Although temperature was one of the first variables to be measured in industry the
first formal international temperature scale was not adopted until 1927. The scale
started at -200°C and went beyond the freezing point of gold (1063°C) and was
based on fixed points such as the boiling point of oxygen and sulphur. Today, the
internationally recognised temperature scale is referred to as ITS90 and is defined
by the following table:ITS90
Temperature deg C
-270.15 to -268.15

Hydrogen at 10192 Pa
Hydrogen at 33321.3 Pa

Vapour pressure point
Triple Point
Vapour pressure point
Vapour pressure point
Triple Point
Triple Point
Triple Point
Triple Point
Triple Point
Melting Point
Freezing Point
Freezing Point
Freezing Point
Freezing Point
Freezing Point
Freezing Point
Freezing Point

In recent years temperature measurement has become much more widespread
throughout industry, commerce and in the home. This is largely due to the increasing
variety of sensors and instruments, which have become available.
Sensors have developed into small devices with fast response, far removed from the
bulky probes of some time ago.
However, in selecting a suitable sensor, we are often faced with a compromise
between such factors as size, speed of response, ruggedness and price. To assist in
the selection process it is helpful to have an understanding of the basic technology
and the factors that influence measurement and interpretation of temperature

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and most numerous in the Hawco Direct catalogue are thermocouples. The purer the metal.co.co.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 .TYPES OF SENSOR Various types of sensors can be used for temperature measurement and control and the most common ones are: Thermocouples (T/C) Platinum sensors Thermistors Infra red pyrometers Solid state sensors (silicon or germanium) Liquid-in-glass (such as mercury thermometers) Bimetal (using differential expansion of metals) The most common of all these. thermistors and infra red pyrometers. namely Platinum (Pt) and Nickel (Ni) sensors. Looking at them against thermocouples: Advantages very stable higher accuracy than thermocouples better linearity than thermocouples Disadvantages higher cost power supply is required low resistance value self-heating effect. PLATINUM SENSORS (RTD/Resistance Temperature Detectors) Platinum is currently used in all primary resistance thermometers because of its excellent stability and good linearity. the more constant and precise the increase.uk Web: www. platinum resistance sensors (also referred to as RTD's. or resistance temperature detectors). HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. Temperature measurement using platinum depends on the fact that its resistance increases linearly with temperature. Mainly two types of RTD sensors are used.hawco.

3 ±1.8 ±0. Today's manufacturing technology has reduced the costs and made it possible to produce vibration resistant platinum sensors.55 ±0.56 -100 ±0. STANDARDS Platinum sensors are manufactured according to different standards.35 ±0.15 ±0.32 0 ±0.30 200 ±0.20 ±1. Other types of platinum sensors are : Pt250. 5 and 10 times the Pt100 values for the same temperatures.co.13 ±0. though the European standard IEC 751 has become the most used.12 100 ±0.3 ±0. (Typically 2 mm wide x 4 mm long x 0.3 ±0. TOLERANCES The standards mentioned above also define the allowed tolerances.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 .08 ±0.co. Its resistance/temperature characteristics are exactly defined in equations.75 ±0. These types have exactly the same characteristics as the Pt100. where Class A is the more accurate (with smaller tolerances).15 ±0.28 850 ±4.33 ±2.3 ±0.64 400 ±0.8 ±1.3 ±0. 138.3 ±1.8 ±0.35 ±0.55 ±0.24 ±1.17 800 ±4.6 ±1.6 ±1. the most commonly used RTD sensors are platinum sensors. but the resistance values are 2. Similarly it is possible to have Pt1000Ω sensors with resistance 1000Ω at 0°C etc.13 700 ±3.35 ±0. IEC 751 has two tolerance classes for Platinum sensors: Class A and Class B. which are also small in size. LIMITING DEVIATIONS FOR PT100 THERMOMETERS Limiting Deviations Temperature °C Classification A Classification B °C Ohm °C Ohm -200 ±0. which differ slightly between various standards. Pt500 and Pt1000.34 HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco.79 500 ±1.93 600 ±1. which are distinguished by their high accuracy and stability. These higher ohmic value sensors are used to avoid resistance effects due to connection cables and contact junctions.5Ω at 100°C.uk Web: www.38 ±2.27 ±1.06 650 ±3.48 300 ±0.5 mm thick) PLATINUM SENSOR TYPES The most frequently used type is the Pt100Ω sensor which has resistance of 100Ω at 0°C.PLATINUM SENSORS As described above.06 ±0.hawco.95 ±0.8 ±0.5.43 ±3.14 ±0. Other standards are the Japanese JIS 1604 and some American ANSI standards.

