International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning

24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Retrofitting Design of Kathmandu University Staff Quarter Block
32 ‘A’ after Gorkha Earthquake 2015
Prachand Man Pradhan1, Ramesh Adhikari2, Aashutosh Aryal3, Aashish Dangal4,
Sandip Duwadi5, Dron Raj Ghale6, Sanjeev Pandey7 and Pramod Rai8

Abstract
The earthquake of 7.6 ML (National Seismological Center Nepal, 2015) occurred on 25thApril, 2015
at 11:56 a.m. NST at a depth of approximately 15 km with its epicenter at Barpak, Gorkha, Nepal.
This tremor causing deaths of thousands of people was a result of release in built-up stress along the
major fault line where Indian plate is slowly diving underneath the Eurasian Plate. The shaking
destroyed most of the weak buildings and caused decrease in strength of the standing ones. These
weak existing buildings are in need of retrofit to withstand earthquake which might occur in the
future. This paper presents the retrofit strategies undertaken to strengthen a three storey RCC building
(Staff Quarter Block 32 ’A’ of Kathmandu University), which lies in Zone V according to IS 18931:2002 classification of seismic zones. Based on the site visit, strength related checks of members
with detail evaluation and 3D-model analysis of the existing building via. SAP2000 v.16, deficient
members of frames were observed. Selected elements are strengthened as per IS 15988:2013 and
other equivalent codes and research papers. Reinforced Cement Concrete and FRP Jacketing are
proposed in columns and beams respectively along with Epoxy Grouting for the crack sealing of the
infill walls in the building.
Keywords: Retrofitting; Earthquake; RC Structures; RCC Jacketing; FRP Jacketing

1. Introduction
Nepal, because of its location in the boundary of
two active tectonic plates moving against each
other, is in high earthquake hazard zone. After 82
years since 1990 it faced a major earthquake
which the experts declare to have been occurred
due to the tectonic collision of Tibetan and
Indian plates.
Besides located at one of highly risk zone,
majority of the buildings are constructed without
proper seismic consideration and this has
increased the vulnerability of the structures along
Fig. 1. Locations of KU and epicenter area

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Corresponding Author, Dept. of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, prachand@ku.edu.np
Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, ramesh.adhikari@ku.edu.np
Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, aashutosh.aryal@gmail.com
Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, aasysh@gmail.com
Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, duwadisandeep@gmail.com
Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, dronrajghale@gmail.com
Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, sanjeevpandey_sp@yahoo.com
Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, pramodwrai@gmail.com

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International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
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with loss of thousands of lives. Hence, it is of utmost importance that attention be given to the
evaluation of the adequacy of strength in framed RC structures to resist strong ground motions.
A Staff Quarter Block #32 ‘A’ of Kathmandu University (KU) is taken (Fig.1) for this case study
which is a RCC frame structures having been built before 10 Years. This building encountered
earthquake of 7.6 ML (National Seismological Center Nepal, 2015) with epicenter in Gorkha and an
aftershock of 6.8 MLwith epicenter in Dolakha. No major harm on the structure of the building
components were observed apart from somecracks on wall and joints. This case study considers
various Indian Standard codes as per the requirements in the retrofitting analysis works. Majorly the
codes used were IS 15988:2013 Seismic Evaluation and Strengthening of existing Reinforced
Concrete Buildings, IS 1893:2002: Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design Structures, IS:875 (Part I,
II)-1987: Code of Practice for Design Loads for Buildings and Structures and IS 456:2000: Code of
Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.
The general features of the building are tabulated in Table 1:
Table 1.Building Features and Description

Structural System
Building Type
Plinth Area
Type of Foundation
No. of Storey
Type of Soil
Seismic Zone
Footing Sizes
Column Size
Beam Size
Outer Wall thickness
Inner Wall thickness (Partitions)
Building Width in X-Direction
Building Width in Y-Direction
Building Height
Foundation
Tie Beam
Column
Beam
Roof Cover
Wall
Detailing/Connection

