- Title No. 114-S28
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- Lee et al (2007).pdf
- 1569_ch16
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- 2015Yin - Compressive Behavior of Concrete Confined by CFRP
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- Foster Et Al 2015 Journal of Composites for Construction
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- Malik, paper 12-14-02
- RehabilitationofEarthquake DamagedReinforcedConcreteFlat PlateSlab ColumnConnectionsforTwo WayShear
- Paper 2000 Prota
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- Retrofitting Guideline- Tamilnadu Final Compressed New-1
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24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

**Retrofitting Design of Kathmandu University Staff Quarter Block
**

32 ‘A’ after Gorkha Earthquake 2015

Prachand Man Pradhan1, Ramesh Adhikari2, Aashutosh Aryal3, Aashish Dangal4,

Sandip Duwadi5, Dron Raj Ghale6, Sanjeev Pandey7 and Pramod Rai8

Abstract

The earthquake of 7.6 ML (National Seismological Center Nepal, 2015) occurred on 25thApril, 2015

at 11:56 a.m. NST at a depth of approximately 15 km with its epicenter at Barpak, Gorkha, Nepal.

This tremor causing deaths of thousands of people was a result of release in built-up stress along the

major fault line where Indian plate is slowly diving underneath the Eurasian Plate. The shaking

destroyed most of the weak buildings and caused decrease in strength of the standing ones. These

weak existing buildings are in need of retrofit to withstand earthquake which might occur in the

future. This paper presents the retrofit strategies undertaken to strengthen a three storey RCC building

(Staff Quarter Block 32 ’A’ of Kathmandu University), which lies in Zone V according to IS 18931:2002 classification of seismic zones. Based on the site visit, strength related checks of members

with detail evaluation and 3D-model analysis of the existing building via. SAP2000 v.16, deficient

members of frames were observed. Selected elements are strengthened as per IS 15988:2013 and

other equivalent codes and research papers. Reinforced Cement Concrete and FRP Jacketing are

proposed in columns and beams respectively along with Epoxy Grouting for the crack sealing of the

infill walls in the building.

Keywords: Retrofitting; Earthquake; RC Structures; RCC Jacketing; FRP Jacketing

1. Introduction

Nepal, because of its location in the boundary of

two active tectonic plates moving against each

other, is in high earthquake hazard zone. After 82

years since 1990 it faced a major earthquake

which the experts declare to have been occurred

due to the tectonic collision of Tibetan and

Indian plates.

Besides located at one of highly risk zone,

majority of the buildings are constructed without

proper seismic consideration and this has

increased the vulnerability of the structures along

Fig. 1. Locations of KU and epicenter area

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

**Corresponding Author, Dept. of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, prachand@ku.edu.np
**

Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, ramesh.adhikari@ku.edu.np

Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, aashutosh.aryal@gmail.com

Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, aasysh@gmail.com

Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, duwadisandeep@gmail.com

Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, dronrajghale@gmail.com

Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, sanjeevpandey_sp@yahoo.com

Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal, pramodwrai@gmail.com

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**with loss of thousands of lives. Hence, it is of utmost importance that attention be given to the
**

evaluation of the adequacy of strength in framed RC structures to resist strong ground motions.

A Staff Quarter Block #32 ‘A’ of Kathmandu University (KU) is taken (Fig.1) for this case study

which is a RCC frame structures having been built before 10 Years. This building encountered

earthquake of 7.6 ML (National Seismological Center Nepal, 2015) with epicenter in Gorkha and an

aftershock of 6.8 MLwith epicenter in Dolakha. No major harm on the structure of the building

components were observed apart from somecracks on wall and joints. This case study considers

various Indian Standard codes as per the requirements in the retrofitting analysis works. Majorly the

codes used were IS 15988:2013 Seismic Evaluation and Strengthening of existing Reinforced

Concrete Buildings, IS 1893:2002: Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design Structures, IS:875 (Part I,

II)-1987: Code of Practice for Design Loads for Buildings and Structures and IS 456:2000: Code of

Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.