88 45.316 0.378 0.93 274.372 0.304 0.64 280.320 0.339 0.31 204.65 384.432 0.64 247.18 243.53 253.83 27.322 °C 610 620 630 640 650 650 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 Ω 316.327 0.30 68.394 0.360 0.17 175.21 236.28 348.16 96. three or four leads are used to eliminate effects due to resistance of the leads themselves where high accuracy is desired.375 0.64 363.296 0.uk Ω 226.361 0.46 354.72 43.08 130.05 164.30 287.356 0.54 119.24 Ω/°C 0.70 369.343 0.27 88.308 0.297 0.88 179.389 0.75 304.326 0.302 0.68 Ω/°C 0.70 240.29 146.33 72.12 323.370 0.93 339.380 0.429 0.294 0.79 111.317 0.313 0.355 0.48 172.26 64.333 0.364 0.365 0.419 0.55 390.315 0.21 297.325 0.00 103.338 0.58 157.78 264.co.342 0.303 0.363 0.09 250.25 310.82 290.358 0.90 208.47 194.72 233.19 60.CONNECTIONS TO MEASURING INSTRUMENTS RTDs are connected to instruments such as temperature transmitters using two.367 0.387 0.349 0.331 0.10 197.77 168.324 0.337 0.369 0.07 149.68 381.385 0.347 0.352 0.400 0.52 22.33 161.392 0.48 HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 Ω/°C 0.330 0.368 0.354 0.301 0.71 Ω/°C 0.98 284.335 0.305 0.71 372.353 °C 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 Email: sales@hawco.49 313.412 0.390 0.53 357.34 35.83 153.334 0.uk Web: www.371 0.40 123. three or four leads.90 134.407 0.29 277.379 0.18 345.295 0.38 260.309 0.350 0. Resistance v Temperature Table for PT100Ω Sensors °C -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Ω 18.376 0.71 201.377 0.96 257.00 52.56 270.48 212.31 84.422 0.45 329.310 0.09 100.19 186.30 326.33 76.84 190.397 0.06 342.22 92.34 39.33 80.319 0.328 0.386 0.21 229.05 215.70 378.71 138.341 0.414 0.92 294.357 0.382 0.393 0.49 300.11 56.co.01 307.399 0.405 0.312 0.90 107.384 HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 °C 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 Ω 127.38 351.92 320.311 0.417 0.374 0.67 366.15 222.348 0.18 267.51 142.396 0.64 332.298 0.346 0.61 219.10 31.391 0.323 0.hawco.340 0.318 0.362 0.79 335.409 0.345 0.59 360.425 0.307 0.332 0.53 183.402 0.383 0.67 115.60 387.71 375.293 .403 0. See Figure 1.300 0.