Special Moment Resisting Frame
Residential Building
178.26 m2
Isolated Footing
3
Medium
V
160*160 cm, 180*180 cm
24*24 cm
24*40 cm, 24*55 cm, 24*52 cm
24 cm
12 cm
12 m
15 m
11.19 m
Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced Concrete
Roof Tile (Slate)
Bricks with Cement Plaster Coating
Reinforcement Bars

Retrofitting may be defined as an intervention or change in structures to increase the original strength
and stiffness of the RC element. It is intended to re-strengthen the structures, so as to prevent collapse,
in earthquake occurring in future.
Retrofitting of existing structures with insufficient seismic resistance accounts for a major
portion of the total cost of hazard mitigation. Thus, it is of critical importance that the structures that
need seismic retrofitting are identified correctly, and an optimal retrofitting is conducted in a cost
effective fashion. Once the decision is made, seismic retrofitting can be performed through several
methods with various objectives such as increasing the load, deformation, and/or energy dissipation
capacity of the structure (IST Group, 2004).Retrofit of a building is not considered as viable once the
cost of retrofitting exceeds 35% of the cost of reconstructing building.

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2. Methodology
The strength related checks of each components of the building were done manually as per the
guidelines of IS 1893 (Part 1):2002. The entire building was then modeled in SAP v.16 as per the
information gathered from Architectural drawing, Structural Detail, Geotechnical Report and Site
survey. The model was then analyzed on the defined load combinations for the checks and
optimizations of the structural components. The vulnerable components were then modified
individually in order to obtain the required strength under the action of seismic loads. The material
properties and loads used for the modeling are tabulated in table 2. Similarly, Figures 2 and 3 show
the extruded view of existing and retrofit model obtained from SAP.
Table 2.Data used for SAP Analysis

Concrete Grade
Steel Grade
Imposed Load: as per IS 875:1987 Part-2

M15 and M20
Fe415(TOR Steel)

Rooms
Staircase, Lobby
Roof; access not provided except for maintenance
Dead Load: as per code IS 875:1987 Part-1
Density of Brickwork
Density of Screed
Density of Plaster
Density of Concrete
Density of Slate
Density of Wooden Batten

3.5 kN/m2
3.5 kN/m2
0.75 kN/m2
20.4 kN/m3
24 kN/m3
20.4 kN/m3
25 kN/m3
27.45 kN/m3
0.83 kN/m3

Fig.2. Extruded View of Existing Model Fig.3. Extruded View of Retrofit Model

3. Evaluation and Design
Evaluation Process according to IS 15988:2013
3.1 Preliminary Evaluation
3.1.1 Site Visit
A site visit was done to verify available existing building data and collect additional data, and to
determine the condition of the building and its components. Fig. 4 shows the front view of the
building and fig. 5 shows the diagonal crack seen on the edge of the door opening.

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24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Fig.4. View of Staff Quarter Block 32 ‘A’

Fig.5. Diagonal Crack formed in Opening

3.1.2 Configuration-Related Check
These checks for the study building are summarized in table 3.
Table 3.Check for Study Building

S. No.
1

Check
Load Path

Remarks
One complete load path exists which transfers the inertial
forces from the mass to the foundation.

2

Geometry

Horizontal dimension is equal at all the stories.

3

Weak Storey

There are no abrupt changes in the column sizes from one
storey to another and no significant geometrical irregularities.
Thus, weak or soft storey does not exist.

4

Soft Storey

5

Vertical
Discontinuities

Vertical elements in the lateral force resisting system are
continuous to the foundation.

6

Mass

Effective mass at all the floors is equal except the roof.

7

Torsion

The building being symmetrical, center of mass and center of
stiffness coincide.

8
9

Adjacent Buildings
Short Columns

Not applicable.
Short columns exist.

3.1.3 Strength-Related Checks
Approximate and quick checks shall be used to compute the strength and stiffness of building
components. The seismic base shear and storey shears for the building shall be computed in
accordance with IS 1893 (Part 1):2002.The seismic weight calculation of existing building required
for various checks istabulated in the table 4.

