and type of situation .......................................................... 7 Chart 2: Robert Plutchik's circumplex model .................................................................................................................... 25 Table 10: Distribution of narratives by felt emotion and situation ....................................... 25 Table 11: Distribution of narratives by displayed emotion and situation .........