which makes it easier to design measuring instruments for nickel sensors compared with platinum sensors.hawco. They are standardized over the temperature range -60 to +180°C. it is necessary to compensate for the deviation from 0°C. The two leads are connected at one end. current will flow. which is proportional to the temperature T1. is normally connected to a temperature transmitter or some other measuring instrument. This so called Cold Junction Compensation (CJC) can be performed in a temperature transmitter. The transmitter measures the terminal temperature and performs the compensation automatically. HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco.NICKEL SENSORS Compared to platinum sensors. THERMOCOUPLES (T/C) In 1821 Seebeck discovered that if two wires composed of different metals are connected together in a loop. less accurate and not so stable. Nickel sensors are mainly produced in two types: Ni 100 and Ni1000. (See Figure 2). and it is normally not possible to keep the temperature T2 at 0°C. also called EMF (Electromotive Force). Besides the CJC. the Cold Junction. The other end of the leads. The relation between EMF and temperature difference depends on the materials used for the two T/C leads.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . Because we want the T/C to measure the temperature T1.co. One small advantage could be that the resistance increases faster with temperature. the temperature transmitter will measure the EMF. which is also the measuring point of the T/C. and only one tolerance class is used. nickel sensors are less expensive. Nickel sensors are normally manufactured according to European standard DIN 43760. The output from the T/C is a mV signal. when one of the joints is heated. having a resistance of 100 and 1000 ohms respectively at 0°C. The EMF is a function of the difference in temperature between the Hot Junction (T1) and the Cold Junction (T2). and create an output signal.co. known as the Hot Junction.uk Web: www.

thus transferring the cold junction to the terminals of the transmitter.g. typically 200°C T/C TYPES There are a number of standardized T/C types available on the market. These cables have the same effect.co. The tolerances are higher. See Figure 3. making them more or less suitable for different HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. They all have different characteristics.co.hawco. a temperature transmitter. EXTENSION AND COMPENSATION CABLES Extension Cables These are made from the same materials as the T/C and can be regarded as a direct extension of the T/C with only a very small effect on the accuracy.Advantages needs no power supply (generates a millivolt signal) simple construction sturdy and physically adaptable relatively inexpensive wide measuring range Disadvantages non-linear over its range emf is very low in some cases reference point (junction) required lower sensitivity long term drift CONNECTIONS TO MEASURING INSTRUMENTS If a T/C is not connected directly to a measuring instrument. Compensation Cables These are used together with T/C’s of more expensive materials such as Pt and Rh. so compensation cables should not be used overcertain temperatures. where the cold junction compensation is performed. behaving as if the T/C reached all the way to the transmitter. e. the T/C has to be "extended" up to the transmitter by means of an extension or compensation cable.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . The characteristics of compensation cables are very similar to the corresponding T/C.uk Web: www.

Pt30%Rh Pt6%Rh Type E.co. Cu CuNi Type R. Pt13%Rh Pt Type S.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . Fe CuNi Type K.hawco. Pt10%Rh Pt COLOUR CODES FOR THERMOCOUPLE PRODUCTS HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. NiCrSi NiSi Type T. NiCr Ni Type N. NiCr CuNi Type J.co.applications.uk Web: www. The following T/C types are well known and standardized according to the European standard IEC 584 1 (some also according to American standards): • • • • • • • • Type B.

HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco.uk Web: www.co.co.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 .hawco.

as well as being incorporated into electrical circuits as protection and compensation devices.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . derived from Thermally sensitive resistors.hawco.. manganese or nickel.35 to 0. the temperature probes are predominantly used in applications such as HVAC and refrigeration where they are connected directly to the measurement or control instruments or panel meters. washer or chip.co. They are used to measure temperature typically in the range –50 to 200°C.THERMISTORS (Thermally sensitive resistors) Thermistors. 0.75 microns. an NTC (negative temperature coefficient). but there is much more radiation emitted in the infrared area of the HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. are solid state devices that exhibit a high coefficient of resistivity.uk Web: www.g. to the infrared area of 0. whose resistance changes inversely with temperature. red-hot steel. Advantages cost effective in volume stable better accuracy than thermocouples Disadvantages linear only over a limited temperature range no industry standard Not always interchangeable Because of the limited temperature range of Thermistor devices. magnesium. All objects emit radiant energy but the intensity and wavelength of this energy depends on the object’s temperature and its emissivity (its ability to send out radiant energy). Radiation pyrometers measure the temperature of an object by measuring the amount of radiation that the object emits. and a PTC (positive temperature coefficient) whose resistance changes proportionally to temperature. There are two types of Thermistor. Thermistors are manufactured from complex metal oxides such as cobalt. disc. Therefore some hot objects will emit visible radiation e.co. The wavelength of this radiant energy is from the visible light area. INFRA RED RADIATION PYROMETERS These devices are particularly useful for measuring temperatures of moving objects or rotating surfaces where contact is not possible or is undesirable.75 to 20 microns. tungsten filament etc. There are no industry standard Thermistors consequently each manufacturer produces devices with unique characteristics in various formats such as bead.

