No. 1/2011

80 - 85

Student’s learning style and Multiple Intelligence profile
Mariana Norela, Andreea Ramona Lauren iub

Transilvania University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Brasov, Romania

The changes in society - the transition from Information Society towards Knowledge Society led to
significant and unprecedented effects on learning. Because people must develop “globally-valued skills”
when knowledge is produced with an increasing speed, efficient “learning to learn” abilities are mandatory.
The present study represents the first stage, observant stage of an experimental research that aims to
evaluate the implications of the counseling for learning upon student’s achievement.
The main objective of this study is to evaluate awareness level and the preferences of their own learning
styles form Linksman R. approach and Gardner's Multiple Intelligences for the 109 full-time students
compared to 108 distance learning students. The comparison of the learning styles and multiple
intelligences students profile showed significant differences between the programs of study (full-time and
distance learning).
Keywords: learning styles, Gardner's multiple intelligences, Knowledge Society, students, learning to learn

1. Introduction
The “explosion” of information together with new technologies and communication
are key aspects and requirements in the same time. Education in the era of Knowledge is
directly influenced by economic, technology and social changes. Taking into
consideration Carnoy and Castells point of view: "In a society where education,
information, and knowledge are the critical sources of wealth and influence, class
formation takes place in the classroom." (Carnoy, Castells, 1999), we consider that these
changes of rapport between Education and Knowledge (Cucos, 2006), (knowledge being
mainly transmitted through the educational system), alter both the teachers and the
student’s perception upon learning and education. In Andy Hargreaves’s opinion the
“knowledge society is really a learning society […] by process information and
knowledge in ways that maximize learning, stimulate ingenuity and invention and
develop the capacity to initiate and cope with change.” (Hargreaves, 2003). Under these
conditions the way that people learn will be different. Lifelong Learning must include
efficient „learning to learn” abilities, global abilities in order to use the most of their own
possibilities, but in the same time to valorize all the opportunities that technology and
society offers. Personality traits as learning styles, intelligence, motivation, selfperception and self-confidence, cognitive style, brain lateralization, and so on, together
with sociological and environmental factors and specific characteristics of the tasks are
only some of the elements that develop the „learning to learn” abilities.
Many studies and researchers tried to find out more about the learning process, we try
to evaluate the profile of learning styles and multiple intelligence for student from two
Corresponding author. Tel.\fax: +40 0268-416185;
E-mail address: mariananorel@unitbv.ro

According to the same author each individual has the capacity to develop these intelligences at an accepted level. the awareness level and the preference regarding learning styles and multiple intelligences of students .Student’s learning style and Multiple Intelligence profile 81 different program study form a specific specialization in the actual conditions of Romanian Educational System. 2003. auditory. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. This categorization was selected because we believe it differentiates more accurate the motor type through tactile and kinesthetic. 1. but also "certain features of the training sets and instructional prescriptions that accompany actual learning achievement. 2. Dunn & Dunn observed that over time the personal learning style it is possible to change. Linksman Learning style The learning style is considered to be "a specific and preferential matrix for processing the learning tasks. These abilities refer to using best preferences and abilities. spatial-visual intelligence. Objective In this study we try to assess the learning style and multiple intelligences profiles of the student from Education and Psychology specialization in the Romanian educational system and according to the Bologna Declaration provisions. 2010). 1990. cognitive functioning. interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence).and also to develop their weaknesses. but also the manner or method in which they prefer to learn and develop their strengths . naturalistic intelligence. logical-mathematical intelligence. 2006).” (Gardner. in order to adapt the strategies to the required environmental conditions. as well as their behavioral and working styles. but being aware of your weaknesses. tactile and kinesthetic. managing efficient their learning process and having the skill to find new opportunities to learn.1. observant stage form an experimental research that aims to evaluate the implications of the counseling for learning on students results." Although in literature there are many classifications of learning styles. We will use for this study the typology of (Linksman. 1. The changes are different when the learner is an adult." (Neacsu.1. learning style involves consistent. 2006) Thus. that a person may possess (Gardner suggests most of us are strong in three types) indicates not only the persons capabilities. meaning that they include. musical intelligence. from a cognitive perspective. The first main characteristics we wanted to evaluate are learning style and multiple intelligences (important independent variables for the experiment) that correlate with efficient learning to learn abilities. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the configuration profile. in addition. psychomotor and affective elements. and their natural strengths. independent of the specific characteristics of learning tasks. This study is the first stage.2. 1999) which shows the characteristics of learning behavior analyzer dominance criterion involved in learning: visual. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Gardner Multiple Intelligences Theory “represents a definition of human nature.” This theory explains how these preferences refer not only to “preferred learning styles. 2000) that have a broader meaning than cognitive styles. The eight intelligence types (linguistic intelligence. auditory and motor or practical. stable strategies. Methodology 2. one of the most popular types used in educational practice has three categories: visual. We agree with (Dumitru. if he is encouraged and if he benefits of special adequate training (Gardner.

