White Paper

More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE –
parameters for network planning

The temperature increase of the cable bundle relative to the environment 7 5. Annex 11 © Copyright 2015 Reichle & De-Massari AG (R&M).0 | en | Matthias Gerber 2 . The increase in cable temperature 5 3. The temperature increase inside the cable bundle 6 4. it presents the state of the art at the time of preparation. Choosing the correct dimensions for patch cords 7 6. New tool: the R&M PoE Calculator 9 9. It is not permitted to pass on and replicate this publication or parts of it for whatever reason and in whatever form without express written permission from Reichle & De Massari AG. White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1. Consequences for planning and installation 9 8.More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE – parameters for network planning Contents More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE – parameters for network planning 1 1. This document was produced with the greatest possible care. Information contained in this publication may be altered without prior notice. Considering the quality of plug connectors 8 7. Improving performance with remote powering 3 2. All rights reserved.

4PPoE: 4-Pair Power over Ethernet.3bt is a leap forward for Power over Ethernet (PoE): instead of 13 or 22 watts. in order to transmit power. White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1. future standard IEEE 802. Similarly high demands are placed on the connectivity. PoE can use both unoccupied wire pairs. end devices will be able to be supplied with up to 100 watts of power. sensors. 1. as on the cables and on the way these are laid. Improving performance with remote powering Power over Ethernet (PoE) has established itself on the market over the past 15 years. The aim is to make it possible to transmit 1 to 10 Gigabit Ethernet at the same time. In order to achieve this. shortening links To demonstrate the technical possibilities and challenges. The idea is captivating. as any losses on the way to the consumer are converted to heat. sensors. surveillance cameras. wireless (WLAN) access points. installers.3bt. As Gigabit Ethernet requires all four pairs for data transmission. But what requirements must the installation meet? How does the LAN cable behave? What must planners and installers take note of today to ensure that their customers can fully enjoy the opportunities presented by Power over Ethernet tomorrow? Application: Technology: Subjects: Objective: Target group: Author: Published: Remote powering of data devices such as IP telephones. for the Internet of Things or IP telephones can be plugged in like conventional appliances. each wire pair must carry a current of 650 to 1100 mA – quite literally a hot topic. it can also be used to transmit power. Intelligent devices. and presents a calculation tool developed by R&M that makes it easy to determine the range of links based on the starting conditions. In order to do this. four phantom power supplies must be created (figure 2). Two pairs form the supply line and the other two form the return line for the power supply. cable heating. and components for the Internet of Things (IoT).3bt is placing new demands on installation processes IEEE 802. as well as for building automation. to introduce the R&M calculator for calculating link lengths Network planners. With 10 or 100 Megabit Ethernet. This is the origin of the new abbreviation. IEEE is now aiming to provide end devices with between 55 and 100 watts of power. Power over Ethernet (PoE) and 4 Pair PoE (4PPoE) The current development of PoE. If there is already a data cable leading to a device. This will allow powerful devices such as wireless access points and multimedia devices to be powered via the data cables within the office’s or building’s structured cabling system. R&M QPP partners Matthias Gerber June 2015 This white paper lists the most important parameters. which is only possible if all four wire pairs are used to transmit this power. or – by means of phantom power – the data-carrying pairs themselves. The applications of PoE and its usable power range have been increased in stages over the past years (figure 1). PoE will use all four wire pairs to transmit power in future.Remote power supply according to IEEE 802. provides tips for successful installation. etc.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 3 . important parameters and their significance for planning and implementation.

3 bt (Draft) 4-Pair PoE (4PPoE) > 55W / 49W up to 100W 650mA up to 1100mA / pair Figure 1: the evolution of Power over Ethernet since 2000. Graphic: R&M White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 4 . Graphic.3 at PoE Plus (PoEP or PoE+) 26W / 22W 600mA / pair 2011 Cisco (proprietary) Unuversal PoE (UPoE) 60W / 54W 700mA / pair 2015 and onward IEEE 802.3 af Power over Ethernet (PoE) 15W / 13W 300mA / pair 2009 IEEE 802.Evolution of Remote Powering 2000 Inline Power 7W 2003 IEEE 802. photos: R&M End Device Figure 2: 4PPoE will require a phantom power supply over all four wire pairs.