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a. Calculation of Seismic Weight (Existing Building):
Table4.Seismic Weight Calculation of Existing Building

Floor
Weight of Ground Floor (W0)
Weight of First Floor (W1)
Weight of Second Floor (W2)
Weight of Roof (W3)
Total Weight (W)= W0 + W1 + W2 + W3

Weight
2113.51kN
2119.59kN
2298.98kN
312.02kN
6844.10kN

b. Calculation of Design Seismic Base Shear:
To find Ahfrom the equation (1), the various parameters considers are; Z=0.36 (for Seismic zone V),
R=5 (Response reduction factor), I=1 (Importance factor) and S a/g = 2.50 (Average response
acceleration coefficient depending upon the period of vibration and damping of 5%) for the natural
period of vibration of the building considered.

Ah = (Z/2)*(I/R)*(Sa/g) = 0.09

(1)

The design seismic base shear is given by,
Base Shear (VB) = Ah*W =615.97kN
Where,
Ah = Horizontal Seismic Coefficient
W = Seismic Weight (Total Dead Load + Appropriate Amount of Live Load)
Fundamental Natural Time Period (Ta) = 0.09*H/ d
Where,
H=Height of building
d=base dimension of the building at the plinth level, in meter, along the considered direction of the
lateral force.
Therefore, the fundamental natural time period of the building in X and Y directions are 0.291 and
0.26 seconds respectively.
c. Shear Stress in RC Frame Columns
The average shear stress in concrete columns,
equation (2) shall be lesser of,

col,

computed in accordance with the following

a) 0.4 MPa; and
b) 0.10 fck, fck is characteristic compressive strength of concrete
Minimum of 0.4 MPa and 0.1 fck= 0.1 * 15 = 1.5 MPA is 0.4 MPA
The check is not satisfied. Hence, a more detailed evaluation of the structure should be performed.

Where,

=

(2)

nc = total number of columns
nf = total number of frames in the direction of loading

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Vj= storey shear at level j
Ac = total cross-sectional area of columns.
Table 5.Shear Stress in RC Frame Columns along X Direction

Storey

nc

nf

Ac (m2)

Vj *1.5 (kN)

Ground

10

2

0.576

52.695

First

10

2

0.576

Second

10

2

Roof

10

2

(MPA)

DCR

Status

0.114

0.286

OK

211.365

0.459

1.147

NOT OK

0.576

515.820

1.119

2.799

NOT OK

0.576

144.090

0.313

0.782

OK

col

Table 6.Shear Stress in RC Frame Columns along Y Direction

Storey
Ground
First
Second
Roof

nc
12
12
12
12

nf
2
2
2
2

Ac (m2)
0.576
0.576
0.576
0.576

Vj *1.5 (kN)
52.695
211.365
515.820
144.090

(MPA)
0.110
0.440
1.075
0.300
col

DCR
0.274
1.101
2.687
0.750

Status
OK
NOT OK
NOT OK
OK

The DCR values shown in the Tables 5 and 6 above shows the status of shear stress in RC frame
columns along X and Y direction respectively.
d. Axial Stress in Moment Frames
The maximum compressive axial stress in the columns of moment frames at base due to overturning
forces alone (F0) as calculated using the following equation (3) shall be less than 0.25fck.
=

2
3

(3)

Where,
nf = Total number of frames in the direction of loading
VB = Base Shear
H = Total Height of the building
L = Length of the building along X and Y direction
VB = Base Shear x Load factor = 615.97 * 1.5 = 923.95 kN
Along X-direction,L = 12.24 m, F = 281.56 kN and Axial stress,
= 0.25 f = 0.25 15 = 3.75 MPa
>
, DCR =1.34 (Not OK)

= 4.88 MPa

Along Y-direction,L = 15.24 m, F = 226.14 kN and Axial stress, = 3.92 MPa
>

= 0.25
= 0.25 15 = 3.75 MPa
, DCR = 1.05 (Not OK)

The results of the preliminary evaluation (strength-related checks) indicate deficiency in the shear
stress carrying capacity of the columns. Hence, indicating the need of a detailed analysis.