which is an object that absorbs all heat to which it is exposed and emits that heat as radiant energy. mounting method. Advantages non-contact temperature measurement wide temperature range –20 to 3500°C fast response adjustable for long term drift Disadvantages expensive bulky needs to be adjusted for precise emissivity TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTERS This section describes the following basic facts about temperature transmitters: What Is A Temperature Transmitter? Why Do We Use Temperature Transmitters? Why Use Isolated Transmitters? Where To Mount The Transmitters? A temperature transmitter is generally recognized as a device. Sometimes they are adjustable for different measuring ranges. Digital Transmitters HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. Many additional features can be added depending on the type of transmitter being used. Normally the output signal is directly proportional to the measured temperature within a defined measurement range.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . Infra red pyrometers comprise two main component parts. The features of temperature transmitters are often described using slightly different terms with respect to technology. The following is a short summary of the terms used.co.uk Web: www. They normally offer basic functions such as temperature linearisation and sensor break detection. functions etc.spectrum.co. The emissivity of an object is measured relative to a perfect emitter or a blackbody. the optical component that collects the radiant energy emitted by the target object and the radiation detector that converts the energy into an electrical signal. TECHNOLOGY Analogue Transmitters These transmitters are designed with analogue circuit technology. which on the input side is connected to some sort of temperature sensor and on the output side generates a signal that is amplified and conditioned in various ways.hawco.

In addition to 4-20mA.co. panel indicator or PLC. Analogue T/C transmitters are often not temperature linearized because of the complicated non-linearity of the T/C’s. Field mounting devices in particular. They all have a temperature linear output.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . All Hawco in-head transmitters fit into DIN B heads or larger.This transmitter type is microprocessor based. other standard output signals such as 0-5VDC and 0-10VDC are available with DIN rail mounting transmitters. Universal transmitters are normally of the intelligent (microprocessor based) type. This cold junction compensation (CJC).co. T/C’s. DIN rail transmitters are designed to snap on to 35mm rail according to DIN EN 50022.uk Web: www. Alternatively some transmitters can be adjusted to compensate for an external fixed cold junction temperature. which are not possible with analogue transmitters. MOUNTING METHOD In-head transmitters are designed for mounting in the connection heads of temperature sensors. Pt1000. INPUT TYPE RTD transmitters are used only with RTD sensors i. They are often called intelligent transmitters.e. Special care has to be devoted to durability because of the harsh conditions that sometimes exist. because they normally offer many extra features. voltage and current. Pt100. They are programmable for different input types and ranges and have accurate temperature linearisation. These devices require a separate HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. is generated at the instrument end of the 4-20mA loop and quite often incorporated within the controller. Ni100 etc.hawco. THERMOCOUPLE Transmitter measures a mV-signal from the T/C and compensates for the temperature of the cold junction. The Hawco transmitters in the IPAQ family are all universal with input types such as RTD’s. The voltage to power these transmitters is derived from the loop whose 10 to 36 Volts DC supply (typically 24VDC). resistance. The signal is proportional to its temperature input and scaled specifically to the desired temperature range of the process. OUTPUT TYPE The majority of field mounting transmitters today produces the industry standard 420mA output signal. is normally performed by measuring the terminal temperature. Hawco RTD transmitters are designed for Pt100 input and are either fix-range or adjustable. Normally they can handle only one RTD type at any one time. are generally loop powered or 2 wire transmitters whose 4-20mA output is passive.