.6% between 18-30 years old and 30. Year of study: First year (53%) second year (29. logical-mathematical (LM). Andreea Ramona Lauren iu 82 the full-time students. integrated in a Full-time program compared to those from the Distance Learning program.7%). Bachelor’s Degree Programs. interpersonal (INER). 2. . spatial-visual (SV). musical (M).2%FT 49. The distribution of the study participants has the following characteristics: Programs of study: Full-time (FT 50.. 2001. Age: Mean 27 years old. 69. The order the subjects were asked to complete the instruments it is respected in the presentation of the instruments as well: The first Questionnaire was constructed for this purpose only in order to assess the awareness level of learning style and multiple intelligences the preferences and the interdependence between them. 2. There are others styles with one up to five styles combined (COMB). 2. L. Participants The participants of the study were only 214 valid cases out of 250 voluntary students from the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences. The second was the Questionnaire of Personal Learning Style (Linksman.9%). • Objective no. The research is based on Linskman approach and on Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory. Instruments For this research were used three questionnaires two of them constructed for this purpose only and the well-known Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire. The third was Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire (coord. 1 To evaluate if the students know the differences between different learning styles and intelligences types. Specializations: Psychology (30.4% and Pedagogy 9.3. 3 To diagnose the particularities of the structure of the learning styles and multiple intelligences for Distance Learning and Full-Time programs students. 1999.4% between 30-56 years old. Spiro. intrapersonal (INTRA) and naturalistic (N).2.4.9%) and Education (Pedagogy for Pre-school and Primary Education 59.49%) and third year (12. J. 51) with 78 sentences that assess eight styles of intelligence: linguistic (L). but unbalanced from the other two criteria because there are few students in the third year and the specialization Pedagogy it is less represented then the others one. The population of the study it is balanced from the type of the program (50.8%). bodily-kinesthetic (BK).2%) and Distance Learning (DL 49. important for the differential analysis.8% DL).13) consisted of 17 items which differentiates four learning styles: visual. auditory. tactile and kinesthetic. The reason for this presence it is influenced by the number of the total students at this specialization. Gliga. p. This short questionnaire (six items) included also some factual data about the respondents. Procedure For this study were applied directly or by e-mail the three instruments presented above in the period October-November 2010. 2 To evaluate the level of awareness of their own characteristics concerning learning styles and multiple intelligences. p. The specific objectives of this study were: • Objective no. • Objective no.Mariana Norel.

3% 6. 71.9% of the students know the learning styles and are aware of their dominant one (Awareness of the Learning Styles-ALS). Kinesthetic (21.0% 21.8% compare to 21. the learning style is more popular then multiple intelligence preference but the percent’s are among 20% of the investigated population.17. 3. Comparison of Dominance of the Learning Styles for distance learning students (left) and full-time students (right) The structure of the Dominance of Multiple Intelligences (DMI) for the population investigated it is presented in Table 1.Student’s learning style and Multiple Intelligence profile 83 2. they believe to have another style than the questionnaire showed.This finding is very interesting and makes us wonder if these preferences for the mostly first year students were the one who made them chose the study program.1% 14. Data analysis The collected data were encoded.0% a -visual b-auditory c-tactile d-kinesthetic others combined b-auditory c-tactile d-kinesthetic others combined DOMINACE OF LEARNING STYLES FOR FULL-TIME STUDENTS DOMINACE OF LEARNING STYLES FOR DISTANCE LEARNING Figure 1.0% 30.5.4% declare that they do not know this typology of intelligence. introduced and analyzed with the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS var.0% a -visual 0. .6 % compare to 14. There was found a significant statistical correlation between the Visual and the Kinesthetic style of rho=0.0% 31. The preoccupation for the human and society could be predictable for the Psychology and Education but not the Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence. The differences between the two specializations are among 20% .62%).00.3%).00). Dominance of the Learning Styles (DLS) for the Psychology and Education Sciences participating students are mostly Visual (35.96%) and Tactile (12. p<0.4% 10.7% 0.4%) but the distance learning are more Kinesthetic (31. Concerning the Awareness of the Gardner Multiple Intelligences (AMI) the situation is much different.full time students are more Visual than the distance learning (47. We have excluded from the analysis the combined multiple intelligences types. 50.1% demonstrate that they know the typology and their own intelligence preference and 6.6% confound with other typologies or with another intelligence.) we can observe that there are important differences.0% Percent Percent 40.0% 30.98%).2% 10. The percent of the Visual style it is more than double at the students from distance learning.6% 47. and the most dominant style for the full-time students is the Kinesthetic one.3% 11.0% 20.0% 15.9% of participating students are wrong about their learning style. 22. As you can see the most frequently types of intelligences are Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence and Interpersonal intelligence followed by the Intrapersonal intelligence. Comparing the results for distance learning and full-time (see Figure 1. 14.4% 20. So.3% 13. Results The results shows that 38.0% 18.6% 20. 19.