The general features of the building are tabulated in Table 1:

Table 1.Building Features and Description

Structural System

Building Type

Plinth Area

Type of Foundation

No. of Storey

Type of Soil

Seismic Zone

Footing Sizes

Column Size

Beam Size

Outer Wall thickness

Inner Wall thickness (Partitions)

Building Width in X-Direction

Building Width in Y-Direction

Building Height

Foundation

Tie Beam

Column

Beam

Roof Cover

Wall

Detailing/Connection

**Special Moment Resisting Frame
**

Residential Building

178.26 m2

Isolated Footing

3

Medium

V

160*160 cm, 180*180 cm

24*24 cm

24*40 cm, 24*55 cm, 24*52 cm

24 cm

12 cm

12 m

15 m

11.19 m

Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced Concrete

Roof Tile (Slate)

Bricks with Cement Plaster Coating

Reinforcement Bars

**Retrofitting may be defined as an intervention or change in structures to increase the original strength
**

and stiffness of the RC element. It is intended to re-strengthen the structures, so as to prevent collapse,

in earthquake occurring in future.

Retrofitting of existing structures with insufficient seismic resistance accounts for a major

portion of the total cost of hazard mitigation. Thus, it is of critical importance that the structures that

need seismic retrofitting are identified correctly, and an optimal retrofitting is conducted in a cost

effective fashion. Once the decision is made, seismic retrofitting can be performed through several

methods with various objectives such as increasing the load, deformation, and/or energy dissipation

capacity of the structure (IST Group, 2004).Retrofit of a building is not considered as viable once the

cost of retrofitting exceeds 35% of the cost of reconstructing building.

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2. Methodology

The strength related checks of each components of the building were done manually as per the

guidelines of IS 1893 (Part 1):2002. The entire building was then modeled in SAP v.16 as per the

information gathered from Architectural drawing, Structural Detail, Geotechnical Report and Site

survey. The model was then analyzed on the defined load combinations for the checks and

optimizations of the structural components. The vulnerable components were then modified

individually in order to obtain the required strength under the action of seismic loads. The material

properties and loads used for the modeling are tabulated in table 2. Similarly, Figures 2 and 3 show

the extruded view of existing and retrofit model obtained from SAP.

Table 2.Data used for SAP Analysis

Concrete Grade

Steel Grade

Imposed Load: as per IS 875:1987 Part-2

**M15 and M20
**

Fe415(TOR Steel)

Rooms

Staircase, Lobby

Roof; access not provided except for maintenance

Dead Load: as per code IS 875:1987 Part-1

Density of Brickwork

Density of Screed

Density of Plaster

Density of Concrete

Density of Slate

Density of Wooden Batten

3.5 kN/m2

3.5 kN/m2

0.75 kN/m2

20.4 kN/m3

24 kN/m3

20.4 kN/m3

25 kN/m3

27.45 kN/m3

0.83 kN/m3

Fig.2. Extruded View of Existing Model Fig.3. Extruded View of Retrofit Model

**3. Evaluation and Design
**

Evaluation Process according to IS 15988:2013

3.1 Preliminary Evaluation

3.1.1 Site Visit

A site visit was done to verify available existing building data and collect additional data, and to

determine the condition of the building and its components. Fig. 4 shows the front view of the

building and fig. 5 shows the diagonal crack seen on the edge of the door opening.

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Fig.4. View of Staff Quarter Block 32 ‘A’

Fig.5. Diagonal Crack formed in Opening

**3.1.2 Configuration-Related Check
**

These checks for the study building are summarized in table 3.

Table 3.Check for Study Building

S. No.

1

Check

Load Path

Remarks

One complete load path exists which transfers the inertial

forces from the mass to the foundation.

2

Geometry

Horizontal dimension is equal at all the stories.

3

Weak Storey

**There are no abrupt changes in the column sizes from one
**

storey to another and no significant geometrical irregularities.

Thus, weak or soft storey does not exist.

4

Soft Storey

5

Vertical

Discontinuities

**Vertical elements in the lateral force resisting system are
**

continuous to the foundation.

6

Mass

Effective mass at all the floors is equal except the roof.

7

Torsion

**The building being symmetrical, center of mass and center of
**

stiffness coincide.

8

9

Adjacent Buildings

Short Columns

Not applicable.

Short columns exist.

**3.1.3 Strength-Related Checks
**

Approximate and quick checks shall be used to compute the strength and stiffness of building

components. The seismic base shear and storey shears for the building shall be computed in

accordance with IS 1893 (Part 1):2002.The seismic weight calculation of existing building required

for various checks istabulated in the table 4.

