To determine the displacement of an object by using linear variable differential transformer
transducer, to compare it with a micrometer displacement and to establish accuracy of the
1. LVDT transducer.
2. Micrometer.
3. Displacement sensor connecting rod.
4. Displacement indicator.
5. Multimeter.
6. Screw driver.
Displacement indicators & sensors (LVDTs) form a precise set up to measure linear
displacements to a better degree of accuracy than any mechanical measuring system. An added
advantage of this electronic type of measurement is its speed and ease of reading the value.
The displacement sensor comprises of a linear variable differential transformer coil and a
core which moves inside the coil according the displacement being measured.
The primary coil of LVDT is excited with a signal at a carrier frequency of 4KHz.the two
secondary coils, coupled inductively to the primary through the core are connected in signal
opposition in fashion, so that when the core is exactly at the center of the coil, the signal output
of the sensor is zero. When the core moves in one direction, the signal amplitude increases and is
in phase with the carrier and vice versa. Thus the sensor output is a true representation of the
amplitude and direction of displacement.
This model has provision to accept one LVDT sensor at a time. The displacement as
measured by the sensor at a time. The displacement as measured by the sensor is indicated on a

31/2 digit display. The displacement of the sensor is directly indicated mm. output proportional
to the display is also made available to the user on the real panel of the indicator. This output
can be connected to an oscilloscope for monitoring or to an XY or strip chart recorder for
recording purposes.


Micrometer Corresponding L.V.D.T




Error micrometer LVDT displacement


When the position of soft iron core moves right side then ES1<ES2. 6. 12.This position is called Null position. When AC current is supplied to primary coil an alternating magnetic field is generated in the circuit. 4. 8. 5. A small displacement say. When the position of soft iron core moves left side then ES1>ES2 11. Above procedure is repeated till the micrometer reads 20mm displacement at each step the simultaneously readings of LVDT indicator and out put voltage readings are taken.2mm is given of LVDT core by micrometer now the readings at the LVDT indicator is taken by using multi meter (0-10V) output voltages readings to be taken. The transducer is placed in the micrometer groove and we ensure that there is no air gap between core and micrometer. The magnetic field is disturbed by armature which is connected to moving body. When the position of soft iron core exactly at center level then both ES1&ES2. 3. 7. . After the LVDT is loaded for 20 mm displacement core is received and the supply is put off. 2. First of all take micrometer with range of 0-25 mm. Are same Eckt= 0 . 10.PROCEDURE: 1. The entire out put voltage generated by the circuit equal to algebraic sum of individual voltages developed by each secondary coil E ckt= ES1-ES2. 9. Set the displacement indicator to „ZERO‟ by using a screw driver. a voltage is developed in the two secondary coils.

RESULT: Hence. LVDT core and micrometer are mounted on instant fixture with curve and ensure that the core and micro meter spindle lies in the same axis. . displacement is measured by using LVDT transducer and the average value of error has been found to be studied.PRECAUTIONS: 1. 2. Readings on the micrometer are noted with out parallax error.

integrators and equalizers built in the Vibration Indicator help to measure Vibration displacement. Undesirable vibration is a waste of energy and causes wear & subsequent break-down resulting in high maintenance costs. When the piezoelectric element in the sensor is strained by an external force displaced electric charges accumulate on opposing surfaces forming a charge proportional to the force. velocity and acceleration just by operating a rotary switch. 2. 3. With this unique configuration vibrating frequencies of near D. AIM: To study the use of piezoelectric accelerometer for the measurement of vibration parameters of an engine bed at various points. The Accelerometer Model is a piezoelectric vibration sensor. APPARATUS: 1. The noise produced due to vibrating bodies or structures cause human fatigue resulting in reduced efficiency. Undamped vibrations transmitted to structures might excite vibrations at natural frequencies and cause permanent damage.STUDY AND USE OF A SEISMIC PICKUP FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF VIBRATION AMPLITUDE OF AN ENGINE BED AT VARIOUS LOADS. Both Ac & . Buffer amplifiers. 3. 2. An external filter. Piezoelectric acceleration and its connecting wire and socket. THEORY: The study and measurement of vibration in any structure or machine is of paramount importance for the following reasons: 1. Vibration indicator. This electric charge when applied to a very high impedance amplifier produces a voltage signal proportional o the acceleration to which the piezoelectric element is subjected to.C up to 3000Hz can be very easily measured.