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3.2 Detailed Evaluation
Since, deficiencywas found in the preliminary evaluation; detailed evaluation was carried out to know
the performance of the building with regard to strength and ductility. In its simplest form, DCR ratio
greater than 1 indicates failure in the components of the building under consideration. The table 7
provides a summary of the evaluation of various components that are considered for the building
analysis.
Table 7.Demand-Capacity Ratio (DCR) for different components of the Building
S.No.

Check

DCR

Remarks

1

Moment of Resistance of beam in hogging

0.69

Check Satisfied

2

Moment of Resistance of beam in sagging

0.88

Check Satisfied

3

Column Flexural Capacity

1.55

Check Not Satisfied

4

Column Shear Capacity

0.73

Check Satisfied

Thus, the above evaluation suggests that the column sections need to be strengthened and retrofitted.

4. Strengthening of Existing Building
4.1 Concrete Column Jacketing Design
Longitudinal Reinforcement Design of Column
Longitudinal reinforcement design of one of the columns of ground floor is shown below. Similar
process is to be followed for all the remaining columns for which strengthening is required. The table
8 shows section details and features of existing and retrofitted section of the column. Figure 6 shows
the example of calculation to find the required longitudinal reinforcement required for concrete
jacketing of column.
Table 8. Section Details and Features of Existing and Retrofitted Column

Existing Section
Retrofitted Section
Concrete used = M15
Concrete used = M20
Reinforcement bar = Fe415
Reinforcement bar = Fe415
Width in X Direction = 240mm
Width in X Direction= 440mm
Width in Y Direction = 240mm
Width in Y Direction = 440mm
Area of Steel = 1206 mm2
Area of Steel = 1549 mm2 (From SAP Analysis)
Area of Concrete = 57600 mm2
Area of Concrete = 193600 mm2
Add 100mm on each sides for new section (according to code IS 15988:2013)

Required Additional Concrete = 136000 mm2
Required Additional Steel
= 343 mm2
Provided Additional Area of Concrete = 204000 mm2; (3/2) of Area of Additional Concrete Provided
Additional Area of Steel = 457.33 mm2; (4/3) of Area of Additional Steel

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Fig.6. Example of Longitudinal Reinforcement required for Concrete Jacketed Column

Note: The increased number of Longitudinal Reinforcement Bar used for Jacketing is adopted from
Clause 7.3.2, IS 13920:1993.

Transverse Reinforcement Design of Column
a) From IS 13920:1993 Clause 7.3.4
The factored shear force is calculated using the equation (4) and equation (5) is used to calculate
nominal shear stress to check for shear.
For Frame ID GROUND FLOOR-B1,

,

Vu=1.4[

= 52.74 kN-m and
,

,

,

= 49.63 kN-m

]= 55.12 kN(4)

Where,
Vu = Factored Shear Force
= Moment of Resistance, of beams framing into the columns from opposite faces
and
,
,
hst=storey height
Calculated factored shear force from analysis, Vu = 37.29 kN
So, Design Shear Force = 55.12 kN (Taking highest of the values)
Check for Shear
v=

= 0.28N/mm2

(5)

Where,
v =Nominal Shear

Stress

Vu = Design Shear Force
B = Width of Column in X Direction
D = Width of Column in Y Direction
c=

0.58 N/mm2 (From Table 19; IS 456:2000)

cmax=

2.8N/mm2 (From Table 20; IS456:2000)

Pu (from SAP analysis) = 366.43 kN

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UsingIS 456:2000; Cl.40.2.2, modification factor is calculated from the equation (6).
Modification factor,

=1+

= 1.28 (6)

Where,
Pu= Factored Axial Load
A = Cross Sectional Area of Retrofitted Column
fck = Characteristics Compressive Strength of Concrete
x c =0.75 N/mm2
Where,
= Modification Factor and
c’=

Hence,

v

c’< cmax, so,

c = Shear

Stress

provide nominal shear reinforcement as lateral ties.

