What does the test result mean?

Moderately increased albumin levels found in both initial and repeat urine tests indicate that a person is likely to
have early kidney disease. Very high levels are an indication that kidney disease is present in a more severe form.
Undetectable levels are an indication that kidney function is normal.
The presence of blood in the urine, a urinary tract infection, vigorous exercise, and other acute illnesses may cause a
positive test result that is not related to kidney disease. Testing should be repeated after these conditions have


Granular casts are a sign of many types of kidney diseases.

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
Normally, a few RBCs are present in urine sediment. Inflammation, injury, or disease in the kidneys or elsewhere in
the urinary tract, for example, in the bladder or urethra, can cause RBCs to leak out of the blood vessels into the
urine. RBCs can also be a contaminant due to an improper sample collection and blood from hemorrhoids or
White Blood Cells (WBCs)
The number of WBCs in urine sediment is normally low. When the number is high, it indicates an infection or
inflammation somewhere in the urinary tract. WBCs can also be a contaminant, such as those from vaginal
Epithelial Cells
Normally in men and women, a few epithelial cells from the bladder (transitional epithelial cells) or from the external
urethra (squamous epithelial cells) can be found in the urine sediment. Cells from the kidney (kidney cells) are less
common. In urinary tract conditions such as infections, inflammation, and malignancies, more epithelial cells are
present. Determining the kinds of cells present helps the health care provider pinpoint where the condition is located.
For example, a bladder infection may result in large numbers of transitional epithelial cells in urine sediment.
Epithelial cells are usually reported as "few," "moderate," or "many" present per low power field (LPF).

https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/urinalysis/ui-exams/start/ 2
Blood (Hemoglobin)
This test is used to detect hemoglobin in the urine (hemoglobinuria). Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein
found inside red blood cells (RBCs). Its presence in the urine indicates blood in the urine (known as hematuria). The
small number of RBCs normally present in urine (see microscopic examination) usually result in a "negative" test.
However, when the number of RBCs increases, they are detected as a "positive" test result.

When the WBC count in urine is high. For instance. When the number of WBCs in urine increases significantly. This test cannot determine the severity of disease nor be used to identify where the blood is coming from. smoking. because vitamin C has been known to interfere with the accuracy of urine blood test results. a few white blood cells (seemicroscopic examination) are present in urine and this test is negative. Leukocyte Esterase Leukocyte esterase is an enzyme present in most white blood cells (WBCs). or strenuous exercise can cause hematuria or hemoglobinuria. Sometimes a chemical test for blood in the urine is negative. such as a bladder or kidney infection. Numerous diseases of the kidney and urinary tract. as well as trauma. medications. causing them to be falsely low or falsely negative. but the Microscopic Exam shows increased numbers of RBCs. this screening test will become positive. the laboratorian may test the sample for ascorbic acid (vitamin C). This is why it is important to collect a urine specimen correctly and for women to tell their health care provider that they are menstruating when asked to collect a urine specimen. The most common cause for WBCs in urine (leukocyturia) is a bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI). https://labtestsonline.Even small increases in the amount of RBCs in urine can be significant. contamination of urine with blood from hemorrhoids or vaginal bleeding cannot be distinguished from a bleed in the urinary tract. When this happens. it means that there is inflammation in the urinary tract or kidneys. Normally.org/understanding/analytes/urinalysis/ui-exams/start/1#ph .