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**a. Calculation of Seismic Weight (Existing Building):
**

Table4.Seismic Weight Calculation of Existing Building

Floor

Weight of Ground Floor (W0)

Weight of First Floor (W1)

Weight of Second Floor (W2)

Weight of Roof (W3)

Total Weight (W)= W0 + W1 + W2 + W3

Weight

2113.51kN

2119.59kN

2298.98kN

312.02kN

6844.10kN

**b. Calculation of Design Seismic Base Shear:
**

To find Ahfrom the equation (1), the various parameters considers are; Z=0.36 (for Seismic zone V),

R=5 (Response reduction factor), I=1 (Importance factor) and S a/g = 2.50 (Average response

acceleration coefficient depending upon the period of vibration and damping of 5%) for the natural

period of vibration of the building considered.

Ah = (Z/2)*(I/R)*(Sa/g) = 0.09

(1)

**The design seismic base shear is given by,
**

Base Shear (VB) = Ah*W =615.97kN

Where,

Ah = Horizontal Seismic Coefficient

W = Seismic Weight (Total Dead Load + Appropriate Amount of Live Load)

Fundamental Natural Time Period (Ta) = 0.09*H/ d

Where,

H=Height of building

d=base dimension of the building at the plinth level, in meter, along the considered direction of the

lateral force.

Therefore, the fundamental natural time period of the building in X and Y directions are 0.291 and

0.26 seconds respectively.

c. Shear Stress in RC Frame Columns

The average shear stress in concrete columns,

equation (2) shall be lesser of,

col,

computed in accordance with the following

a) 0.4 MPa; and

b) 0.10 fck, fck is characteristic compressive strength of concrete

Minimum of 0.4 MPa and 0.1 fck= 0.1 * 15 = 1.5 MPA is 0.4 MPA

The check is not satisfied. Hence, a more detailed evaluation of the structure should be performed.

Where,

=

(2)

**nc = total number of columns
**

nf = total number of frames in the direction of loading

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**Vj= storey shear at level j
**

Ac = total cross-sectional area of columns.

Table 5.Shear Stress in RC Frame Columns along X Direction

Storey

nc

nf

Ac (m2)

Vj *1.5 (kN)

Ground

10

2

0.576

52.695

First

10

2

0.576

Second

10

2

Roof

10

2

(MPA)

DCR

Status

0.114

0.286

OK

211.365

0.459

1.147

NOT OK

0.576

515.820

1.119

2.799

NOT OK

0.576

144.090

0.313

0.782

OK

col

Table 6.Shear Stress in RC Frame Columns along Y Direction

Storey

Ground

First

Second

Roof

nc

12

12

12

12

nf

2

2

2

2

Ac (m2)

0.576

0.576

0.576

0.576

Vj *1.5 (kN)

52.695

211.365

515.820

144.090

(MPA)

0.110

0.440

1.075

0.300

col

DCR

0.274

1.101

2.687

0.750

Status

OK

NOT OK

NOT OK

OK

The DCR values shown in the Tables 5 and 6 above shows the status of shear stress in RC frame

columns along X and Y direction respectively.

d. Axial Stress in Moment Frames

The maximum compressive axial stress in the columns of moment frames at base due to overturning

forces alone (F0) as calculated using the following equation (3) shall be less than 0.25fck.

=

2

3

(3)

Where,

nf = Total number of frames in the direction of loading

VB = Base Shear

H = Total Height of the building

L = Length of the building along X and Y direction

VB = Base Shear x Load factor = 615.97 * 1.5 = 923.95 kN

Along X-direction,L = 12.24 m, F = 281.56 kN and Axial stress,

= 0.25 f = 0.25 15 = 3.75 MPa

>

, DCR =1.34 (Not OK)

= 4.88 MPa

**Along Y-direction,L = 15.24 m, F = 226.14 kN and Axial stress, = 3.92 MPa
**

>

= 0.25

= 0.25 15 = 3.75 MPa

, DCR = 1.05 (Not OK)

**The results of the preliminary evaluation (strength-related checks) indicate deficiency in the shear
**

stress carrying capacity of the columns. Hence, indicating the need of a detailed analysis.

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3.2 Detailed Evaluation

Since, deficiencywas found in the preliminary evaluation; detailed evaluation was carried out to know

the performance of the building with regard to strength and ductility. In its simplest form, DCR ratio

greater than 1 indicates failure in the components of the building under consideration. The table 7

provides a summary of the evaluation of various components that are considered for the building

analysis.

Table 7.Demand-Capacity Ratio (DCR) for different components of the Building

S.No.

