“The purpose of this experiment was to do the work on the copper cold and look out for any changes
in the microstructure and to strengthen the cold metal work and know the temperature of
crystallization. Before starting the experiment, 4 cm copper thickness 3 mm cut using chainsaws.
Then cut the copper into four 5mm and we have four of our original copper. The remaining copper
that has been launched to make it the thickness is reduced to 10 % of the original thickness. This
copper rolled then cut into four parts. Then, the same thing was done to the copper with a thickness of
30 % and 50 % of the original thickness. Then, a portion of each thickness were included in four
separate bucket. Container has been set aside at 4 different temperatures ; Room temperature , 200 ° C
, 300 ° C , and 600 ° C for 30 minutes. After that, we use the equipment to test Vickers hardness of
copper after being placed in different circumstances. Violence was recorded. Graph of force against
the cold work in the annealing temperature is plotted.”
“Altering the shape or size of a metal by plastic deformation. Processes include rolling, drawing,
pressing, spinning, extruding and heading, it is carried out below the recrystallization point usually at
room temperature. Hardness and tensile strength are increased with the degree of cold work whilst
ductility and impact values are lowered. The cold rolling and cold drawing of steel significantly
improves surface finish.”

Figure 1: Effect of cold working

“The distinction between hot working and cold working does not depends solely on the temperature,
but rather on the processing temperature with respect to the material recrystallization temperature.

the ductility of the metal decreases due to strain hardening thus making the metal more brittle. However. a much more compact and higher dimensional accuracy metal can be obtained with cold working. Cold working processes allow desirable metal qualities that cannot be obtained by hot working. a significant increase in yield and tensile strength is obtained.” . hardness as well as the elastic limit are increased. Figure 2: Mechanical Properties % Change resulting from % Cold Work There are two important lessons in this graph: 1) As strength properties increase. For hot working processes. the final products have a smoother surface (better surface finish) than those of hot working and the strength.When the processing temperature of the mechanical deformation of steel is above the recrystallization temperature. it is cold working. the process is termed as hot working. otherwise. such as eliminating errors attending shrinkage. yield strength increases at a much greater rate than tensile strength. When a bar of cold rolled steel cold drawing work through the mold. as the metal remains soft and ductile. ductility measures decrease. The graph below shows the effect of cold drawing on the tensile properties of 1-inch diameter steel bar round. As such. The first 5% of cold work results in the greatest increase in strength. the reduction in area and percent elongation decreased. Furthermore. The hardness of the material cannot be controlled after hot rolling and it is a function of chemical composition and the rate of cooling after rolling. However most metal will experience some surface oxidation resulting in material loss and poor final surface finish. As such. the metal must be heated from time to time (annealed) during the rolling operation to remove the undesirable effects of cold working and to increase the workability of the metal. The hardness is generally lower than that of cold rolling and the required deformation energy is lesser as well. 2) Up to about 15% cold reduction. large deformation can be successively repeated. At the same time.” Here are 5 benefits of cold working of steels that make a difference to your machining operations: Increased Strength “It is widely known that cold working pressure changes in the properties of the metal.