Mount the vibration sensor rigidly on the vibrating body as shown in the figure. 2.Dc recorder outputs are calibrated. Clamp the cables to the vibrating body as shown in figure. All the detail given must be followed to obtain accurate results.After verification connect one end of mains cable supplied . PROCEDURE: the socket on the rare panel and other end to power source. In this case the highest frequency of operator is reduced to 1000 Hz. Keep the vibration indicator suitable place and connect the power cord Before connecting mains power to the indicator. . buffered and brought to the recorder terminals facilitating easy recording. Inter connect the accelerometer and vibration indicator using the cable provided with acceleration. 3. 4. This is essential to avoid cable chip and sub vibration damage to the cable.

k. To start with select range. a. The readings indicated are RMS values for acceleration and velocity peak to peak for displacement and the units indicated by the LED adjacent to display window. 11. Switch „ON‟ the vibration indicator and wait for one minute for capacitors for get charged. Clamp the cables to the vibrating body as shown in figure. f. d. 6. Select range A if reading is below 20 when measuring acceleration or velocity and 200 while measuring displacement. Switch on the instrument and wait for 1minute for the capacitors to get charged. Keep the range switch on vibration indicator in position „C‟. h. Select the parameter of interest on the function switch. Select 23% band width on the band width selector. Keep the external filter ‟IN/OUT‟ switch on vibration indicator in position „IN‟ e.beyond 2000 µm for displacement. Select range B for vibration levels between 20 & 200 for acceleration and velocity . 7. Now the indicator is ready for making vibration measurement . This is essential to avoid cable chip and sub vibration damage to the cable. Keep‟IN/OUT‟ switch on the rare panel in position „OUT‟. 12.12. Slowly tune the fine frequency dial for the maximum indication on the panel meter. Select the function to be measured by switching “ACCEL/VEL/DISP” switch on vibration indicator in the required position. j. Select range C for vibration levels beyond 200 for acceleration and velocity . All the detail given must be followed to obtain accurate results b. Mount the vibration sensor rigidly on the vibrating body as shown in the figure. 13. 9. 8.between 200 & 2000 µm for displacement.13 will be followed for choosing appropriate ranges. c. Now procedural steps 11. g. i. Keep the vibration indicator and active filter in the suitable position and connect the power cord to the vibration indicator. 10. In order to analyze the vibrating motion an external active filter can be connected to indicator and the procedure to be adopted as follows. .5.

m/sec2.CALCULATION: The vibration amplitude of engine bed Trail 1: Trail 2: Trail 3: Trail 4: Trail 5: Vibration amplitude = average of 5 trails. . RESULT: The vibration amplitude of engine bed is: ---------.

such as a gear. 2. Sensor for tacho pickups & photo pickup. The sensor is mounted in close proximity to the rotating body to ensure sufficiently large voltage output for accurate indication of speed in RPM.STUDY AND CALIBRATION OF PHOTO AND MAGNETIC SPEED PICKUPS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SPEED. the flux lines emanating from the sensor is cut by the alternate presence of gap and teeth of the gear. gears.s) 3. APPARATUS: 1. AIM: To study and calibrate the speed by using magnetic and photo pickups. the sensor employed to sense the speed is of the variable reluctance type. Two channel speed indicator(2 No. turbines etc. One see clock generation circuit. Input signal conditioning pre amplification. the number of such pulses being equal to the number of times. . THEORY: TACHOMETER is designed to measure the speeds of rotating shafts. This sensor picks up tacho pulses from any rotating ferrous object. 4.