b) From IS 15988:2013
Calculation of spacing of ties:
The spacing of ties to be provided in the jacket in order to avoid flexural shear failure of column and
provide adequate confinement to the longitudinal steel along the jacket is given from the equation (7):

S=

(7)

Where,fy = yield strength of steel, fck = cube strength of concrete, dh = diameter of ties and
tj= thickness of jacket.
Diameter of lateral =1/3 of longitudinal bar = 1/3 * 16 =5.33mm
Since minimum diameter of ties shall be 10 mm and not less than one-third of the longitudinal bar
diameter
Taking diameter of ties(dh)= 10mm.
Spacing of ties(s) =

= 90mm, so the spacing of ties(s) =90mm (<thickness of jacket)

Hence, Provide 10mm Ø ties at 90mm c/c with 135° bends and 10Ø anchorage length.

4.2 FRP Beam Jacketing Design (Khalifa et al, 1998)
Data: The concrete strength is 15 MPa, the modulus of elasticity of the CFRP sheet is 227 GPa, the
ultimate axial stress of the CFRP sheet is 3400 MPa, and the sheet thickness is 0.165 mm/ply. The
angle of fiber orientation is 90°. The steel stirrups are 8 mm bars with yield strength of 415 MPa.
The spacing of the stirrups, s is 180 mm. The width of the strip, wf, and the spacing of the strips, sf is
1 m.
Note:
The area of FRP shear reinforcement is the total thickness of the sheet (usually 2tf for sheets on both
sides of the beam) times the width of the FRP strip. Note if continuous sheets are used the width of
the strip, wf, and the spacing of the strips, sf, should be equal.
The symbols used for the calculation are:
Af= Area of CFRP shear reinforcement
bw= Width of the beam cross section
d= Depth from the top of the section to the tension steel reinforcement centroid

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df= Effective depth of CFRP shear reinforcement
Ef=Elastic modulus of FRP
f’c= Nominal concrete compressive strength
ffe= Effective tensile stress in the FRP sheet in the direction of the principal fibers
ffu= Ultimate tensile strength of the FRP sheet in the direction of the principal fibers
k = Experimental constant describing the gradient of the effective bond length
Le = Effective bond length
R = Ratio of effective stress or strain in FRP sheet to its ultimate strength or elongation
sf= Spacing of FRP strips
tf= Thickness of the FRP sheet on one side of the beam
Vc = Nominal shear strength provided by concrete
Vf= Nominal shear strength provided by FRP shear reinforcement
Vn= Nominal shear strength
Vs= Nominal shear strength provided by steel shear reinforcement
wf= Width of FRP strip
wfe= Effective width of FRP sheet
= Angle between the principal fiber orientation and the longitudinal axis of the beam
fe= The effective FRP strain
fu= Ultimate tensile elongation of the fiber material in the FRP composite
= Strength reduction factor
f= FRP shear reinforcement ratio
bu= Average bond strength
The nominal shear strength provided by FRP shear reinforcement can be computed by the equations
(8) and (9) based on effective FRP strain and bond mechanism respectively.
Solution 1 (Based on the effective FRP strain)
f

= 2 tf / bw = 2*0.165/240=0.0014 and fEf = 0.0014*227 = 0.32GPa

Af = 2*tf*wf=2*0.165*1000 = 330 mm2(Based on a unit width of 1 m)
Using equation: R = 0.5622 ( fEf)2– 1.2188 ( fEf) + 0.778

0.50

R = 0.5622*(0.32)2- 1.2188*(0.32) + 0.778 = 0.45 < 0.50 (Satisfied)
ffe = 0.45*3400 = 1530 MPa = 1.530GPa
(

V =

)

= 188.83 kN(8)

Solution 2 (Based on bond mechanism)
Use equations:

=

.

.