40xTM). hence. Improved Straightness The straightness of hot roll bars is generally 1/4″ max deviation in any 5 foot length. Advantages are. cold finishers usually remove scale with shot blasting or acid pickling. Before work hardening. As the material is work hardened it becomes increasingly saturated with new dislocations. which are created by fluctuations in local stress fields within the . lower costs for process and equipment. By pulling the bar even die. stress in the body therefore mostly it needs recovery process. Similarly. no oxides on the surface after operation. nearly defect-free pattern (almost no dislocations).010 for hot rolled steel of the same chemical and diameter.” Theory “Cold working is the plastic deformation shaping process of metals which is performed below recrystallization temperature. and so the surface has a rough hard scale consists of various iron oxides. work holding and machine. For cold draw bar. much more load power necessity for plastic deformation.1030 DPH (Vickers) micro hardness depends on the type of oxide (s) formed. the observed strengthening. the lattice of the material exhibits a regular.000" / . the surface finish is also improved. and more dislocations are prevented from nucleating (a resistance to dislocationformation develops). it becomes brittle depends to cold working percentage. Normal tolerance to cold prepared 1 "low carbon steel bars . no hydrogen embrittlement. depending on size and grade this deviation can be held to as little as 1/16″ in 10 feet. This resulted in the removal of hard coarse scale. with Cold Drawn bars typically running 50 micro inches maximum and modern equipment usually employed in the 25-30 inch oven. In cold drawn bars. Concentricity improved cold drawing operations. Compare this with the roughness height of 250 or more for hot rolled bar. irreversible deformation is usually carried out on a microscopic scale by defects called dislocations.Improved Surface Finish Hot rolled steel bars finish at high temperatures. This scale is hard and abrasive consisting of 270 . the straight hair better result in less run out and allow higher speeds in production. Improved Machinability “Higher yield to tensile ratio means a device that has less work to do to move the work piece metal for ultimate strength when it will separate the chips. steeldimensional compliance is more easily controlled.002 "is better than + / . Usually. Controlled Dimensions Because of the cold bar reduced at room temperature by pulling through dies oil lubricated. recrystallization temperature is 40% of melting point temperature (TR=0. Disadvantages are. In metallic crystals. This resistance to dislocation-formation manifests itself as a resistance to plastic deformation. Not putting harsh scale and oxide into a liquid you cut or to your device because the bar has been cleaned results in longer life and less maintenance for tools.0.0. This means that less energy on the tool and greater tool life and productivity. The defect-free lattice can be created or restored at any time by annealing. Finer tolerances can be held by your equipment when properly sized bar going into the machine. hardening from strain. More tightly controlled dimensions and concentricity means that the bar can be run at higher speeds without creating harmful vibrations and chatter.

metals such as aluminium will melt if heated for too long. 2009): 1. which provides high production and close control of final product. As a rule they are heated and allowed to cool slowly. “Rolling. cold water. Since grains occur.” . or the general shaping of the metal products.M. close tolerance starting material for various secondary sheet metal working processes at a low cost. As a rule they are heated and cooled very quickly by quenching in clean. Recrystallization phase.” Annealing is a heat process whereby a metal is heated to a specific temperature /colour and then allowed to cool slowly. Mild steel is heated to a red heat and allowed to cool slowly. through the use of the rotating rolls. At normal temperatures the dislocations are not annihilated by annealing. Such deformation increases the concentration of dislocations which may subsequently form low-angle grain boundaries surrounding sub-grains. This leads to an increase in the yield strength of the material and a subsequent decrease in ductility. Rolling is the most widely used forming process. and a decrease in ductility. Grain growth phase. the dislocations accumulate. This stage covers the instance before any stains or grains are seen on the material.It is the process of plastically deforming metal by passing it between rolls. Instead. C. 2. (V. and is thus capable of providing high-quality. This is that point when the metal is softened by means of removing defects on the crystals and whatever internal stress the dislocation causes. and serve as pinning points or obstacles that significantly impede their motion. This softens the metal which means it can be cut and shaped more easily. Rolling may be defined as the reduction of the cross-sectional area of the metal stock. 3. They bend easily when pressure is applied. The effects of cold working may be reversed by annealing the material at high temperatures where recovery and recrystallization reduce the dislocation density. However.. Cold working generally results in higher yield strength as a result of the increased number of dislocations and the Hall-Petch effect of the sub-grains.material culminating in a lattice rearrangement as the dislocations propagate through the lattice. Hardened metals are difficult to cut and shape. This is the phase when new grains grow on the material. This stage results to a problem on the material. namely (Richard. It allows a high degree of closed-loop automation and very high speeds. The metal is subjected to high compressive stresses as a result of the friction between the rolls and the Rolling process metal surface. This is said to replace those that were deformed and removed during the recovery phase. They are very difficult if not impossible to bend. Annealed metals are relatively soft and can be cut and shaped more easily. Ryan. there is a tendency for the output to coarsen thus making the metal less satisfactory than usual. Recovery phase. 2005) Three stages are linked to the annealing process. interact with one another.

