Fluid Machine: A fluid machine is a device which converts the energy stored by a fluid into mechanical
energy or vice versa. The energy stored by a fluid mass appears in the form of potential, kinetic and
intermolecular energy. The mechanical energy, on the other hand, is usually transmitted by a rotating

stored in



Energy Stored in Fluid:
Energy stored (at rest): 1) Intermolecular Energy
2) Potential Energy
Energy stored (in motion):
1) Intermolecular Energy
2) Potential Energy
3) Kinetic Energy
4) Pressure Energy(Flow Work)
Mechanical Energy: The work that is done to overcome a load.
Classification of Fluid Machines:
Based on Energy transfer:
1) Energy Absorbing devices: These are machines that add energy to the fluid. For
example:Pumps, Compressors, Fans, Blowers etc. The increased energy in the fluid is usually felt
as an increase in pressure of the fluid.
2) Energy Producing devices: These are machines that extracts energy from the fuild. The
extracted energy is used to do mechanical work. The decreased energy of the fluid is felt as
decreased pressure in the fluid. An example of such device is a turbine.
Based on Principle of Operation:
1) Positive Displacement Machines: In positive displacement machines, Fluid is directed into a
closed volume. Energy transfer to the fluid is accomplished by the movement of the boundary of
the closed volume, causing the volume to expand or contract, thereby sucking fluid in or
squeezing fluid out, respectively. E.g.: Reciprocating Pumps.
2) Dynamic Machines: There is no closed volume; instead, rotating blades supply or extract energy
to or from the fluid. Examples include: centrifugal pumps.

NPSHr curve. The pump performance curve describes the relation between the flow rate and the head for the actual pump. Pump efficiency = pgVH ωT shaft Pump Performance Curves: The pump characteristic is normally described graphically by the manufacturer as the pump performance curve. SI units m 3/s. SI unit: W 4. SI unit: m 3. b=ωTshaft pgVH 5. pump curves for several impeller diameters and different speeds. Pump efficiency= ωT shaft 1.Pumps: A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases). Other important information for a proper pump selection is also included – like efficiency curves. or sometimes slurries. Water Horsepower: It is the amount of useful power delivered by the pump to the fluid. Mass flow rate/Volume Rate (Capacity) 2. 2. . Net head. by mechanical action. Net Head: It is defined as the change in Bernoulli head between the inlet and outlet of the pump. Net head 3. Pump Efficiency: It is the ratio of useful power to the supplied power. H= P ρg ¿ 2 + V 2g + )out - P ρg ¿ 2 + V 2g + )in . Performance Parameters of pumps: 1. and power consumption. SI unit: W 5. Mass flow rate: It is the mass of liquid that a pump discharges per unit time. Water Horsepower= mgH= ρ gVH 4. Brake Horse power. SI units: kg/s Volume flow rate: It is the volume of fluid that a pump discharges per unit time. Brake Horsepower: It is the external power supplied to the pump by the motor of the pump.

Shutoff Head: The Shut off Head is the head produced when the pump operates with fluid but with no flow rate. Best Efficiency Point: It is the point at which the pump operates at its maximum efficiency. Operating point : . System Curve: A system-head curve is a graphical representation of the relationship between flow and hydraulic losses in a given piping system.

Put another way. whereas NPSHR is a function of the pump and must be provided by the pump manufacturer. the required head is equal to the head available. NPSHA MUST be greater than NPSHR for the pump system to operate without cavitating. NPSH Required (NPSHR): The minimum pressure required at the suction port of the pump to keep the pump from cavitating. Net Positive suction head: NPSH can be defined as two parts: NPSH Available (NPSHA): The absolute pressure at the suction port of the pump. causing significant damage to the impeller and/or the pump housing.It is the operating condition at which the system curve intersects the performance curve. NPSHA is a function of your system and must be calculated. At the operating point . you must have more suction side pressure available than the pump requires. The imploding or collapsing of these bubbles trigger intense shockwaves inside the pump. developed in areas of relatively low pressure around an impeller. NPSH= ( 2 P P V + inlet− v ρg 2 g ρg ) . Hrequired= Havailable Pump cavitation: Cavitation is the formation of bubbles or cavities in liquid. for the given flow rate.