The motor speed can be controlled in the range 0-2000 rpm using knob provides on the control panel. S. Before connecting power to the indicator verify the power source available matches with the requirements of indicator as maintained on the rear panel. Switch on the indicator.The distance between the sensor force and the test tool should not be more than 1. Mount the tachosensor and optical sensor in close proximity to the rotating shaft whose speed is to be measured .No Photo pickup(rpm) Magnetic pickup(rpm) Voltage(voltage) .PROCEDURE: 1. 4. 3.5 cm 5. OBSERVATIONS. The tachometer sensor and the photo sensor display speed of the rotating shaft directly in RPM.connect one end of mains cable supplied to the socket on the rear panel and the other end to the power source. After verification . 2. Connect the tacho sensor cable to input socket on the rear panel. 6.

RESULTS The speed of a given tooth gear is measured by using magnetic and photo pickups and the speed is -------RPM. Always start the motor with zero speed and operate the knob slowly.PRECAUTIONS 1. . 2. The optical sensor and the tachosensor are mounted in close approximately to the gearwheel.

AIM: To calibrate and measure the temperature using Resistance Temperature detector. Temperature of the oven is indicated and controlled by Electronic Digital Temperature Indicator Controller. APPARATUS: Super dry heater oven with fan motor digital temperature indicator.CALIBRATION OF RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR FOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT. HP Motor.Al-alumel] -Fe-K(J type) -PT-100(RTD) THEORY: When an electric conductor is subjected to a temperature change the resistance of the conductor changes and this change in resistance of conductor becomes measure of change in temperature when calibrated. The air circulation system consists of a suction of hot air from the working space. . The oven is provided with mechanical convection circulating fan fitted with F. The resistance of electric conductor increases with an increase in temperature and vice versa. consists of an insulated enclosure having internal dimension of 300mm D X 300mm H. The controller is provided with Press to set button and temperature is set by adjusting Multitum Potentiometer which progressively increase temperature and can be set to desired temperature to cut off the heaters at set temperature. The Super Dry Heat Oven. -Cr/Al ( K type)[Cr-chromel. with full size door. 1 KW Air Heaters (2 Nos. Provision for setting and controlling the required temperature between ambient to 250 0C. from the air-duct on the sides to maintain uniform temperature throughout the oven. of 500 W) are located in the air-duct of the oven.

the resistance of the element gets changed. 3. 7.PROCEDURE: 1. 5.switch on the heater. While conducting the experiment don‟t open the door. Adjust the required temperature carefully. . In this experiment we are using copper as conductor than it requires three constants. 6. Set the temperature of the control to the required temp say. 4.2500C. A suitable bridge circuit is connected to two terminals to facilitate the measurement of resistance change in resistance element. 2. The controllers cutoff the heater at the set temperature. In operation when resistance element is subjected to medium where temperature is to be measured.

For every 200C temperature change of the controller the instantaneous temperature reading of the three RTDs are noted down starting with 500C. While conducting the experiment do not open the door. 3. The readings of RTD should be taken instantaneously.No Standard instrument reading Error in 0C Test meter reading Ingrease Decrease PT-1000C R(0C) J(0C) PT1000C PRECAUTIONS: 1. R(0C) J(0C) . RESULT: The calibration of temperature is done by using 3 RTDs. OBSERVATIONS: S. 2. Adjust the required temperature care fully.8.

6. Place the glass thermometer on the heat source. 2. To measure the temperature y using strain gauge.No Actual temperature (0C) Indicated temperature(0C) Error percentage. OBSERVATIONS: S. . Switch on the panel. 1. APPARATUS: 1. 5. 3. Heater and container 2. Digital panel meter.CALIBRATION OF STRAIN GAUGE FOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AIM. Note down the readings as indicated readings. Thermometer 3. Place the strain gauge sensor tip on the heat source. Calculate the error percentage and repeat the above. Note down the temperature as actual reading 4. PROCEDURE.

PRECAUTIONS. RESULT: Temperature is measured by using the strain gauge. . 2. 1. Do not touch the main switch while control panel switch is on. Avoid keeping it near to any magnetic material.

