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**For discussion in the recitation on Thursday May 19th
**

An equidimensional equation

Consider

a

y = 0.

(1)

x2

Take a > 0 and obtain the physical-optics approximation. Compare to the exact solution. Is the

physical-optics approximation asymptotically valid as x → ∞? As x → 0? Is the physical-optics

approximation ever valid?

y ′′ +

**A fourth order example
**

Substitute the WKB ansatz y = eS/ǫ into the fourth-order differential equation

d4 y

+ Qy = 0 ,

(2)

dx4

and obtain a nonlinear equation for S. Using the expansion S = S0 + ǫS1 + ǫ2 S2 + · · · find S0 and

S1 in terms of Q. (Consider both signs of Q.)

ǫ4

Bessel’s equation

Put Bessel’s differential equation

r2

dy

d2 y

+r

+ (r 2 − ν 2 )y = 0

dr 2

dr

(3)

into Schr¨

odinger form

d2 Y

+

dr 2

ν2 −

1−

r2

1

4

!

Y = 0.

(4)

**Consider r = R/ǫ with ǫ → 0 and R fixed. Obtain the physical optics approximation to (4) in this
**

limit. Compare your answer to Bessel-function asymptotics in some convenient reference.

Problem 9.2

Consider the eigenvalue problem

y ′′ = −λy ,

with BCs:

y(0) = 0 ,

y ′ (1) = y(1) .

(5)

**(i) Prove that all the eigenvalues are real. (ii) Find the transcendental equation whose solutions
**

determine the eigenvalues λn . (iii) Find an explicit expression for the smallest eigenvalue λ0 and

the associated eigenfunction y0 (x). (iv) Show that the eigenfunctions are orthogonal with respect

to an appropriately defined inner product. (v) Attempt to solve the inhomogeneous boundary value

problem

y ′′ = a(x),

y(0) = 0 ,

with BCs:

y ′ (1) = y(1) ,

(6)

via an expansion using the eigenmodes. Show that this expansion fails because the problem has no

solution for an arbitrary a(x). (iv) Find the solvability condition on a(x) which ensures that the

problem (6) does have a solution, and then obtain the solution using a modal expansion.

1

ǫ2 y4′′ + ex y4 = 0 . y3′ (0) = 1 .2 0 0. ǫ2 y2′′ − ex y2 = 0 . y1 (0) = 0 . ǫ2 y3′′ + e−x y3 = 0 .5 1 1. 2 (8) .5 2 x 2.5 4 Figure 1: Which differential equation. with BCs φ(1) = φ(ℓ) = 0 .2 y ( x) 0.3 Consider the eigenproblem −φ′′ = λx−2+ǫ φ . y4 (0) = 0 . y2 (0) = 0 . and estimate ǫ? Problem 9.1 −0.3 0. (a) Which yn is shown in figure 1? (b) Estimate the ǫ used in figure 1. y4′ (0) = 1 . y1′ (0) = 1 . y3 (0) = 0 .0. ln ℓ Find the change in λ1 induced by the perturbation ǫ ≪ 1. (7) In the lecture notes we solved the ǫ = 0 problem and showed that the smallest eigenvalue is λ1 = 1 4 + π .5 3 3. A problem from the 2013 final Figure 1 shows the solution to one of the four initial value problems: ǫ2 y1′′ − e−x y1 = 0 . y2′ (0) = 1 .1 0 −0.

such as the appendix of BO) and find the exact solution of the differential equation y ′′ + a2 xq y = 0 (10) in terms of Bessel functions. 3 . Solve the differential equation using the WKB approximation and following our discussion of Airy’s equation.Hand-in due in class on Thursday May 26th Problem 10.) Compute the first five eigenvalues with bvp5c and compare the numerical estimate with your approximation. (11) (Follow the discussion in section 10. Go to Chapter 10 of the DLMF (or some other reference.3 of the notes making appropriate modifications — the inner problem no longer involves Airy functions. assess the accuracy of the large-x WKB approximation to (9). (9) with x ≫ 1. Compare the asymptotic expansion of the exact Bessel function solution with your WKB approximation. with BCs y(0) = y(π/2) = 0. An eigenproblem with a second-order turning point Estimate the large eigenvalues of ψ ′′ + λ sin2 x ψ = 0 .4 Consider the differential equation y ′′ + x2 y = 0 .

Nonetheless. (ii) Plot the integrand of (12) as a function of t at x = 100.) (i) Show that J0′′ + x−1 J0′ + J0 = 0.3 in the notes). 4 .3 from part A — basic WKB Consider the differential equation y ′′ + 400 y = 0. (16) Solve this problem exactly in terms of well known special functions. πx (iv) Use matlab (help besselj) to compare the leading order approximation above to the matlab Bessel function on the interval 0 < x < 5π. Check your answer with matlab (see figure 10. Problem 10. (15) and suppose that y(x) ∼ x−1/4 cos(2x3/2 /3) as x → +∞ .Hand-in due in class on Tuesday May 17th Problem 5. (iii) Show that r 2 J0 (x) ∼ (13) cos x − π4 . figure out how to apply the WKB approximation and compare the physical optics approximation to a numerical solution with the initial conditions y(0) = 1 and y ′ (0) = 0.6 from part B — classic stationary phase The Bessel function of order zero is defined by 2 J0 (x) = π def Z π/2 cos (x cos t) dt .9 from Part A — a special function you should know intimately Consider y ′′ + xy = 0 .84) in the notes that I’ve corrected above. (12) 0 (Note there is a typo in (5. Problem 10. Find the asymptotic behaviour of y(x) as x → −∞. 400 + x2 (14) This equation is not in the form ǫ2 y ′′ + Qy = 0.

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