230VAC or 24VDC.power supply e. 3-wire transmitters: Three leads are used for power supply and output signal. The isolation effectively eliminates the risk of circulating currents and facilitates the connection of transmitters to control systems with grounded inputs. CANbus etc. This greatly simplifies plant engineering.co. HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. WHAT IS A TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER? Output / Power Supply Connection 2-wire transmitters: Two leads are used in common for power supply and output signal. cable costs can be reduced.co. They should be used with care. This is particularly important if the sensor is located remote from the receiving instrumentation. To Convert A Non-Linear Sensor Output To A Temperature Linear Standard Signal. The amplified signal is much less sensitive to electrical disturbances. Isolation Non-isolated transmitters have internal connections between. compared with three or four for RTDs.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 .uk Web: www. Normally all the required instrumentation is less expensive if using standard input signals like for instance 4-20 mA. Modbus. it is possible to use standard instruments for indication. Isolated transmitters have no internal connections between circuits that are isolated from each other. Typical standard signals are 0-20 or 4-20 mA. Only two leads are required if a 2. WHY DO WE USE TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTERS? To Convert A Low-Level Sensor Output To An Amplified Signal. Interbus. for instance. which are proportional to temperature. and standard input modules in PLCs or DCSs. and are termed 4 wire transmitters producing an active and programmable output to suit the associated instrumentation. two for the power supply and two for the output signal. Thanks to these standard signals. If field mounted transmitters are used.hawco. One lead is common.wire transmitter is used. 0-5 or 1-5 V and 0-10 or 2-10 V. Recent developments in field instrumentation have seen the introduction of network transmitters within process control and automation systems. recording etc. input and output circuits. Long cables and low signal levels increase the risk of significant disturbances in the measurement.g. 4-wire transmitters: Four leads are used. To Reduce The Costs Of Cabling And Other Instrumentation. These network transmitters convert the signal from the sensor to a digital signal in the form of a standard serial format such as RS485 and other standard fieldbus protocols including Profibus. Standard signal cables can be used instead of more expensive compensation or extension cables for T/cs.

the ground loop will be cut off. when using T/Cs connected to a PLC or DCS through a non-isolated transmitter. This ground loop will flow through the T/C and cause voltage drops over the resistances R L1 and R L2 in the T/C leads. typically 50 to 500 Mohm. Isolation to ground R ISO is normally very high in a "healthy" RTD. An undesired "ground current" I Err of variable magnitude. use isolated transmitters! WHERE TO MOUNT THE TRANSMITTERS? HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco. will arise.co. depending on the actual situation. Depending on the value of R ISO a certain proportion. If the transmitter is galvanically isolated between the input and output circuit. I Err.hawco. No errors will arise due to low isolation between T/C and ground. The Sensor break protection feature will indicate broken sensor leads and force the output to a user defined level. No errors will arise due to low isolation between RTD and ground.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . However. It is sometimes difficult to predict and calculate these errors.co. The isolation to ground R ISO is sometimes rather low. Safety/ integrity can be improved by letting the transmitter monitor the sensor leads. the ground loop will be cut off. Conclusion To be sure of good results.uk Web: www. These voltage drops will interact with the EMF generated by the T/C and can cause significant measuring errors. Measurements With Rtds. Figure 2 shows an RTD sensor connected to a PLC or DCS through a nonisolated transmitter. under certain conditions the internal isolation of an RTD can be significantly reduced. e. WHY USE ISOLATED TRANSMITTERS? Measurements With Thermocouples Figure 1 shows a typical situation.g. Reasons might be wear or damage causing moisture to penetrate into the RTD. and the ground current will be prevented. but it is not unusual for them to reach 5-10 % of the measuring range. and the ground current will be stopped. at high temperatures and/or with a small sized T/C. This will cause a measuring error. If the transmitter is galvanically isolated between the input and output circuit. of the measuring current Im will pass through the ground and not through the RTD sensor.To Improve Safety/Integrity Of Temperature Measurement.

