CADETS DIGEST

marine.ppeg.co.in

--SIMPLY SPEAKING

DRAFTS /TRIM and LOADING
A vessel always has an imaginary point called the centre of floatation. Lets call it

F.

Now the draft of the vessel can be read in 6 points ( ..FRD,MIDSHIP and AFT—PORT and STBD).
The DIFFERENCE in drafts between FRD and AFT point—is called TRIM which is measured in meters.
The DIFFERENCE in Drafts between Port and STB (at midships) INDICATES a LIST which is actually
measured in Degrees.
When the drafts FRD and AFT is SAME –vessel is EVEN KEEL and TRIM is ZERO
Whenever a vessel loads cargo,its draft increases.However this INCREASE in draft is NOT EVEN at all
those points.The draft used for ascertaining Cargo is the MEAN DRAFT.
If you load cargo to the FRD of

F then INCREASE in Draft FRD is MUCH MORE than INCREASE in draft

AFT.Vessel TRIMS by FORWARD. If cargo is loaded AFT of F vessel TRIMS by STERN.
The Draft of a vessel Directly reflects the WEIGHT of the ENTIRE SHIP.This is called the DISPLACEMENT
in Shipping terms.
The Drafts marked at the MIDSHIP to indicate MAXIMUM allowable DISPLACEMENTS at various
CRITERIA (like Summer, winter, Fresh Water etc) are also called the LOAD LINE MARKS
Lightship or Lightweight measures the actual weight (or DISPLACEMENT) of the ship with no fuel,
passengers, cargo, water, etc. on board.
The weight of Spares, Crew,working Lubs , Fresh water etc is called CONSTANT for the Ship.

The Total of cargo, fresh water, bunkers and constant of the vessel at maximum allowable summer
draft is called the DEADWEIGHT of the Vessel
The quantity of Cargo loaded at any given time is calculated by Knowing the DRAFT… Checking the
DISPLACEMENT at the particular draft and DEDUCTING the LIGHTWEIGHT , Constants, and known
quantities of BUNKERS , FRESH WATER LUBS etc.
From commercial point of view it is obvious that it should always carry MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE/POSSIBLE Cargo to get maximum EARNINGS.But a vessel need not always carry
Maximum Cargo because of certain restrictions which may be-

The maximum Draft at the Destination Port at the appropriate high tide for safe passage to
berth (Lesser than the summer draft of the Vessel) is

less than the maximum of the vessel.

The maximum Draft at LOAD Port at the appropriate high tide for safe passage from berth to
Sea is

less than the maximum of the vessel.

in order to Load MAXIMUM CARGO. This Final ADJUSTMENT of the Drafts to get the MEAN Draft approach the MAXIMUM is done SLOWLY with small Cargo Quantities being loaded in different Hatches/Holds.This depends upon which Hatch or TANK the Cargo is loaded. THIS Final Phase of loading when the adjustments to drafts are done slowly is called TRIMMING. Whenever a vessel is loading the following happen  MEAN Draft INCREASES Compulsarily  The TRIM MAY CHANGE. Having understood that a vessel cannot sail out if the draft at ANY point exceed the maximum specified at a PORT.Maximum TRIM CORRECTION with Minimum Cargo is achieved by Loading in the END HATCHES/TANKS.ppeg. DURING LOADING. One can easily visualize that a vessel CANNOT load more once its MEAN DRAFT has reached its maximum allowable. Invariably a vessel which has loaded maximum To the desired Mean Draft will be More or less EVEN KEEL. IMPORTANCE OF CONTROLLING TRIM. its AFT DRAft will reach the maximum first.It MAY TRIM AFT OR FRD OR NOT TRIM AT ALL.in --SIMPLY SPEAKING A very LIGHT CARGO may OCCUPY the ENTIRE SPACE AVAILABLE on vessel for CARGO LOADING. In short TRIMMING is done to CAREFULLY reach the MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE MEAN DRAFT with a Constant Observation of all the drafts(FRd/AFT and Midhsips). . However if a vessel is TRIMMED by STERN.This is best reflected by the CARGO Density Factor and the STOWAGE factor. The vessel can now load slightly more in such a way that the TRIM DECREASES and the MEAN Draft reaches the maximum..BUT THE MEAN DRAFT IS STILL less than the MAXIMUM.The WEIGHT of this CARGO when fully LOADED is so LESS that the Vessel has not loaded to its MAXIMUM POSSIBLE DRAFT.co.CADETS DIGEST marine. This is done by SHIFTING the loading to the Cargo Spaces FRD of the Centre of F Flotation .