International Journal of Engineering and Information Technology

Copyright© 2010 waves publishers
IJEIT 2010, 2(1), 37-40

Vol 2 , No. 1
ISSN 0975-5292 (Print)
ISSN 0976-0253 (Online)

AIR GAP EFFECTS ON MAGNETIC
FLUX DENSITY OF
LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR
Chetan Vasudeva#1, Sanjay Marwaha#2, Anupma Marwaha*3, Manpreet Singh Manna#4
#

Department of Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering,SLIET(Deemed-to-be-University),
Longowal,Distt.Sangrur(pb.), INDIA

1

chetan.vasudeva@gmail.com,2 marwaha_sanjay@yahoo.co.in ,4 mannasliet@gmail.com
*

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SLIET (Deemed-to-be-University),
Longowal,Distt.Sangrur(pb.), INDIA,
3

marwaha_anupma@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: - It is important to understand the magnetic flux density to get better design of any machine. Magnetic flux in the air
gap of the electrical machines is reduced due to various losses such as fringing effect. This leads to larger effective air gap length.
The paper provides an overview of the Magnetic flux density available to assist in the design and performance efficiency
comparison of linear induction motor by varying air gap length. The COMSOL Multiphysics software used here is based on finite
element techniques in very advanced and provides reliable and accurate results.
Keywords:- Finite Element Method, Magnetic flux density, Linear Induction Motor

I. INTRODUCTION
Linear Induction Motors are electrical machines which
unlike normal machines do not have rotors in the
traditional sense, but elements which move in a straight
line when the machine is excited. In a normal three
phase induction motor, the stator produces a rotating
magnetic field which induces the rotor to rotate along
with it. One may consider the Linear Induction
Motor(LIM) to be constructed out of its rotary
counterpart where the stator and the rotor have been cut
and unrolled. Now, the stator produces a travelling
magnetic field instead of a rotating one.
The rotor is induced to move along it. The exciting
element of the LIM (like the stator in the normal rotary
machine) is called the primary and the element in
which currents are induced (like the rotor in the normal
rotary machine) is called the secondary of the LIM.
Usually either of the primary or the secondary is
stationary and extends over the entire range of motion
of the other element. Thus, LIMs may be classified as
either short - primary (also called short-stator in
literature) or short - secondary (called short-rotor)
LIMs. LIMs may also be classified based on its
construction as Single Sided LIM (SLIM) in which
there is one primary and one secondary placed one on
top of the other, Double Sided LIM (DLIM) in which
there are two primaries on the two sides of a secondary,
Tubular LIM (TLIM) in which the primary and
secondary are placed co-axially etc. They are also
classified as high-speed and low-speed LIMs.

Conceptually, all types of motors can have linear
configurations (e.g. DC, induction, synchronous and
reluctance). The DC motor and synchronous motor
requires double excitation (field and armature). This
makes the hardware application complex. The reluctance
motor produces poor thrust, since it has no secondary
excitation, that’s why the most attention is diverted to the
induction motors. We designate the “stator” as the
primary and the “rotor” as the secondary. So primary has
the finite length called the active length of LIM, and it
has a beginning and an end [1].
II. MODEL CREATION
The LIM considered for analysis here is the single-sided
primary, short primary, long-sheet-secondary LIM. In
practice, one could have a movable primary and a fixed
secondary or a movable secondary and a fixed primary.
The former is economically feasible, but either the power
supply should be on board the moving primary or there
should be a sliding contact with a power line. The fixed
primary option is economically disadvantageous because
the primary windings will have to extend over a long
distance. However from a theoretical point of view, both
are equivalent and what matters is only the relative
speed. For simplicity, we consider the primary to be
fixed and the secondary to be movable.The secondary
considered here is simply a silicon mild steel. This is
analogous to the shorted rotor of the rotary induction
machine.
The primary core usually made of pure iron, permanent
magnets.

Manuscript was presented in National Conference RACTEE 09 at SLIET Longowal, Punjab, India and recommended for publication in this
journal by the review committee
-37-

44 10 10.25 2.1 Model Parameters (Mover) ITEM Sym-bol A1 A2 A3 A4 Slot pitch in mm τs 14.97 5.9 1.7 Slot width in mm Ws 5.IJEIT 2010.176 1.176 1.9 1.44 10 Air gap between stator and mover δ 0.7 14.44 10 10.97 5.97 Slot depth in mm D 28 28 28 28 Material M-19 Silicon mild steel Silicon mild steel Silicon steel Conductivity in s/m σ 1.0 38 mild .97 5.5 1.7 14.176 1.5 2.25 2.9 Velocity in m/s V 35 35 35 35 Potential difference in V ∆V 165 165 165 165 Current density in A/m2 Iin 1 1 1 1 MOVER mild Silicon steel STATOR Pole pitch in mm τ 16 16 16 16 Height of magnet in mm H 4 4 4 4 Width of magnet in mm Ws 14 14 14 14 Distance b/w two magnets in Md mm 2 2 2 2 Material of magnet M1 Alinico Alinico Alinico Alinico Conductivity s/m σ 2.7 14. 37-40 Table.176 Remanent flux in T Br2 693000 693000 693000 693000 Back plate material fe Pure Iron Pure Iron Pure Iron Pure Iron Conductivity Height of back plate σ H1 10.25 2.9 1.44 10 10.0 1.Chetan Vasudeva and Etal. 2(1).25 Remanent flux T Br1 50963 50963 50963 50963 Material of magnet M2 SnCo20 SnCo20 SnCo20 SnCo20 Conductivity s/m σ 1.

