Dr.

Aydin Yesildirek

Department Of Electrical Engineering

What is Ethics?
• The discipline dealing with
– Moral duty
– Obligation

• A system of moral values addressing all
– White
– Black
– Gray areas

Department Of Electrical Engineering

mean. or equity VIRTUOUS implies the possession of moral excellence in character RIGHTEOUS stresses guiltlessness or blamelessness and often suggests the self-righteous NOBLE implies moral distinction and freedom from anything petty. fairness. or dubious in conduct and character All mean conforming to a standard of what is right and good. Department Of Electrical Engineering .Some definitions from dictionary MORAL implies conformity in behavior to established sanctioned codes or accepted notions of right and wrong ETHICAL may suggest the involvement of more difficult or subtle questions of rightness.

What is good or bad? • A good for some may be bad for some others • What is your reference frame? • Golden rule "treat others as you would like to be treated" Department Of Electrical Engineering .

freedom and dignity Department Of Electrical Engineering .Some reference points • In one of the ancient Greek tribes the ability to steal was considered as a good behavior • In Viking world you take everything if you posses enough power. ancient Greek and Viking civilizations are history now • Create a civilized world: Adhere set of rules in which all can live with basic human rights. the powerful rules • The steady-state solution under such rules results in a self-destruction. unstable system.

Law and ethics • Forcible set of rules called laws are always generated based on ethical values to protect a civilized society • A punishment system is defined and enforced to protect the law and order • Obeying law is a civil and ethical responsibility Department Of Electrical Engineering .

in an post Viking era? • This dilemma has been in agenda 1000s years ago.A case study • You are the ruler of the strongest tribe but lacking water and energy that your people need • Your neighbors have plenty of water and energy – What would you do if you live in Viking world? – What is being done today. and it is likely to be with us years to come Department Of Electrical Engineering . today.

happily.Professional ethics • The principles of conduct governing a group of professionals • Adhere set of rules in professional setting in which all can live in civilized manner: peacefully. with basic rights and dignity Department Of Electrical Engineering .

development and marketing as engineer we need to define and adhere our set of rules Department Of Electrical Engineering . design.Engineering ethics • End products of engineering profession effecting almost every human being and the environment • Having such a broad impact must come with some set of ethical rules • From problem definition.

Some engineering conflicts of interests  Problem definition  Engineers may choose to work on a problem to destroy humanity or serve humanity!  Design solutions and analyze systems  Use others design without their permissions  Falsify data to support our standings  Development  During the development we may generate byproducts destroying environment  Marketing  Deliberately make false claims Department Of Electrical Engineering .

religion. 9. 8. or employment by false or malicious action. to acknowledge and correct errors. its appropriate application. accept. Department Of Electrical Engineering . to reject bribery in all its forms. to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety. and potential consequences. to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience. to avoid injuring others. and to credit properly the contributions of others. to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data. gender. reputation. age. 6. their property. 4.IEEE Code of Ethics 1. and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment. 10. 2. disability. health and welfare of the public. and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist 3. to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible. to seek. to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race. 7. to improve the understanding of technology. or national origin. or after full disclosure of relevant limitations.to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics. and offer honest criticism of technical work. 5.

Intellectual Property (IP) • Intellectual Property – property that derives from the work of an individual's mind or intellect • This property is not necessarily a physical entity • It has financial value such as house or car • It can be used or sold to others for financial gains • It must be protected as houses or plants Department Of Electrical Engineering .

usually for a specified term • Trademark: Mark used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify the origin or ownership of goods and to distinguish them from others Department Of Electrical Engineering . or sell an invention.Protection of IP • Patent: Government grant to an inventor of the exclusive right to make. use.

Consider relevant ethical values 4. Gather Info 2. Identify the stakeholders 3.Ethical Analysis It is a five stage process 1. Make an ethical decision Department Of Electrical Engineering . Determine course of action 5.

Ethical Priorities for Engineers: 1 ‐ Society and public  2 – Obligation to employers and clients 3 – Obligation to other professional colleagues 4 ‐ The engineer personally .