After the force has been removed.Figure 1: Rolling Process The Vickers hardness test uses a square-based pyramid diamond indenter with an angle of 136º between the opposite faces at the vertex.materials. the diagonal lengths of the indentation are measured and the arithmetic mean. which is pressed into the surface of the test piece using a prescribed force. The time for the initial application of the force is 2 s to 8 s. The Vickers hardness number was then read from given table. is calculated. F. and the test force is maintained for 10 s to 15 s.uk) Figure 2: Vicker's Equipment press the metal Equipment Set-Up     Piece of copper Vickers Test machine Microscope Furnace .co. (www. d.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . Keep one rolled piece II. The rolled sample is cut into 5 pieces. 3. 50% 2.Figure 3: Vicker's Test Machine Procedure 1. OBJECTIVE   To do cold working on copper and observe any changes in microstructure To anneal the cold worked metal and find out crystallization temperature. Recrystallization temperature is determined. Rolling of three pieces of copper in order to reduce thickness by the following percent: i. Anneal one piece at 200 0C for 30 minutes III. The sample is observe using microscope. 5. Anneal one piece at 600 0C for 30 minutes 4. The hardness testing is measured for each of the above sample after rolling or annealing. 30% iii. For each pieces : I. Anneal one piece at 300 0C for 30 minutes IV. 10% ii. 6.

1 102.Condition Untreated 200 °C 300 °C 600 °C D1 52.0 154.2 109.3 97.0 166.6 114.9 107.4 Hardness. % Unrolled 10 30 50 Unrolled 10 30 50 Unrolled 10 30 50 Unrolled 10 30 50 D2 45.1 87.4 98.8 32.0 167.0 99.8 40.0 151.2 108.4 111.8 109.0 172.0 240.5 98.0 213.2 88.4 33.0 1702.0 157.4 105.0 150.0 106.0 1553.8 108.2 96.8 114. HV 764.9 87.0 35.8 108.0 2116.9 108.8 109.7 29.1 23.5 Thickness.0 Hardness against Cold Working 2500 2000 1500 Untreated 200 Hardness.0 197.0 192. % 40 50 60 . HV 300 1000 600 500 0 0 10 20 30 Cold Working.2 102.0 155.2 102.

Graph 1: Graph of Hardness against Cold Working Microstructure of copper at different temperature: 1. At 200 0C Unrolled 10% 30% 50% . Untreated 2.

At 300 0C Unrolled 10% 30% 50% .3.

At 600 0C Unrolled 10% 30% 50% .4.

Unrolled 10% 30% 50% DISCUSSION: There are numerous errors that affect our results meaningfully: .

4. Callister. Annealing and Metallurgy-The Different Stages and Processes. Cautiously saw the copper in order to get the same dimension of the copper. Take more reading to reduce the errors and increase precision of data. C. the hardness increase. Annealing Metal. W. which means. Metallurgy for engineers.1. New York: Wiley. Rollason. Richard.. G. In order to reduce this error. D. C. & Rethwisch. D. United States: John Wiley & Sons Inc 3. few precaution steps need to be taken: 1. Additionally. cold working increases the hardness at room temperature whereas annealing decreases the hardness. (2007). Annealing process consists of recovery. (2005). recrystallization and grain growth process and recrystallization temperature for copper is in range 200°C to 400◦C” REFERENCE 1. carry out the hardness test at the centre of the specimen since different part displays different properties. Parallax error during reading the Vanier calliper. 2. New Jersey: Technology Student. Ryan. Callister. 7. Materials science and engineering: an introduction (Vol. Laboratory worksheet . Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction (7 th Ed). as temperature increase the ductility increases. 2. CONCLUSION “In a nutshell. 6. we also found out that as temperature increase. 2. 4. John Willey & Sons Inc. Surface of the copper was not smooth and flat for hardness test due to oxide layer was not fully removed. 3. Melbourne : Edward Arnold (Australia) 5. W.M. 3. (2009). Moreover. E. Different person that adjust the size of the diamond may affect the size because each person have different precision. V. 172-177). heat treatment process is needed in order to release the stresses in the metal. (1974). it might affect the reading of the thickness reduction. The precision or dimension of the copper as we cut it was not up to level. D. pp. If possible. the size of the copper are uneven. Use an automatic roller to reduce the copper thickness so that the reduction was precise. Next.