The different type of photovoltaic

systems and their applications

Solar radiation
Solar radiation: electromagnetic energy emitted by the fusion of
hydrogen content in the sun.
- On the solar surface to solar radiation is associated with a specific
power output of 63.000 kW / m²
- Outside the Earth's atmosphere, the power incident on a unit area
perpendicular to the sun, has a value of about 1367 W / m² (± 3% of
the variability due to ellipticity of Earth's orbit), this value is called the
Solar constant
- On the surface of the Earth, at sea level, under optimum conditions
and sun at noon, the power density is about 1000 W / m²
- The measurement of solar radiation is made by an instrument
called a pyranometer

This physical phenomenon is what occurs in photovoltaic cells .Photovoltaic effect The conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy takes place by exploiting the effect induced by a luminous flux which invests a semiconductor material 'doped'. very often silicon.

while laboratory cells have reached values ​of 24% .Conversion efficiency The energy exploited depends on the characteristics of the material of the cell: the conversion efficiency (percentage of energy contained in the solar radiation that is converted into electricity available at terminals) for commercial silicon cells is typically between 10% and 17%.

is avaible on our planet in unlimited silicon monocrystalline .in silicon amorphous .Different PV Technologies The majority of solar cells is costituted by silicon silicon polycristalline . Cells: . unlike of other semiconductors. The reason is that silicon.

Best space efficiency (Less space on roof) . These panels tend to have the best space efficiency. meaning they take up less space than the other technologies (a great advantage if you want to generate lots of power). and test models over 20%. (5% of panel can be covered) .Performance drop in shaded areas.Minimal framing needed (Saving Energy) .2mm thick before the wafers are chemically treated and electrical contacts added. Advantages: . The fact that they are cut from a single crystal means that they are highly efficient.More potential power generation from your house Disadvantages: .Different PV Technologies Monocrystalline Pronounced "Mono-Crystal-Line" Mono is the traditional checkered type solar panel which have been commercially developed since the 1960's. The cells in monocrystalline modules are made by a single silicon crystal. This crystal is cut into wafers roughly 0. with modules in production converting up to 15% of the energy from the sun into electricity.

They're the 'blue sparkling' looking panels.A pretty nice 'Blue' look . Traditionally their goal was to be more cost effective than Monocrystalline.Better shade tolerance than Mono (15% of panel can be covered) Disadvantages: -Not quite as space friendly as Mono panels (10% more room needed) . Poly panels have been in mass production since the late 70's and have become more popular over time. Advantages: . which at one stage did happen (However it is now again 'neck & neck').Good space efficiency . The many small crystals give polycrystalline modules a frosted look.Different PV Technologies n Policrystalline n Pronounced "Poli-Crystal-Line".Better Heat Tolerance than Mono (Depending on Manufacturer) . Polycrystalline (also known as multicrystalline) modules are made from cells containing lots of small silicon crystals. This makes them cheaper to produce but also slightly less efficient than monocrystalline modules.

2mm wafers in crystalline cells are already incredibly thin.Less silicon & energy needed to manufacture . Thin film panels however take up almost DOUBLE the space of other panels.Better in shade conditions Disadvantages: . Although the efficiency of thin-film panels is only about 10%. they use less material and are cheaper than crystalline modules. which can be a problem is you need to avoid areas or want to have a big system.Greater surface area needed for the same kilowatt power (about double) n  . but many other materials can also be used and even flexible panels can be made.More average energy produced per kilowatt peak . Since the 80's Thin film has been used in calculators and watches because they perform better than others in low light. The layers can be deposited on glass forming a panel similar to crystalline modules. While the 0.n  Different PV Technologies Thin Film Silicon (Amorphous) Thin-Film OR "A-more-fus" panels are the latest panels to be mass produced (this however does not necessarily make them the best).Work well in low light . the layers making up thin-film modules are about 40 times thinner than a strand of human hair. at just 2 microns (a micron is one-millionth of a meter).More framing needed to install (therefore more energy) . Advantages .

Different PV Technologies n  Hybrid Silicon (Monocrystalline/Thin-Film) n  The production of hybrid panels has only been in the last 5 years. now Thin-Film manufacturers are trying to introduce Mono cells into their panels to make them more space efficient. Space & Output) .Hybrid panels vary depending on the manufacturer (Quality.Usually the most expensive technology . Advantages: -7-10% more average energy produced (Compared to Mono & Poly) -Space Efficient (Depending on mixture and manufacturer) Disadvantages: . Hybrid panels are a mixture between Monocrystalline and Thin-Film (Amorphous) panels. However. This is usually mainly a Mono panel with a backing of Thin-Film to boost the average energy.