Check

DCR

Remarks

1

Moment of Resistance of beam in hogging

0.69

Check Satisfied

2

Moment of Resistance of beam in sagging

0.88

Check Satisfied

3

Column Flexural Capacity

1.55

Check Not Satisfied

4

Column Shear Capacity

0.73

Check Satisfied

Thus, the above evaluation suggests that the column sections need to be strengthened and retrofitted.

**4. Strengthening of Existing Building
**

4.1 Concrete Column Jacketing Design

Longitudinal Reinforcement Design of Column

Longitudinal reinforcement design of one of the columns of ground floor is shown below. Similar

process is to be followed for all the remaining columns for which strengthening is required. The table

8 shows section details and features of existing and retrofitted section of the column. Figure 6 shows

the example of calculation to find the required longitudinal reinforcement required for concrete

jacketing of column.

Table 8. Section Details and Features of Existing and Retrofitted Column

Existing Section

Retrofitted Section

Concrete used = M15

Concrete used = M20

Reinforcement bar = Fe415

Reinforcement bar = Fe415

Width in X Direction = 240mm

Width in X Direction= 440mm

Width in Y Direction = 240mm

Width in Y Direction = 440mm

Area of Steel = 1206 mm2

Area of Steel = 1549 mm2 (From SAP Analysis)

Area of Concrete = 57600 mm2

Area of Concrete = 193600 mm2

Add 100mm on each sides for new section (according to code IS 15988:2013)

**Required Additional Concrete = 136000 mm2
**

Required Additional Steel

= 343 mm2

Provided Additional Area of Concrete = 204000 mm2; (3/2) of Area of Additional Concrete Provided

Additional Area of Steel = 457.33 mm2; (4/3) of Area of Additional Steel

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Fig.6. Example of Longitudinal Reinforcement required for Concrete Jacketed Column

**Note: The increased number of Longitudinal Reinforcement Bar used for Jacketing is adopted from
**

Clause 7.3.2, IS 13920:1993.

**Transverse Reinforcement Design of Column
**

a) From IS 13920:1993 Clause 7.3.4

The factored shear force is calculated using the equation (4) and equation (5) is used to calculate

nominal shear stress to check for shear.

For Frame ID GROUND FLOOR-B1,

,

Vu=1.4[

= 52.74 kN-m and

,

,

,

= 49.63 kN-m

]= 55.12 kN(4)

Where,

Vu = Factored Shear Force

= Moment of Resistance, of beams framing into the columns from opposite faces

and

,

,

hst=storey height

Calculated factored shear force from analysis, Vu = 37.29 kN

So, Design Shear Force = 55.12 kN (Taking highest of the values)

Check for Shear

v=

= 0.28N/mm2

(5)

Where,

v =Nominal Shear

Stress

**Vu = Design Shear Force
**

B = Width of Column in X Direction

D = Width of Column in Y Direction

c=

0.58 N/mm2 (From Table 19; IS 456:2000)

cmax=

2.8N/mm2 (From Table 20; IS456:2000)

Pu (from SAP analysis) = 366.43 kN

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**UsingIS 456:2000; Cl.40.2.2, modification factor is calculated from the equation (6).
**

Modification factor,

=1+

= 1.28 (6)

Where,

Pu= Factored Axial Load

A = Cross Sectional Area of Retrofitted Column

fck = Characteristics Compressive Strength of Concrete

x c =0.75 N/mm2

Where,

= Modification Factor and

c’=

Hence,

v

c’< cmax, so,

c = Shear

Stress

provide nominal shear reinforcement as lateral ties.

**b) From IS 15988:2013
**

Calculation of spacing of ties:

The spacing of ties to be provided in the jacket in order to avoid flexural shear failure of column and

provide adequate confinement to the longitudinal steel along the jacket is given from the equation (7):

S=

(7)

**Where,fy = yield strength of steel, fck = cube strength of concrete, dh = diameter of ties and
**

tj= thickness of jacket.

Diameter of lateral =1/3 of longitudinal bar = 1/3 * 16 =5.33mm

Since minimum diameter of ties shall be 10 mm and not less than one-third of the longitudinal bar

diameter

Taking diameter of ties(dh)= 10mm.

Spacing of ties(s) =

= 90mm, so the spacing of ties(s) =90mm (<thickness of jacket)

Hence, Provide 10mm Ø ties at 90mm c/c with 135° bends and 10Ø anchorage length.