The two dimensional mesh geometry of SLIM has further been solved for analysis of magnetic flux density by post processing tool of Comsol Multiphysics ver 3. where an iron core of armature is wound by coil with three phases and stator is attached to permanent magnets. IV RESULTS The magnetic flux distribution of SLIM after getting it simulated with Comsol Multiphysics is shown in figure.e. MESH GENERATION After defining the distinguished boundary conditions.0mm with difference 0. The selection of actual air gap in the critical region i.2). It is evident that the magnetic flux density reduces with the increase in the length of air.5mm to 2. b) Fringing flux induces eddy currents in the surrounding surface of the neighbouring coil conductors that cause the total power losses to increase. a temperature rise takes place in conductor. But this large air-gap is responsible for introducing the fringing effect and fringing flux. Mesh refinement has been done by Adaptive Mesh technique (as shown in figure.5 mm to 2.6 times and number of boundary element increased to 1. In addition. The air gap (and also the surface resistivity) affects length of penetration differently at low speed and high speeds.0 mm. The Magnetic flux distribution in the LIM is effected by air gap between the stator and mover. 39 .5. 2(1).e.Chetan Vasudeva and Etal. thereby reducing the reluctance of the gap[4].5mm. which leads to further increase in the ohmic losses[4]. 37-40 Figure1 shows the basic geometrical structure of permanent magnet linear induction motor (PMLIM).[9] Table 2 Adaptive Meshing Refinement Statics The rise of fringing effect due to the number of poles in the mover member magnets which are of the same material i.IJEIT 2010. Figure: 3 Magnetic Flux density plot V CONCLUSION Figure: 2 Adaptive Mesh Refinement COMSOL Multi physics can be used as a viable tool for assessment of various critical parameters which affects the performance of LIM. Figure:1 Dimensional View III. which faced with armature winding each other with N and S poles. So by varying the air gap the optimum performance can be achieved without compromising to the speed of the motor. This fringing flux leads to following two undesirable consequences:a) The inductance is increased due to an effective increase in the air-gap cross-sectional area.45 times of the slandered meshing statics (as shown in Table 2). meshing is performed with following statics for the different air gaps varies from 0. The number of poles hence reflect in the form of number of peaks / surges / spikes in the plot which are 12 ( corresponding to the 12 poles of the mover). After applying the Adaptive Mesh refinement technique the degree of freedom could be increased to 9. Use of such application software can offer improved performance by fine coarsening of mesh.3 for four different air gap varying from 0. Magnetic flux density plot with the variable air gap is analyzed in this paper. silicon steel. in between primary and stationary is pointed out.

Vasudeva C.. 8. Vasudeva C... John Wiley 89 & Sons Inc. and Nasar. 5. Linear Motion Electromagnetic systems. electronics and electrical 2009 – CEE 2009.comsol.Tech Dissertation. Manna M. SLIET.. New York. 7. ARTCOM 2009. and Marwaha A. Marwaha S. Manna M. 2006. Pp-15 4. India. 2009.S. 37-40 The Magnetic flux distribution in the LIM is affected by air gap between the stator and mover. of National Conf. IEEE Proc of PEDES-06 International Conf..” Analysis Of Parmanent Magnet Linear Induction Motor (PMLIM) using Finite Element Method” in International conference on advances in recent technologies in communication and computing. Marwaha S. Vasudeva C “Two Dimensional Quasi Static Magnetic Field Analysis of SLIM using Adaptive Finite Element Method ” in International joint journal conference in computer. S. Marwaha A. 2 Manna M. on POWERCON-08.S. C-2. Manna M. 2(1).S.Chetan Vasudeva and Etal. Marwaha S.org 6. Vasudeva C. IEE proceedings 2005. “Eddy currents analysis of induction motor by 3D FEM” IEEE Trans.S.S. on Power and Electronics. Pp:540-542 9. Marwaha S. VI REFERENCES 1 Boldea.IJEIT 2010.. drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth. Marwaha S. “Finite element method as an aid to machine design: the state of art”.A. 1985.. The air gap (and also the surface resistivity) affects length of penetration differently at low speed and high speeds. 3 Manna M.. B.Williams and Mahmoud M. on RAEE2008. “Two Dimensional Quasi Static Field Analysis of Linear Induction Motor using Adaptive Finite Element Method” M. “Air gap flux fringing reduction in inductors using open circuit copper screens”. ieeexplore. Pp-1-4.Longowal.” 3D FEM Computation and Analysis of EM Force for Electrical Rotating Machines using FEM” . 2008.com 40 . Proc.. www.ieee. Fetcher J.