Example • Your company has designed a processor for scientific calculators to 17 digits of accuracy. 500 sent for beta test and 5000 more manufactured ready to be shipped. 5 out of 250 operations there will be table errors reflected on 13th to 17th digits. what to do? Department Of Electrical Engineering . The company finds out a problem. Manager is on your back pressuring for release and you must make a decision.

We do not know standard specs on calculators. Higher resolution would only be needed for scientists and engineers who have other advanced computing devices. supercomputers Department Of Electrical Engineering . We figured out that max 10-12 digit display are used.Case Study Analysis 1) Gather info: We know error will be 13th to 17th digits for certain operations. e.g.

2) Identify Stakeholder: Everyone involved in the process are called stakeholders – Users: will live with wrong calculations – Public: for safety hazard due to miscalculations – Company: loosing its reputation – Employee: may face career problems Department Of Electrical Engineering .

health and welfare of the public.3) Identify relevant ethical values – to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety. and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment (IEEE CE 1) – to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data (IEEE CE 3) – to avoid injuring others. their property. reputation. or employment by false or malicious action (IEEE CE 9) Department Of Electrical Engineering .

4) Course of Actions: a) Don’t tell anyone (can company survive?) b) Throw away faulty chips (may get fired?) c) Market as a new product that fits the existing capability.e. 12-digit accuracy use chips there ( lose profit. i. too much extra work?) Department Of Electrical Engineering .

What about homes that are already built? If power companies put high voltage power lines in an already existing residential area. Should engineers employed by the contractors recommend that the contractors build the homes without the mesh or should they absorb the cost themselves? • 2. A real estate agency hires a contracting firm to build a subdivision in a certain rural area. After discussing the price increase involved.Case 1: High Voltage Lines • http://ethics.htm • 1. who would the burden of cost fall on? Department Of Electrical Engineering . When the contractors visit the site they see that there are high voltage power lines in great numbers running over it.edu/nsfcases/elen/08/ee08.tamu. They approach the real estate company with a suggestion of installing the protective mesh in the homes. the real estate agency refuses to pay for the protection. The job is worth millions of dollars to the firm.

Calculate the same values as in question 1 for varying values of line current as a function of distance. Department Of Electrical Engineering .[2] ). What effects would this have on the H. and the electrical field intensity (E) for various values of line voltage as a function of distance and plot your answers on a coordinate system.Analysis 1.R. the magnetic flux density (B). Estimate the corresponding specific absorption rate (S. 3.) values for whole body exposure ( [1]. Assume that the subject is completely enclosed in a grounded. B.A. mesh screen (1mm2 mesh). and E? 4) Repeat question 3 for a typical home that is protected by the same mesh screen. 2. Calculate the magnetic field intensity (H). Plot your findings.

they should insist that the residents be warned of the danger. • If engineers are asked to design transmission lines through residential areas where the homes are not protected. or that the homes be properly protected. • There is evidence that transmission lines do pose such a threat. they know that their own refusal will not keep the unprotected houses from being built. This may require engineers to do more than simply inform authorities of the problem. health. they should probably also encourage their professional societies to lobby for legislation requiring installation of the metallic mesh screens in areas exposed to high intensity electromagnetic fields. they should probably refuse to participate in the project. and welfare of the public. the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) code requires engineers to "protect" the health and safety of the public. the engineer's personal morality may require more. Department Of Electrical Engineering ." True. engineers might want to encourage their professional societies to lobby for legislation requiring that transmission lines not be built near existing homes. Even if it does not. Solutions to Questions on Ethics and Professionalism • The IEEE code requires engineers to "accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety. • If the law does not require the installation of the metallic mesh screens. But. Again. Otherwise. and if they are convinced that the lines pose a serious health risk.• V. so engineers employed by contractors have a responsibility to make the dangers known and recommend solutions. • If engineers are convinced that the transmission lines pose a serious health problem. If they back out. the engineer's minimal responsibility is to make it known to employers and perhaps others in authority when they believe technology poses a threat to public health. safety and welfare. they will be participating in something they believe poses a substantial risk to public health. and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment. engineers who might be involved in the design of the subdivisions or other facilities related to the project have the choice of complying with the contractor's wishes or not participating in the project.