**4.2 FRP Beam Jacketing Design (Khalifa et al, 1998)
**

Data: The concrete strength is 15 MPa, the modulus of elasticity of the CFRP sheet is 227 GPa, the

ultimate axial stress of the CFRP sheet is 3400 MPa, and the sheet thickness is 0.165 mm/ply. The

angle of fiber orientation is 90°. The steel stirrups are 8 mm bars with yield strength of 415 MPa.

The spacing of the stirrups, s is 180 mm. The width of the strip, wf, and the spacing of the strips, sf is

1 m.

Note:

The area of FRP shear reinforcement is the total thickness of the sheet (usually 2tf for sheets on both

sides of the beam) times the width of the FRP strip. Note if continuous sheets are used the width of

the strip, wf, and the spacing of the strips, sf, should be equal.

The symbols used for the calculation are:

Af= Area of CFRP shear reinforcement

bw= Width of the beam cross section

d= Depth from the top of the section to the tension steel reinforcement centroid

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**df= Effective depth of CFRP shear reinforcement
**

Ef=Elastic modulus of FRP

f’c= Nominal concrete compressive strength

ffe= Effective tensile stress in the FRP sheet in the direction of the principal fibers

ffu= Ultimate tensile strength of the FRP sheet in the direction of the principal fibers

k = Experimental constant describing the gradient of the effective bond length

Le = Effective bond length

R = Ratio of effective stress or strain in FRP sheet to its ultimate strength or elongation

sf= Spacing of FRP strips

tf= Thickness of the FRP sheet on one side of the beam

Vc = Nominal shear strength provided by concrete

Vf= Nominal shear strength provided by FRP shear reinforcement

Vn= Nominal shear strength

Vs= Nominal shear strength provided by steel shear reinforcement

wf= Width of FRP strip

wfe= Effective width of FRP sheet

= Angle between the principal fiber orientation and the longitudinal axis of the beam

fe= The effective FRP strain

fu= Ultimate tensile elongation of the fiber material in the FRP composite

= Strength reduction factor

f= FRP shear reinforcement ratio

bu= Average bond strength

The nominal shear strength provided by FRP shear reinforcement can be computed by the equations

(8) and (9) based on effective FRP strain and bond mechanism respectively.

Solution 1 (Based on the effective FRP strain)

f

= 2 tf / bw = 2*0.165/240=0.0014 and fEf = 0.0014*227 = 0.32GPa

**Af = 2*tf*wf=2*0.165*1000 = 330 mm2(Based on a unit width of 1 m)
**

Using equation: R = 0.5622 ( fEf)2– 1.2188 ( fEf) + 0.778

0.50

**R = 0.5622*(0.32)2- 1.2188*(0.32) + 0.778 = 0.45 < 0.50 (Satisfied)
**

ffe = 0.45*3400 = 1530 MPa = 1.530GPa

(

V =

)

= 188.83 kN(8)

**Solution 2 (Based on bond mechanism)
**

Use equations:

=

.

.

(

)= 56.4 mm,

bu

= k (f’c/42)2/3Eftf= 0.0021 GPa

In this case, wfe = df - Le = 374 - 56.4 = 317.6 mm

=

= 75.23 kN(9)

The lower of the two results is taken as the controlling value. Therefore, the shear contribution of the

CFRP sheet is: Vf=75.23 kN controlled by CFRP sheet delamination

The total shear capacity of the beam may then be computed with equations (10), (11) and (12).

=

(10)

= 61.97 KN

=

= 92.71 kN(11)

So, Vn = Vc + Vs + Vf = 229.91 kN(12)

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**Vn = 0.85(Vc + Vs) + 0.70Vf = 184.14 kN
**

Thus, [75.23/184.14] x 100% = 40.8% increase in shear capacity is achieved with the addition of

CFRP reinforcement.

5. Interpretation of Results

5.1 Sap Analysis:

**Fig.7. Beam Failure of Existing Model (Envelope)
**

Existing Model (Envelope)

Fig.9.Beam Failure Correction in

Retrofit Model (Envelope)

Fig.8. Column Failure in

**Fig.10.Column Failure Correction in
**

Retrofit Model (Envelope)

Fig.11. Shear Force Diagram at XZ, Y= 9mFig.12. Bending Moment Diagram at XZ, Y= 9m

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5.2 Storey Drift

The recommended limit of storey drift in any storey due to the minimum specified design lateral

force, with partial load factor of 1.0 shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height (Clause 7.11.1.IS

1893:2002). The storey drift calculation for the existing and retrofit models is summarized as in the

tables 9 and 10 respectively. The tables shown below also highlights that the maximum permitted drift

is attained for both existing and retrofitted model. Figures 13 and 14 highlight the deformed

shape/storey drift of existing and retrofit model under envelope load combination respectively.

