BOILER CONTROLS & SAFETY FEATURES

A. BOILER CONTROLS:
1. Combustion Controls
Combustion being very important parameter in maintaining efficiency & reliability
of the boiler plant, needs utmost attention. While adjusting the combustion for
maximum boiler efficiency ie. lowest possible excess air in the flue gas, it should
be borne in mind that for consistent boiler efficiency & reliability of the boiler plant
soot free combustion is also equally important. A balance needs to be struck
between low excess air combustion & the soot level in the flue gas. The salient
features of the combustion system is listed below :
2. Burner Programmer & Flame Sensor
The burner programmer allows purging of combustion chamber before the fuel
spray. Also if the flame is not established in the specified time, then by the action
of flame sensor, the burner goes to electrical lock-out stopping the firing
sequence instantly, followed by an audio visual alarm. Restarting of the burner
requires manual resetting of the reset push button provided on the burner
programmer. Thus accumulation of fuel and back firing on subsequent burner
start up, is avoided. Also continuos watch is kept on the flame by flame sensor
and any interruption in flame results into instant burner lock-out sounding audio
visual alarm.
3. Enforced Low Flame Start Up
The electrical circuitry has been designed to ensure that burner always starts in
low flame condition. Even if the boiler is stopped in high flame condition before
starting it comes back to low flame condition.
4. Steam Pressure Control:
For Boilers with High/Low control:
As steam pressure falls, the controlling pressure stat (i.e., pressure switch) will
cause the burner to operate on the High Fire Mode. If the pressure rises, the
controlling pressure stat will initiate the burner to operate on the Low Fire Mode.
For Boilers with Modulating control:
Here, the controlling pressure stat is a modulating pressure trol (i.e., limit
pressure switch). Variations in steam pressure cause bellows in pressure trol to
expand or contract and move a sliding contact across a potentiometer coil. This in
turn causes a proportionate change in the position of the modulating motor
controlling the burner. This increases or decreases the quantity of fuel and air.
Common for both controls:
When the steam pressure reaches the maximum required, the limit pressure
switch shuts down the burner. If the limit pressure switch fails to stop the burner,
safety valve will get lifted and excess steam will escape, preventing any undue
pressure rise. When steam falls to a preset point, the pressure limit switch will
cause the burner to restart.

Fuel temperature switch detects the low fuel temp. Any interruption in flame is immediately detected by flame sensor and burner programmer disconnects the electrical supply to fuel solenoid valve causing burner to trip. A continuous watch on flame is kept by flame sensor. iv) Fuel Oil Temperature Low (Not applicable for light oil. B. If regular level controller fails. When water level reaches 12. This independent over ride control is one of the important features of JNM boiler. the Over-riding control will ring the alarm and cause the burner to trip and lockout condition occurs. 1. the Level Controller starts the feed pump again to feed more water in. i) Flame Failure Burner programmer with flame sensor provide flame failure safety. tripping the burner. When steam starts leaving the boiler through MSSV. water level falls to 50 mm below NWL. It is provided from safety point of view.5 mm above Normal Water Level (NWL). this over ride control will come in force to stop the burner. The burner will restart automatically once the water level is restored. Water Level Control: Water is supplied to the boiler through a feed pump and enters the boiler through the feed check valve. If it is found necessary to let water out of the boiler. it can be done by operating the blowdown valve. If for any reason. if the water level continues to fall until it reaches 75 mm below NWL. and only gas fired boilers). & trips the burner due to opening of electrical interlock in the burner programmer. However. . the Level Controller stops the feed pump. water level starts dropping. The burner will not start until the water level is restored and the reset switch has been operated. Level Controller will stop the burner and send an alarm signal so that the problem can be attended immediately.5. ELECTRICAL SAFETY FEATURES The following safeties have been provided to trip the burner and give audio visual alarm.5 mm below NWL. tripping the burner. ii) Boiler Drum Level Low Float actuated water level controller detects the low water level & disconnect the electrical interlock in the burner programmer causing de-energisation of fuel solenoid valve. SAFETY FEATURES Two kinds of safeties have been provided to ensure safe operation of the boiler. When water level reaches 12. iii) Boiler Water Level Extra Low Float actuated water level controller/water level indicating controller is used for giving an audio visual alarm when the water level drops below the set point.