These coefficients will continue to be changed until the simulation values correspond to the measurements taken in reality. Draft standards such as ISO/IEC TR 29125 (see attachment) use calculation models that divide the temperature increase into two stages: • • Temperature increase inside the cable bundle Temperature increase of the cable bundle relative to the environment Figure 3: infrared photo of a cable bundle during power transmission. The overall heating of the cable depends on several other factors: • • • • The type of cable The number of cables in the bundle The way the cable has been laid – open or closed installation ducts Air convection and forced ventilation These effects must be looked at separately. In connection with this. R&M has conducted its own tests at its laboratory in Wetzikon (Figure 3). the hotter it gets.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 5 . which reduces the possible length of the links.2. White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1. Higher temperatures also increase the copper resistivity and therefore the attenuation of the transmitted signal. It is not the model itself that is being debated. there are questions concerning the weighting of the effects through the choice of coefficients. rather. the standardization process is still in a state of flux (as of July 2015). However. The heating that results from power transmission can increase the attenuation of a cable to such an extent that data transmission becomes impossible. It is not just fire and health and safety regulations that make it necessary to limit the temperature increase. Photo: R&M This model can be used to calculate the expected heating of the hottest cable in a bundle. The increase in cable temperature The physical consequences of using PoE are clear: the higher the current in a copper wire and the lower its cross section. however. you never find one wire on its own. Nowadays. Even if the temperature remains well under the combustion point. permanent heating by as little as 10 ºC can halve the cable’s expected service life.

0. Figure 4: temperature increase for a bundle of 100 cables with different conductor cross-sections. 0. Graphic: R&M White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1. Shielded cables are advantageous here. The temperature increase inside the cable bundle The temperature increase inside the cable bundle is primarily determined by the cable properties. as they are better at transporting the heat to the outside of the bundle. The number of cables in the bundle also plays a crucial role.64 mm). The temperature in the cable bundle increases exponentially with the electric current. The more layers of cables there are lying on top of one another. the hotter the cable in the center of the bundle will be. 23 and 22 correspond to conductor diameters of approx. The smaller the crosssection of the conductor. Therefore.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 6 . the more the temperature increases (figure 4).5. as the outer cables “insulate” the inner ones. The cable shielding serves as a thermal bridge that can guide the heat around the cable core from the inside to the outside.3. laid open (AWG 24. it is better to arrange the cables alongside one another than in a concentric bundle.56 and 0.

In these bundles. Graphic: R&M 4PPoE therefore represents a challenge for the cabling industry in that not only is the temperature increase in a cable defined by the cable properties. The temperature increase of the cable bundle relative to the environment The way the cables have been laid is the sole factor that determines the temperature increase of the cable bundle relative to the environment. Copper wires are good at transporting and distributing locally produced heat. White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1. depending on the cable management scheme. insulated pieces – e. If the bundle cannot be cooled by air convection. short.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 7 .g. there is a maximum temperature (usually 60 ºC) that must not be exceeded. Choosing the correct dimensions for patch cords The change in the attenuation of patch cords due to temperature increases usually has normally little impact. but the way the cable is laid can also influence the functionality of the installation. However. as these cords are very short. the temperature increases rapidly (figure 5). for passing through fire barriers in walls – do not present a problem. Planners and installers will play a key role in ensuring the functionality of 4PPoE. for example in the conduit. However. large bundles of patch cords may be present in racks. laid in open and in insulated environment.4. Figure 5: temperature increase for a bundle of 100 cables with different conductor cross-sections. Calculations show that the introduction of 4PPoE will necessitate the use of a patch cable with a conductor cross-section of at least AWG26. 5. too.

Nominal area of contact Pull out point with contact damage due to sparks Figure 6: The contact on an RJ45 plug with the spring tab of a connection module. In a well-constructed connection. sparks are generated.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 8 . This can lead to permanent impairment of the transmission properties. Craters have been known to form on the contact surfaces (see the R&M white paper: “Power over Ethernet Plus – Update and Cabling Considerations”). while IPCs merely pierce the insulation and create a loose contact. When the contact is pulled out. Considering the quality of the connectivity The same principle applies to the connectivity: the greater the contact resistance. The contact design is also an issue in this context. the connector/cable contacts are of increased significance for 4PPoE. with IDC technology offering higher long-term stability. A serious problem can arise if contacts are damaged by fine arcs when being disconnected under load. This creates a plasma with extremely high temperatures that can cause local damage to the contact. Therefore.6. the stability of an IPC contact will diminish (see the R&M white paper: “IDC Connection Technology”). Over time. Graphic: R&M White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1. An insulation displacement contact (IDC) is far superior to an insulation piercing connector (IPC) in terms of contact reliability. IDCs use insulation displacement technology to create a connection similar to a solder joint. During disconnection. the nominal contact area is far away from the first/last contact point. the higher the losses and the hotter the contacts. the current ultimately flows over a small remaining contact area. High-quality plug connections are therefore constructed in such a way as to create sufficient distance between the pull-out point and the nominal contact area (figure 6).