. both flat and pitched. or on front.Applications of PV systems Photovoltaic system on buildings Where can it be installed? The photovoltaic modules can be placed on the roof .

Applications of PV systems Photovoltaic power plants System with fixed axis: The photovoltaic modules can be placed on the ground with the optimun tilt .

Applications of PV systems Photovoltaic power plants Solar tracking system: .two axes (40% increase in production) .an axis (30% increase in production compared to fixed systems of equal power) .

the technical performance of PV modules. of a correction factor calculated on the basis of orientation. the angle of inclination of the system.Producibility of a photovoltaic system The annual electricity [kWh / kWp] of a PV system can be estimated through a calculation that takes into account: . and any shadows temporary.annual solar radiation of the place. inverter and other system components Standard values​​: South Italy: 1500 kWh / kWp Central Italy: 1300 kWh / kWp North Italy: 1000 kWh / kWp .

is very important to evaluate the energetic behavior of future installations and direct them toward the most suitable technology to apply. allowing the comparison under the same climatic conditions and levels of irradiation of different solar technologies.Producibility of photovoltaic system The purpose to assess and compare the performance of different types of modules in specific geographical locations. . The systems considered are located in Quaglio (Sicilia). under various climatic conditions and to identify benefits/losses given by a specific surrounding context.

Producibility of a photovoltaic system Regran .Quaglio .Laboratory 1 .

" 5 . 4 . N.Laboratory 1 . 185 Wp." 72. SILICON THIN FILM " FIRST SOLAR . polycrystalline silicon " SOLSONICA 610" .Quaglio SOLAR LAB CALLED "REGRAN LAB 1 ".DA QUAGLIO SICILY SINCE 2008 DATA OF PHOTOVOLTAIC PV PLANTS: 1. 1 INVERTER " ELECTRONIC SANTERNO TG 53 . 1 INVERTER " Fronius IG 500" 2 . INSTALLED ON AGRICULTURAL LAND SITES IN C. polycrystalline silicon " SHUNDA " . 220 Wp.220 photovoltaic modules . 1 INVERTER " Fronius IG 500" .686 photovoltaic modules ." .225 photovoltaic modules . N. COMPOSED BY FIVE PV SYSTEMS . 3 .185 Wp.260 photovoltaic modules . polycrystalline silicon " SHUNDA " .5 Wp. 1 INVERTER TYPE " ELECTRONIC SANTERNO TG 53 .Producibility of photovoltaic system Regran . N. N.266 photovoltaic modules . polycrystalline silicon cells " SOLSONICA 610" . 220 Wp N. 1 INVERTER TYPE " Fronius IG 500" .

Laboratoy 2 .Producibility of photovoltaic system Regran .Quaglio .

N. N. 2 INVERTER " POWER ONE PVI 10. polycrystalline silicon " QG SOLAR “.Producibility of a photovoltaic system Regran . polycrystalline silicon “SOLSONICA”. 1 INVERTER “JEMA IF 20.100 photovoltaic modules .0 OUTD. COMPOSED BY NINE PV SYSTEMS INSTALLED ON AGRICULTURAL LAND SITES IN C. polycrystalline silicon “SHUNDA” 180 Wp. 1 INVERTER “JEMA IF 20. 230 Wp N. 5 . SILICON THIN FILM " INVENTUX X 125 " .160 photovoltaic modules . N.29 photovoltaic modules .IT " 7 – 28 photovoltaic modules . polycrystalline silicon “IATSO” 225 Wp + 28 photovoltaic modules ." 3 . 3 INVERTER " SMA SMC 7000HV -IT" . 2 INVERTER " POWER ONE PVI -10." 4 .IT " 6 – 40 photovoltaic modules . polycrystalline silicon" HECKERT SOLAR " . polycrystalline silicon “QG SOLAR“ 230 Wp + 40 photovoltaic modules . 1 INVERTER " JEMA IF 20 . polycrystalline silicon “SOVELLO“.IT 8 . polycrystalline silicon “SOLSONICA“ 240 Wp. polycrystalline silicon “QG SOLAR” 230 Wp + 28 photovoltaic modules .0 -OUTD -S. 230 Wp N." .IT + N°1 INVERTER “MATERVOLT 6500 XS” 9 . 200 Wp.IT-S. polycrystalline silicon “SHUNDA” 180 Wp.Laboratory 2 . N.DA QUAGLIO SICILY DATA OF PHOTOVOLTAIC PV PLANTS : 1 -100 photovoltaic modules ." 2 – 84 photovoltaic modules .Quaglio SOLAR LAB CALLED "REGRAN LAB 2". N°2 INVERTER “POWER ONE PVI -10. polycrystalline silicon “ QG SOLAR " . polycrystalline silicon “SOLSONICA” 230 Wp + 34 photovoltaic modules . polycrystalline silicon “MAGE SOLAR” 225 Wp + 36 photovoltaic modules . N°3 INVERTER “POWER ONE PVI -6000 -OUTD -S. 125 Wp. 230 Wp. 200 Wp. polycrystalline silicon “ QG SOLAR " .43 photovoltaic modules .84 photovoltaic modules . 220 Wp. N°2 INVERTER “POWER ONE PVI -6000 -OUTD -S. + 45 photovoltaic modules .0 OUTD -S.