. Regulating relief valves also have been provided in the fuel discharge line of the fuel pumps to ensure constant fuel oil pressure at burner inlet. It puts OFF the burner. iii) Fuel Pump Relief Valves Safety relief valves have been provided in the fuel pumps to safe guard the fuel pumps against excessive pressure built up. By this a small orifice is created on top of the reversal chamber from which steam rushes into the furnace quenching the flame. 2. A fusible plug has been provided at the top most position of the internal reversal chamber. This has been provided as an ultimate safety.v) Steam Pressure High High steam pressure is detected by a steam pressure switch. As soon as the alloy fuses the plug is forced into the furnace. iv) Explosion Door In the event of excess pressure developed in the combustion chamber the spring loaded explosion door mounted on the smoke box opens relieving the pressure saving the door and burner mounted on it.C. ii) Fusible Plug In the event of level controller failure water level goes down. MECHANICAL SAFETY FEATURES i) Steam Safety Valves The steam safety valves on the boiler have been provided as ultimate safety to relieve excess steam pressure developed in the event of failure of steam controller to control the steam pressure. Once the water level falls below the plug level the plug being exposed to steam its temperature goes up. the lead alloy holding the plug in the housing fuses. When the plug temperature reaches about 400-420 deg. Consequently the boiler would be tripped by flame failure.

. This in turn causes a proportionate change in the position of the modulating motor controlling the burner. If the limit pressure switch fails to stop the burner. The burner will not start until the water level is restored and the reset switch has been operated.5 mm above the normal level. The furnace (10) receives radiant heat from the flame and the hot gases from the flame give up heat to the tubes in the second pass (11) as they travel to the front chamber (1). If it is found necessary to let water out of the boiler. The cock is provided to vent the air from the boiler when filling and to relieve the vacuum created by condensation following a prolonged shut down. When steam leaves the boiler the water level will drop until it reaches a point 12. When the water reaches 12. When the pressure is sufficiently high. The burner will start automatically once the water level is restored. If however the water level point about 50mm below normal level the level controller will stop the burner and send an alarm signal so that problem can be attended immediately. thus increasing or decreasing the quantity of fuel and air to meet load demands. the safety valve (4) will lift and excess steam will escape. For boilers with high/low control as the steam pressure falls. The burner (19) is bolted to the front door (20). Caution : The set pressure for safety valve should not be altered except by a suitably qualified person.5 mm below normal level. the limit pressure switch (17) shuts down the burner. the controlling pressure stat will initiate the burner to operate on the low fire mode. A Vent Cock (13) and point for the inspectors’ test gauge is fitted with copper piping to the pressure gauge. For these boilers Pressure Jet Spill Return Modulating burner is installed. For boilers with modulating control. the controlling pressure stat is a modulating pressuretrol. the overriding control (7) will ring the alarm and cause the burner to trip and lockout condition occurs. who is able to fully assess the consequence of carrying out such an alteration. it can be done by operating the blow down valve at the back of the boiler. the controlling pressure stat (16) will cause the burner to operate on the high fire mode. In case of Wee Marshall range the combustion air is provided by a forced draught fan (18) which is integral with the burner unit. The level controller will start the feed pump and more water will be fed into the boiler. thus preventing any further rise in boiler pressure. When the boiler pressure reaches the maximum required. If the pressure rises. (which is about the middle of the gauge glass (3)). When the boiler pressure falls to a present point the pressure limit switch will cause the burner to restart. as they travel to the rear chamber (14).OPERATING PRINCIPLE Water is supplied to the boiler through a feed pump (15) and enters the boiler through the feed check valve (9). The pressure in the boiler is indicated by the pressure gauge (2). If however the water level continues to fall until it reaches a point about 75mm below normal level. Variations in the boiler steam pressure causes the bellows in the modulating pressuretrol to expand or contract and move a sliding contact across a potentiometer coil. The gases leave the boiler through the gas outlet connection (8) at the top of the rear chambers. Gases turn in the front chamber and give up more heat to the tubes in the third pass (12). The burner will start automatically once the water level is restored. If for any reason the water level falls to a point about 50mm below normal level the level controller will stop the burner & send an alarm signal so that problem can be attended immediately. the feed pump is stopped by the level controller (6). the main stop valve (5) can be opened to allow steam to pass to the process or heating system.