if Cat. All relevant standards and physical variables have been stored in the Excel spredsheet and linked to one another (figure 7). For example.rdm. link length. smaller bundles are better than fewer. EA. POH. New tool: the R&M PoE Calculator Active planning of the loss budget is necessary before installation in order to ensure 4PPoE functionality. Leave space for air convection or forced ventilation.com. Cables with a larger conductor cross-section make longer cabling links possible. The same applies to using Cat. Arrange the cables in stacks with as few layers as possible. Avoid heat accumulation in the conduits.g. Following a few rules makes it possible to minimize this impact: • • • • • • Avoid thick cable bundles. F. conductor crosssection. the full cabling length can almost always be used. in relation to each other during the planning stage and to avoid surprises after the installation. larger ones. UPoE. 4PPoE 55W. Multiple. bundle thickness. 4PPoE 100W) The class (D. etc. Chose connectivity. even if the loss budget permits them. E. 8. e. the attenuation is directly influenced by the heating of the cable. The expected heating and the resulting maximum possible permanent link length are parameters that require several calculations when planning the influencing factors and conducting product evaluation. Consequences for planning and installation The loss budget on the link is the main factor influencing the performance of the network and the ability to transmit data without interruptions. FA) The number of plug connectors in the channel The total length of the patch cord The maximum cable temperature And the following can be grouped according to segments: • • • • Cable types (according to categories and conductor cross-sections) Environmental temperatures Bundle thicknesses Planned segment lengths. R&M has devised an easy-to-use tool to help network planners and installers. Avoid cable temperatures over 60 ºC. The “PoE Calculator” also has a special feature that lets you choose parameters for multiple segments. PoEP.7. In the case of remote power supply over the data lines. This allows users to consider environmental temperature.6 cables (AWG23) are used instead of Cat. etc. The PoE Calculator is an Excel file that R&M provides to its customers and partners free of charge. patch cords with IDC connections whose service life corresponds to the expected overall service life of the installation even for power transfer.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 9 .6A for class EA (10GBase-T). White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1. The parameters that can be entered include: • • • • • The PoE application (PoE.7A cables (AWG22) instead of Cat. as exist in practice on most data links. You can download the tool from www.5e for class D (1000Base-T).

Graphic: R&M White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1.Figure 7: the R&M PoE Calculator for determining the optimum link lengths when using Power over Ethernet.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 10 .

3bt DTE Power via MDI over 4-Pair Task Force IEC PAS 61156-1-4:2010 Multicore and symmetrical pair/quad cables for digital communications – Part 1-4: Symmetrical pair/quad cables with transmission characteristics up to 1000 MHz – Conductor heating of bundled data grade cables for limited power transmission based on IEEE 802.3 ISO/IEC TR 29125:2010 Information technology – Telecommunications cabling requirements for remote powering of terminal equipment CENELEC TR 50174-99-1 Information technology – Cabling installation – Remote powering Model calculation according to draft standard ISO/IEC TR 29125 and EN TR 5017499-1 The model (figure 8) divides the heating in a cable into two components: • • ∆Tth = temperature increase inside a cable bundle ∆Tu = temperature increase of the cable bundle relative to the environment Figure 8: model for calculating the temperature increase. Annex Standards and committees IEEE 802.9.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 11 . White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1.

R&M has chosen average values for cu for the “PoE Calculator” that appear to be realistic at this time. F/UTP: 3. etc.The following formulas are used for the calculation: cth: cu: N: nc: ic: R: d: coefficient that describes the thermal properties of the cable (U/UTP: 5. the value for cu still varies considerably across the individual draft standards. etc.0.0. insulated: 1. S/FTP: 2.) coefficient that describes the thermal properties of the environment surrounding the bundle (open/ventilated laying: 0.0 | en | Matthias Gerber 12 .2.0.com. White Paper | More Power over Ethernet: 4PPoE | v1.rdm.) number of cables in the bundle number of current-carrying wires in the cable (4 or 8) current per wire (in A) resistance of 1 m of cable (ohm/m) cable diameter (in m) Empirical methods (measurements) are being used to adapt the coefficients cth and cu to real conditions. While cth has largely been determined. You can find more information about R&M’s products and solutions at www.4.5. closed conduits: 0.