Table 9. Storey Drift Calculation for Existing Model

Load

Combination

Envelope

Storey

Displacement

(mm)

Inter

Storey

Drift

(mm)

Roof

32.02

4.1

Second Floor

27.92

7.94

First Floor

19.98

10.33

Ground Floor

9.65

9.65

Plinth

0

0

Maximum Drift = 10.33 mm

Fig.13.Deformed Shape of Existing Model (Envelope)

**Maximum Drift permitted= 0.004 = 10.4 m
**

Since, 10.33 < 10.4 OK

Table 10. Storey Drift Calculation for RetrofitModel

Load

Combination

Envelope

Storey

Displacement

(mm)

Inter

Storey

Drift (mm)

Roof

12.78

4.27

Second Floor

8.51

3.1

First Floor

5.41

3.56

Ground Floor

1.85

1.85

Plinth

0

0

Maximum Drift =4.27 mm

Maximum Drift permitted= 0.004*h= 10.4

mm

Fig.14. Deformed Shape of Retrofit Model (Envelope)

Since, 4.27 < 10.4 OK

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**5.3 Seismic Weight and Design Base Shear of Existing Building and Retrofit Model
**

The seismic weight and design base shear of the existing building and retrofitted model is tabulated in

Table 11. The table suggests that with jacketing of column which is a retrofit technique applied in the

building; the total seismic weight has increased along with the base shear.

Table 11. Seismic Weight and Design Base Shear of Existing Building and Retrofit Model

Particulars

Existing Building

Retrofit Model

Weight of Ground Floor (W0)

2113.51 kN

2273.95 kN

Weight of First Floor (W1)

2119.59 kN

2245.44 kN

Weight of Second Floor (W2)

2298.98 kN

2367.74 kN

Weight of Roof (W3)

312.02 kN

311.04 kN

Total Weight (W)

6844.10 kN

7198.17 kN

Base Shear (VB) = Ah * W

615.97kN

647.84kN

**5.4 Lateral Load Distribution and Storey Shear
**

The design base shear VB computed from equation (13) can be distributed along the height of the

building as per following expressions:

Qi = (VB*hi2*Wi) / ( Wi*hi2)

(13)

Where, iis from 1 to n

n= number of storey in the building at which the mass is located

Qi= Design lateral force at each floor

hi= height of floor i measured from base

Wi= Seismic weight of each floor

The lateral load distribution obtained in each storeyfor the existing building and retrofit model are

shown in Tables 12 and 13 along with the bar chart showing the same result in the figures 15 and 16

respectivelybelow.

Table 12. Existing Building: Lateral Load Distribution in each Storey

Weight (Wi)

kN

312.02

Roof

Second Floor 2298.98

First Floor

2119.59

Ground Floor 2113.51

Total

6844.10

Storey

Height (hi )

m

11.19

7.80

5.20

2.60

hi2

m2

125.22

60.84

27.04

6.76

264

Wi * hi2

kN-m2

39070.31

139869.93

57313.81

14287.31

250541.35

Lateral Force (Qi)

kN

96.06

343.88

140.91

35.13

615.97

Vi

kN

96.06

439.93

580.84

615.97

**International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
**

24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

**Fig. 15. Storey Shear due to Seismic Load in Existing Building
**

Table 13. Retrofit Model: Lateral Load Distribution in each Storey

Storey

Weight (Wi)

Height (hi )

hi2

Wi * hi2

Lateral Force (Qi)

Vi

Roof

Second Floor

First Floor

Ground Floor

Total

kN

311.04

2367.74

2245.44

2273.95

7198.18

m

11.19

7.80

5.20

2.60

m2

125.22

60.84

27.04

6.76

kN-m2

38947.59

144053.57

60716.82

15371.88

259089.87

kN

97.39

360.20

151.82

38.44

647.84

kN

97.39

457.58

609.40

647.84

**Lateral Load Distribution in each Floor
**

Roof

Floors

96.06

Second Floor

439.93

580.84

615.97

First Floor

Ground Floor

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Vi

Fig. 16. Storey Shear due to Seismic Load in Retrofit Model

5.5 Drawings

Fig. 17 shows the cross-section of the retrofitted column, fig. 18 shows the plan of retrofitted column

and fig. 19 show the detailing of retrofitted column in the footing. Fig. 20 shows the Carbon Fibre

Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Jacketing applied in the beams. Similarlyfig. 21 and 22shows the floor

plan of each storey present in the building whereby the sizes of the concrete jacketed columns can be

seen larger ascompared to the onesin which jacketing technique have not been applied.