by the same specialization. 15) Retrieved from . p<0.1% 10. the more he knows about his Multiple Intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence it is also found at the two programs of study second and third place.5% Musical Intelligence 7. Ideas for future research as to see if others specializations have different structure of intelligences or learning style or if the differences between Full-time and Distance Learning are available to another specializations.49.9% Spatial-visual Intelligence 6.2% Full-time 2% 8. because the learning style is related to the way people thinks. and the network state: Poulantzas at the millennium. Table 1.6% Combined 28.2% 4. p<0.6% A high level of awareness of the learning style correlate with awareness of the multiple intelligence Spearmen Correlation 0.Mariana Norel. For the whole participating population.79% 12. This could mean that different education forms shape different preferences or that different preferences determine the decision of following one educational program or other. (1999).5) between the dominance of the Learning Style and the Multiple Intelligences..16.13% 8. we can believe that the more a person learns. the knowledge society. We tend to believe the second hypothesis because there are more first year students and they have auto evaluate in the beginning of first term.9% Interpersonal Intelligence 13.7% Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence 13. There is such a correlation with both the awareness of the Learning Styles but it is only rho=-0. By this result we can believe that the learning styles are better known and more accessible. Andreea Ramona Lauren iu 84 This type of intelligences occupies the first place in the top of preferences for distance learning students and the third place for full-time students. Concerning the multiple intelligences preferences the percent is between 15% and 20%. 4.7% Intrapersonal Intelligence 11. Globalization.42% 1% Logical-Mathematical Intelligence 7. References 1.6% Naturalistic Intelligence 11. M. We consider that is very important to know the structure of these two important characteristic of the learning process in order to help students use the befit of the dominant learning style or styles and multiple intelligences to try to develop more the others. As a surprise there was found un insignificant correlation (-0.21% 10. (p.55% 4.05.3% 12. p<0.2% 16. So. Discussions The students that attended more years of formal education and the ones from full-time learning are more aware of their learning style preferences. It is surprisingly that the structures for both learning styles and multiple intelligences preferences are so different from one learning program to other. and the correlation between awareness of the multiple intelligence and the period of education has the same value. These results will be used in the second stage of the research the need analyze in order to develop a module of counseling for efficient „learning to learn” abilities.1% 31.3% 27. Castells. between 30% and 40% are aware of their own ways to learn.05.2% 6.08% 4.32% 14. Carnoy.21% 15. M.2% 9.26. Dominance of Multiple Intelligences Multiple Intelligences Whole population Distance Learning Linguistic Intelligence 1.

4. 13) Retrieved from http://www. Gardner. Cucos. Differential Training Application of the Multiple Intelligences.google.&hl=ro&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart Gliga. 9. Methodological Guide. Informatization of the education.Teaching in the Knowledge Society. (2006). Developing Critical Thinking and Efficient Learning.ro/scholar?q=Globalization. 22).+the+knowledge+society. How to Learn Anything Quickly. I.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences. New Horizons. A. ( p.businessballs. Iasi: Polirom. Volume 4. H. Neacsu. Multiple Intelligences. Professional Voice. A.asn. H. Bucharest: Sigma Printing Press. (p. (p. (2000). (2006. J. November 15). 16). November 15). November 15). 85 http://scholar. Aspects of training virtualization. I. Timisoara: West Press. L. R. Retrieved from http://www.scribd. (1999). Buzau: Tipogup Press.. (2006).Student’s learning style and Multiple Intelligence profile 2. Issue 1. (2010. Bucharest: Teora. (2003. Dumitru. 21). Gardner.com/doc/16664784/Invarea-academic-independent-IoanNEACSU .pdf Linksman. 8. 5.+and+the+network+sta te:+Poulantzas+at+the+millennium. 16).( p. 7.htm Hargreaves. (p. C. Spiro. coord (2001).au/professional_files_PV_vol4iss1_hargreaves.aeuvic... Retrieved from http://www. Multiple intelligences. 6. 3. Independent Academic Learning.