Producibility of a photovoltaic system Results of laboratory .

00 800.Nuovo impianto GIORGIO ANFUSO GIOVANNI ANFUSO MARCO ANFUSO PROGECO .Nuovo impianto MELFI VITTORIA ANFUSO MARCO .00 1800.00 1200.Nuovo impianto ARRABITO ANDREA .00 400.00 1600.Nuovo impianto MELFI VITTORIA .Nuovo impianto GRANDE ANTONIO .Nuovo impianto GRANDE ANTONIO .Nuovo impianto GRANDE PAOLO .00 1000.Nuovo impianto ANFUSO GIORGIO .Producibility of a photovoltaic system Results of laboratory 2000.Nuovo impianto ROMANO CLAUDIA .00 0.00 200.Nuovo impianto LAMANTIA SILVIA.00 600.00 MARCO ANFUSO -Cessiono ParzialeCAPPELLO ALESSANDRO .00 1400.

Quaglio 1 September 2012 .Results of laboratory .

Quaglio 1 December 2012 .Results of laboratory .

Results of laboratory .Quaglio 1 April 2013 .

Results of laboratory .Quaglio 1 July 2013 .

Results of laboratory .0   Inv  10  –  11  Antonio  Power  One  10.0   Inv  12-­‐  13  –  14  Paolo  SMa  7000   Inv  15  La  ManHa  Jema  IF20   Inv  16  Melfi  Jema  IF20   Inv  17  CLaudia  Jema  IF  20   .0   Inv  8  –  9  ALessandro  Power  One  10.Quaglio 2 September 2012   Inv1  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv2  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv3-­‐4-­‐5  Giorgio  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv  6  –  7  Andrea  Arrabito  Power  one  10.

0   Inv  8  –  9  ALessandro  Power  One  10.0   Inv  12-­‐  13  –  14  Paolo  SMa  7000   Inv  15  La  ManHa  Jema  IF20   Inv  16  Melfi  Jema  IF20   Inv  17  CLaudia  Jema  IF  20   .Results of laboratory .Quaglio 2 December 2012   Inv1  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv2  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv3-­‐4-­‐5  Giorgio  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv  6  –  7  Andrea  Arrabito  Power  one  10.0   Inv  10  –  11  Antonio  Power  One  10.

0   Inv  12-­‐  13  –  14  Paolo  SMa  7000   Inv  15  La  ManHa  Jema  IF20   Inv  16  Melfi  Jema  IF20   Inv  17  CLaudia  Jema  IF  20   .0   Inv  8  –  9  ALessandro  Power  One  10.Results of laboratory .0   Inv  10  –  11  Antonio  Power  One  10.Quaglio 2 April 2013   Inv1  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv2  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv3-­‐4-­‐5  Giorgio  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv  6  –  7  Andrea  Arrabito  Power  one  10.

Results of laboratory .0   Inv  10  –  11  Antonio  Power  One  10.0   Inv  8  –  9  ALessandro  Power  One  10.Quaglio 2 December 2012   Inv1  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv2  -­‐  Marco  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv3-­‐4-­‐5  Giorgio  Anfuso  Power  One  6000   Inv  6  –  7  Andrea  Arrabito  Power  one  10.0   Inv  12-­‐  13  –  14  Paolo  SMa  7000   Inv  15  La  ManHa  Jema  IF20   Inv  16  Melfi  Jema  IF20   Inv  17  CLaudia  Jema  IF  20   .