265

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24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Fig.17. Section of Retrofitted Column

Fig.18. Plan of Retrofitted Column

Fig.19. Detailing of Retrofitted Footing

266

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Fig.20. CFRP Jacketing in Beam

Fig. 21. Ground Floor, First and Second Floor Plan

Fig. 22. Top Floor Plan of Retrofit Model

267

**International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
**

24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

6. Conclusion

The use of software related to structural analysis like SAP 2000 v.16 were used along with the aid of

AutoCAD for modeling, checks and design procedures. The analysis, design and detailing of column

concrete jacketing has been done as per Indian codes. For the numerical calculation for FRP Jacketing

of beam, the methods of a research paper has been applied.

The building is analyzed and designed as a Special Moment Resisting Frame structure

considering the seismic forces. Seismic loads are calculated using Seismic Coefficient Method

adopting IS 1893-1:2002 considering the project location lies in Seismic Zone V.

3D modeling and analysis of structure are done (Figures 2, 3, 7, 8,9, 10, 11 and 12) with the help

of SAP 2000 v.16. IS 1893-1:2002 and IS 15988:2013 are taken as two fundamental codes of

practices for analysis of structural components. This paper tries to summarize the various structural

components’ deficiencies and their appropriate retrofitting techniques that could be used economically

and for which necessary resources could be easily available in the market.

Based on the assessment of the building, for the strengthening purpose, RCC Jacketing is applied

in 78 out of 102 columns with longitudinal reinforcement having 8-12mm diameter bars. Provide

transverse reinforcement of 10mm diameter bar ties at 90 mm c/c with 135 bend to the retrofitted

columns. CFRP Jacketing is applied in 2 beams present in the mid-section of the staircase of ground

floor and first floor. Epoxy injection grouting has been proposed for the crack sealing of the infill

walls in the building.

Acknowledgement

The authors of this paper want to express their gratitude to the Centre for Educational Design (CED),

Kathmandu University for providing access to necessary documents and drawings.

References

IS 13920-1993 IS 13920-1993: Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete. New Delhi: Indian Bureau of

Standards, 1993.

Ahmed Khalifa W. J. Contribution of Externally Bonded FRP to Shear Capacity of Flexural Members, Nov.

1998. ASCE-Journal of Composites for Construction 1998, 2, 195-203.

Indian Institute of Technology-Madras. Handbook on Seismic Retrofit of buildings. Madras, 2007: Central

Public Works Department and Indian Building Congress.

Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Central Public Works Department and Indian Building Congress.

Handbook on Seismic Retrofit of buildings, 2007. Madras: Central Public Works Department and Indian

Building Congress.

IS 15988: 2013. Seismic Evaluation and Strengthening of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings-Guidelines,

2013. New Delhi: BIS.

IS 1893(Part 1) IS 1893(Part 1): Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of structures, 2002. New Delhi:

Bureau of Indian Standards.

IS 456:2000. Plain and Reinforced Concrete-Code of Practice Fourth Revision, 2000. New Delhi: Indian

Bureau of Standards.

Islam M. R. Inventory of FRP strengthening methods in masonry structures. Barcelon, July, 2008: Department

of construction, Technical University of Catalonia.

IST Group, M. Method of Seismic Retrofitting of Structures, 2004.

Khalifa A., Gold W. J., Nanni A. and M.I, A. A. Contribution of Externally Bonded FRP to Shear Capacity of

Flexural Members,1998. ASCE- Journal of Composites for Construction.

Murty, C. Why are Short Columns more damaged during Earthquake? 2005 Kanpur: Indian Institute of Kanpur.

Nepal, G. www.seismonepal.gov.np, 2015. Retrieved from

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268

**International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Post Disastor Reconstruction Planning
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24 – 26 April, 2016, Bhaktapur, Nepal

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Management Division Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.

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