(

)= 56.4 mm,

bu

= k (f’c/42)2/3Eftf= 0.0021 GPa

In this case, wfe = df - Le = 374 - 56.4 = 317.6 mm

=

= 75.23 kN(9)

The lower of the two results is taken as the controlling value. Therefore, the shear contribution of the
CFRP sheet is: Vf=75.23 kN controlled by CFRP sheet delamination
The total shear capacity of the beam may then be computed with equations (10), (11) and (12).
=

(10)

= 61.97 KN
=

= 92.71 kN(11)

So, Vn = Vc + Vs + Vf = 229.91 kN(12)

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Vn = 0.85(Vc + Vs) + 0.70Vf = 184.14 kN
Thus, [75.23/184.14] x 100% = 40.8% increase in shear capacity is achieved with the addition of
CFRP reinforcement.

5. Interpretation of Results
5.1 Sap Analysis:

Fig.7. Beam Failure of Existing Model (Envelope)
Existing Model (Envelope)
Fig.9.Beam Failure Correction in
Retrofit Model (Envelope)

Fig.8. Column Failure in

Fig.10.Column Failure Correction in
Retrofit Model (Envelope)

Fig.11. Shear Force Diagram at XZ, Y= 9mFig.12. Bending Moment Diagram at XZ, Y= 9m

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5.2 Storey Drift
The recommended limit of storey drift in any storey due to the minimum specified design lateral
force, with partial load factor of 1.0 shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height (Clause 7.11.1.IS
1893:2002). The storey drift calculation for the existing and retrofit models is summarized as in the
tables 9 and 10 respectively. The tables shown below also highlights that the maximum permitted drift
is attained for both existing and retrofitted model. Figures 13 and 14 highlight the deformed
shape/storey drift of existing and retrofit model under envelope load combination respectively.
Table 9. Storey Drift Calculation for Existing Model

Load
Combination

Envelope

Storey

Displacement
(mm)

Inter
Storey
Drift
(mm)

Roof

32.02

4.1

Second Floor

27.92

7.94

First Floor

19.98

10.33

Ground Floor

9.65

9.65

Plinth

0

0

Maximum Drift = 10.33 mm

Fig.13.Deformed Shape of Existing Model (Envelope)

Maximum Drift permitted= 0.004 = 10.4 m
Since, 10.33 < 10.4 OK

Table 10. Storey Drift Calculation for RetrofitModel

Load
Combination

Envelope

Storey

Displacement
(mm)

Inter
Storey
Drift (mm)

Roof

12.78

4.27

Second Floor

8.51

3.1

First Floor

5.41

3.56

Ground Floor

1.85

1.85

Plinth

0

0

Maximum Drift =4.27 mm
Maximum Drift permitted= 0.004*h= 10.4
mm

Fig.14. Deformed Shape of Retrofit Model (Envelope)

Since, 4.27 < 10.4 OK

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5.3 Seismic Weight and Design Base Shear of Existing Building and Retrofit Model
The seismic weight and design base shear of the existing building and retrofitted model is tabulated in
Table 11. The table suggests that with jacketing of column which is a retrofit technique applied in the
building; the total seismic weight has increased along with the base shear.
Table 11. Seismic Weight and Design Base Shear of Existing Building and Retrofit Model
Particulars

Existing Building

Retrofit Model

Weight of Ground Floor (W0)

2113.51 kN

2273.95 kN

Weight of First Floor (W1)

2119.59 kN

2245.44 kN

Weight of Second Floor (W2)

2298.98 kN

2367.74 kN

Weight of Roof (W3)

312.02 kN

311.04 kN

Total Weight (W)

6844.10 kN

7198.17 kN

Base Shear (VB) = Ah * W

615.97kN

647.84kN

5.4 Lateral Load Distribution and Storey Shear
The design base shear VB computed from equation (13) can be distributed along the height of the
building as per following expressions:
Qi = (VB*hi2*Wi) / ( Wi*hi2)
(13)
Where, iis from 1 to n
n= number of storey in the building at which the mass is located
Qi= Design lateral force at each floor
hi= height of floor i measured from base
Wi= Seismic weight of each floor
The lateral load distribution obtained in each storeyfor the existing building and retrofit model are
shown in Tables 12 and 13 along with the bar chart showing the same result in the figures 15 and 16
respectivelybelow.
Table 12. Existing Building: Lateral Load Distribution in each Storey
Weight (Wi)
kN
312.02
Roof
Second Floor 2298.98
First Floor
2119.59
Ground Floor 2113.51
Total
6844.10
Storey