No extra connection points needed.20 mA. Cost and space savings. Only two leads are required if a 2.co. The amplified signal.In an industrial plant. and if the highest possible accuracy is required.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 . e. For instance. is very insensitive to electrical disturbances induced along the transmission cable.hawco. an Inor digital display can be connected. The location of the temperature sensor can give maintenance problems. Email: sales@hawco.uk Web: www. indicators. Cost savings on installation. e.inside the temperature sensors' connection head. Advantages • • • • • Maximum safety in signal transmission. In-head mounting . correct location of the transmitters can be important. Central mounting . This method of mounting normally offers the biggest advantages. Disadvantages • • • • HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Ambient temperatures can be outside the allowed limits for the transmitters. They are designed and tested for the harsh conditions that In-head transmitters will often meet. There are basically three alternatives for mounting temperature transmitters: 1.close to the temperature sensors. or loop powered indicators can be installed in the 4-20 mA loop.g. Field mounting .g. where there are normally long distances between the measuring points and the receiving instrumentation. Cost savings for the transmission cables. 4. If temperature is expected to deviate strongly from normal room temperature. All Inor's In-head transmitters fit in a DIN B head or larger.in the vicinity of the control room. IN-HEAD MOUNTING The transmitters are mounted directly inside the connection head and normally replace the terminal block. without redesigning the measuring circuits.wire transmitter is used. we recommend using Inor's high-performance transmitters IPAQ-H PLUS or IPAQ-HX PLUS because of their extreme temperature stability. Field instruments. 2. No extra housings or cabinets are needed. can easily be installed and at a later stage. Extreme vibrations might cause malfunction of the transmitters. 3. The ambient temperature effect on accuracy has to be considered. However it is necessary to be aware of the environmental influence (mainly the temperature) on the measurement accuracy.co. if using Inor IPAQ-H PLUS or IPAQ-HX PLUS transmitters.

They are often mounted inside cabinets. DIN rail transmitters can also be used.co.FIELD MOUNTING Transmitters are either mounted directly beside the temperature sensors or in their vicinity. Disadvantages • • • HAWCO South Tel: 01483 883880 Fax: 01483 883888 Email: sales@hawco.g. The low-level sensor signal is rather sensitive to electrical disturbances being induced along the transmission cable. Rather complicated and expensive to connect field instruments.g. This method offers the most convenient conditions for maintenance and the best possible environment for the transmitters. indicators. and/or closed rooms with good and stable ambient conditions. e. RTD measurements with high accuracy should be done as a 4-wire connection to nullify lead resistance Costs and space requirements for cabinets etc. commissioning & maintenance. No extreme temperatures or vibrations exist. This facilitates accurate and safe measurements. There are on the other hand some disadvantages that should be considered. Cost savings for transmission cables. Advantages • • Convenient for installation. Often more than one transmitter is mounted in the same field box. Advantages • • • High integrity for signal transmission. Field instruments can often be installed easily. T/C measurements require compensation or extension cables all the way to the transmitters. • • • Disadvantages CENTRAL MOUNTING In this case transmitters are placed in the vicinity of the control room or in another central part of the plant.uk HAWCO North Tel: 01204 675006 Fax: 01204 675010 .hawco. • • Higher installation costs compared with In-head mounting. The main transmission is made with an amplified signal. Relatively high costs for cabling. temperature effect). A wider selection of transmitters is available. but otherwise a good alternative offering most of the advantages of In-head mounting without the disadvantages mentioned above. Maintenance can normally be carried out without problems. Costs and space requirements for transmitter boxes or cabinets.co. This method is more expensive than In-head mounting. Minimum risk of environmental influences (e.uk Web: www. • Reduced integrity of signal transmission.