When the openings in the rotating disk and stationary mass coincide the observer catch fleeting glimpses of the whirling disk. When the light flashes on to a rotating . Strobe scope 2.) There are two types of stroboscopes 1. The whirling disk is attached to shaft whose speed is to be measured. APPARATUS 1. THEORY: The stroboscope utilizes the phenomenon of vision when an object is vined intermittently. Speed of shaft = (disk speed) X (no of openings in the disk) / no of images Flash Light Stroboscope: It is modern type stroboscope which utilizes a controllable intense flashing light source instead of a whirling disk. stationary mark and rotation disk. Rotating member.1 sec. The flashing ray is controlled by variable frequency electric oscillator.STROBE SCOPE AIM: To measure the angular velocity of rotating member by using strobe scope. In this type neon gas discharge lamp uses a flashing light source. Mechanical disk type stroboscope 2. Flash light stroboscope Mechanical disk type stroboscope: A mechanical disk type stroboscope consists of a whirling disk. The human sense of vision is so slow to react to light hat it is unable to separate two different light impulses reaching the eye with in a very short period of time (less than 0. If the rotating disk is made to rotate with a period slightly less than or greater than the period of whirling disk forward or backward creeping of the whirling disk can be seen when the speed of rotating disk synchronized with the motion of the whirling disk. The marking on the whirling disk appears to be motion less at the condition and can calculate the speed of rotating shaft.

PROCEDURE 1. At synchronization fr=ff. Switch on the strobe scope by using the off. 6. At this condition the frequency of light flashes indicates the speed of the rotating member.disk and flashing ray is adjusted so that the rotating member appeared stationary. 5. Under this condition the speed of rotation of rotary member is equal to flashing frequency of stroboscope. Checking should be done whether the reading is correct or not by changing the frequency to have synchronize and not have multiple of speed. whose angular speed is to be measured. 7. . The scale of stroboscope is directly calibration in rpm which gives the speed at object in term of rpm. fr= frequency of rotation of object ff=frequency at flashing. 4. The flashing frequency can be varied and set by the operates by using cores fine adjusting knob. The frequency of the flashing is adjusted with the help of cores fine knob until target aperies motion less or stationary. 2. The frequency of light flashes of the oscillator becomes equal to the frequency of the rotating member. 3.on switch and direct the flashing light on the rotating object. Set a mark on the object.

The speed of the rotating wheel is = ---------. It advisable to give a break of 5 min. RESULT The angular speed of rotating member is measured by using stroboscope.rpm. 2.rad/sec.PRECAUTIONS 1. . 3. Approximate estimation of speed is necessary other using it will give synchronize at integral multiple of speed. 1. Do not use the instrument continuously more than 30 min. Each time after use of instrument remove wire from mains. The angular speed of the rotating wheel is = ------------. 2.

torque and pressure. Strain gauges can be related directly to stress through the elastic modulus. 2. then the strain gauges can be used to measure the torque. 3. electric charge is separated when the materials is strained.STRAIN GAUGE AIM: To study the resistance strain gauge for force measurement. APPARATUS: 1. Strain gauge and weight. in piezoelectric materials. then the strain gauges can be used to measure the pressure THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: For resister of uniform cross section A. 3. 1. Multi meter.of length L and and of resistivity ρ R=ρL/A . 4. Piezoelectric transducers use the fact that. If the relationship between applied force and strain can e determined for a given structure. THEORY: Stress and strain can be measured in many ways. Other typical measurements are force. If the relationship between applied torque and strain can e determined for a given structure. If the relationship between applied pressure and strain can e determined for a given structure. Strain gauge indicator. Weighting pan connecting cable. 2. then the strain gauges can be used to measure the force.