Height (hi )
m
11.19
7.80
5.20
2.60

hi2
m2
125.22
60.84
27.04
6.76

264

Wi * hi2
kN-m2
39070.31
139869.93
57313.81
14287.31
250541.35

Lateral Force (Qi)
kN
96.06
343.88
140.91
35.13
615.97

Vi
kN
96.06
439.93
580.84
615.97

International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
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Fig. 15. Storey Shear due to Seismic Load in Existing Building
Table 13. Retrofit Model: Lateral Load Distribution in each Storey
Storey

Weight (Wi)

Height (hi )

hi2

Wi * hi2

Lateral Force (Qi)

Vi

Roof
Second Floor
First Floor
Ground Floor
Total

kN
311.04
2367.74
2245.44
2273.95
7198.18

m
11.19
7.80
5.20
2.60

m2
125.22
60.84
27.04
6.76

kN-m2
38947.59
144053.57
60716.82
15371.88
259089.87

kN
97.39
360.20
151.82
38.44
647.84

kN
97.39
457.58
609.40
647.84

Lateral Load Distribution in each Floor
Roof

Floors

96.06

Second Floor

439.93
580.84
615.97

First Floor
Ground Floor

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Vi
Fig. 16. Storey Shear due to Seismic Load in Retrofit Model

5.5 Drawings
Fig. 17 shows the cross-section of the retrofitted column, fig. 18 shows the plan of retrofitted column
and fig. 19 show the detailing of retrofitted column in the footing. Fig. 20 shows the Carbon Fibre
Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Jacketing applied in the beams. Similarlyfig. 21 and 22shows the floor
plan of each storey present in the building whereby the sizes of the concrete jacketed columns can be
seen larger ascompared to the onesin which jacketing technique have not been applied.

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International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Fig.17. Section of Retrofitted Column

Fig.18. Plan of Retrofitted Column

Fig.19. Detailing of Retrofitted Footing

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International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Fig.20. CFRP Jacketing in Beam

Fig. 21. Ground Floor, First and Second Floor Plan

Fig. 22. Top Floor Plan of Retrofit Model

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International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

6. Conclusion
The use of software related to structural analysis like SAP 2000 v.16 were used along with the aid of
AutoCAD for modeling, checks and design procedures. The analysis, design and detailing of column
concrete jacketing has been done as per Indian codes. For the numerical calculation for FRP Jacketing
of beam, the methods of a research paper has been applied.
The building is analyzed and designed as a Special Moment Resisting Frame structure
considering the seismic forces. Seismic loads are calculated using Seismic Coefficient Method
adopting IS 1893-1:2002 considering the project location lies in Seismic Zone V.
3D modeling and analysis of structure are done (Figures 2, 3, 7, 8,9, 10, 11 and 12) with the help
of SAP 2000 v.16. IS 1893-1:2002 and IS 15988:2013 are taken as two fundamental codes of
practices for analysis of structural components. This paper tries to summarize the various structural
components’ deficiencies and their appropriate retrofitting techniques that could be used economically
and for which necessary resources could be easily available in the market.
Based on the assessment of the building, for the strengthening purpose, RCC Jacketing is applied
in 78 out of 102 columns with longitudinal reinforcement having 8-12mm diameter bars. Provide
transverse reinforcement of 10mm diameter bar ties at 90 mm c/c with 135 bend to the retrofitted
columns. CFRP Jacketing is applied in 2 beams present in the mid-section of the staircase of ground
floor and first floor. Epoxy injection grouting has been proposed for the crack sealing of the infill
walls in the building.

Acknowledgement
The authors of this paper want to express their gratitude to the Centre for Educational Design (CED),
Kathmandu University for providing access to necessary documents and drawings.

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