Log A = log (π/4) + 2log D Differentiate on both sides dA/A = 2 dD/D dD/D= lateral strain dR/R = dS/S+dL/L+2γdL/L but dL/L= ∑a the gauge factor F is defined by F= (dR/R)/∑a Comparing equation we get F= 1+2ν+(1/∑a)dS/s Strain of a member ∑a= 1/P(dR/R) The bridge is balanced under unstrained condition When the gauge is strained the resistance R. example by an amount dR then R=R1+dR Vab= [R1+dR/R1+R2+dR] Vs Vad= [R3/R3+R4] Vs= Vs/2 The change in output voltage is Vo= Vab-Vad =[(R+dR/2R+2dR)-0. we obatain dR/R=dρ/ρ+dL/L-dA/A But A= (π/4)*d2 But circle cross sectional conductor.if we take the differential of the reletion for resistance.5] Vs .

R1=R1+dR R =R2-dR .= dR/4R+2dR Vs Use of white stone bridge to measure change in resistance balanced condition Quarter Bridge: Only one strain gauge is used and there three elements of bridge are fixed the resistors let it be presented that the measuring instrument has infinite impedance and therefore no current low through it I1= in current flowing in the limbs AB & BC = Vs/R1+R2 Vab= voltage drop in limb AB I1R1= R1/R1+R2 Vs Vad= voltage in limb AD I2R2= R3/R3+R4 Vs Initially all the fore limbs constructing the bridge have resistant of equal magnitude R1=R2=R3=R4=R Vab= Vad= Vs/2 Vab=Vad=0 Half bridge: When no strain is applied Vab=Vad=Vs/2 The terminal B & D are at same rotational the bridge is taken balanced and output votage Vo=0 When load in applied 40 the beam the resistance of the gauge R. increase due to tensile load while the resistance R2 decrease due to equal compressive strain.

Vab= [R1/(R1+R2)] Vs= [R1+dR/( R1+dR+ R2-dR)]= R+dR/R1+R2 Vs = (R1+dR/2R) Vs Vab= R3/R3=R4 Vs =Vs/2 Becomes dVo=Vs/2*dR/R = (Vs/2)Ft Which is twice the output wheat stone bridge using one gauge only? Full bridge: When no strain is applied Vab= Vad= Vs/2 The terminals of B&D one at same potential the bridge is men balanced and output voltage Vo=0 when load is applied to the beam the resistance R1&R4 increase due to tensile load when strained the resistace of various gauge are R1=R4=R+dR(tensile) R2=R3=R-dR(compression Potential of terminal B is Vad= R3/R3+R4 Vs Vo=Vab=Vad= R1=dR/2R Vs.R-dR/2R Vs =Vs dR/R dVo= Vs dR/R which is 4 times the output of wheat stone bridge using one gauge only .

e. Keep the select switch in to set position the display reads the set gauge factor value without the decimal point i.PROCEDURE: 1.00 is set by signal adjusting multi time potential meter using screw driver. For unbalanced zero may not be possible then put the force zero switch +0. 2. Full bridge (all 4arms active) 1. 3. Switch on the instrument and allow a few minutes for warm up. a. 6. Select arm select arm switch 4 on both strain gauge and strain indicator. a gauge factor 2. 5. By keeping the cores ‟0„switch in zero position adjust fine zero control with a screw driver fill the display reading 0000. 2. The gauge factor if the instrument is 2. +1 through +4+0-1 “+hro “ -4 depending on direction and amount of unbalance by zero. The wire connection per strain indicator are port color A yellow B green C red D black . Now selection switches on the front panel of the indicator to be in to measure position. 4.005 is displayed hear the gauge factor 2in set. Before making any measurement the strain gauge bridge is balanced under no strain conditions now the pan is hinged to the cantilever beam as shown in figure.

The wire connection per strain indicator are port color A white B - C blue D black . Select arm select arm switch on both strain gauge strain indicator. 2.b. Quarter bridge 1. The wire connection per strain indicator are port color A black B - C brown D orange c. Half bridge (2 arms active0 1. 2. Select arm select arm switch 2 on both strain gauge strain indicator.

micro strain force can be calculated. Before staring experiment instrument ensure that appropriate arm selection switch and wiring. 2. . It ensure that should not be distributed. Result: From calibration curve in load vs voltage. voltage vs micro strain.PRECAUTIONS: 1.