CE 4312- Water and

Wastewater Engineering
LECTURE 1-INTRODUCTION

Nadeeka Miguntanna
nadee830@gmail.com
1

Learning Outcomes
On completion of this unit you should be able to:
•Understand the importance of water and wastewater
transfer and treatment.
•Understand the principles of unit processes in water and
wastewater treatment including: physical, chemical, and
biological treatment principles and the impacts of water
pollutants on human health and the environment.
•Apply the fundamental principles of water and
wastewater treatment in designing water and wastewater
treatment schemes to remove pollutants.
2

Content
Wastewater collection and treatment
• Introduction and Terminology

• Wastewater flow rates
• Wastewater characteristics
• Wastewater composition

• Wastewater characterization studies
• Primary and secondary treatment of wastewater
3

Introduction and Terminology Topics • Beneficial uses of water • Objectives • Necessity of Water and Wastewater Treatment? • Global situation • Water cycle • Water Sources • Aims of water treatment • Water Quality & Quantity • A typical surface water treatment plant • Water quality Guidelines & Standards 4 .

Basic needs – Human Life Air Shelter Food Water “Many Live with out Love but none with out water” 5 .

Beneficial uses of Water • • • • • • Aquatic life and wildlife support Fish/shellfish consumption Recreation Agriculture Industry/hydropower/landscaping Drinking water supply 6 .

shellfish. and other aquatic organisms 7 .Aquatic life and wildlife support • The waterbody provides suitable habitat for survival and reproduction of desirable fish.

Beneficial uses of Water Contd: • Landscaping • Hydro Power generation • Industrial processing and/or cooling 8 .

9 .

Water Consumption 10 .

• To COLLECT. 11 . • To put in place the methods for pollution prevention in industries and to treat and dispose of industrial wastes.Environmental Engineering • To supply water safe/portable in QUALITY and adequate QUANTITY to population. TREAT AND DISPOSE the wastewater generated in the community.Objectives.

12 .Objectives. • To collect. work environment as well as from the industries.Environmental Engineering Contd: • To control air pollution from indoor. transport and safely dispose of municipal and hazardous solid wastes.

Why Treat Water and Wastewater? Concern to the Public Health 13 .

bad water and disease. • Edwin Chadwick (1800-1890)argued that disease was the main reason for poverty. • In 1848. 14 . the growing towns of Britain were characterised by overcrowding. and that preventing disease would reduce the poor rates. poor housing. a cholera epidemic terrified the government into doing something about prevention of disease -through both public and individual health measures.Historical Development of Public Health • In the early 19th century.

15 . not from the physician” He identified that solutions for Environmental medical problems would be come from Engineering but not from medical community.Sir Edwin Chadwick(In 1842) “Aid to be sought from the science of the Civil Engineer. Public Health Act and the Nuisances removal and Diseases Prevention Act were passed in 1848.

16 . so he decided to intervene. speculated that it was spread by contaminated water. within 10 days some 500 people living in or around Broad Street died. • His research led him to a pump on the corner of Broad Street (now Broadwick) and Cambridge Street • Nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short distance of the pump. interviewing the families of the victims . Dr John Snow. considered pioneer of the science of epidemiology). He patrolled the district. an idea neither the authorities nor the medical profession accepted. a surgeon (later. Snow lived in the area of Frith Street.The Observations of Dr John Snow (1813-1858) • In 1854.

there were no victims at all • Snow recommended to remove the pump handle. Snow's 'germ' theory of disease was not widely accepted until the 1860s.Broad Street Pump & John Snow‟s proof of cholera‟s transmission of the 530inmates of the Poland Street workhouse. only 5people had contracted cholera. building had its own well. However. where the men were given an allowance of free beer every day and so never drank water at all. the 70workers in a Broad Street brewery. the spread of cholera stopped. • When they did so. 17 .

provision of sewers and clean water. 18 .• The most advanced and elaborate eighty-two miles of sewage system in the entire world was operational by 1865 It remains the backbone of London’s waste-management system to this day. and the removal of nuisances. In 1875 a Public Health Act enforced laws about slum clearance.

. the childhood mortality rate and the life expectancy. deaths per 1.g.HEALTH IN A SOCIETY • Today researchers express the incidence of disease as a rate relative to the population or to the population within age cohorts (e.000 population) • Health in a society is usually measured by three main indicators: the infant mortality rate. 19 .

** WHO. 2000) 20 . 1999 .(Sources * WHO.

Lae http://www.Cholera in Papua New Guinea (in 50 years).February 2010. 50 dead as of 1March 2010 East Sepik's main river was contaminated with Vibrio cholerae.org. though it can become food-borne.au 21 . 2109 cases have been confirmed nationwide.msf. Mainly a water-borne disease. cholera treatment centre At Angau Hospital. the bacteria which cause cholera.

As of 13 November 1998. with 36 deaths. On average.7 %. (WHO records-1998) 22 . with a case-fatality rate of 2.CHOLEARA OUTBREAK IN SRILANKA • Sri Lanka is suffering from a cholera outbreak which started at the end of September 1997. A total of 431 cases were reported for 1997. 125 cases per month. the total number of cases notified for 1998 is 1 264.

23 .

24 .Preventable Deaths LACK OF CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION ARE TWO OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE POOR HEALTH CONDITIONS.

Free from Bacteriological (Free from pathogens-Disease causing microorganism) and other chemical constituents. (Physical perception-Subjective) • Safe for human consumption (Safety).Water treatment aims to ensure that water is: •Pleasant to consumers (Aesthetics). odor and pleasing. •Provided at a reasonable cost (Economics). PORTABLE AND PALATABLE WATER 25 . taste. Free from colour.

26 .

we call the water cycle Therefore a renewable resource. To some degree the earth's fresh water supplies are constantly refreshed through a natural process. 27 . It's very important that we use fresh water thoughtfully.Limited amount of fresh water on earth that humans can use.

• Condensation. • Precipitation. • Infiltration • Run-off 28 .The Hydrological Cycle (Water Cycle)  The recycling of water between the Earth and the atmosphere. It is the movement of water involving • Evaporation. • Transpiration.

29 .

The Urban Water Cycle 30 .

Wastewater treated to the highest standard to remove contaminants and impurities. Provide economic benefits by reducing demand on water reserves.QUANTITY OF WATER WATER SOURCES Ground Water Surface Water Lake Water Sea Water Treated Effluent . 31 .

River’s self cleaning capacity (Carrying Capacity) was greater than pollution load.Pollution Level (PL) and Carrying Capacity(CC) Prior to Industrial and Green Revolution. quantum of pollution was less. CC>PL 32 .

TREATMENT PLANT 33 ...At Present.. EE...Engineers the natural process to amplify the rates such that the process occurs rapidly........... Intensive industrialization population explosion and modernization leads PL>CC Therefore intervention by Environmental Engineers (EE) is Essential.

TREATMENT PLANT Water is continuum. 34 . Similar Treatment technologies (Unit operation and processes ) can be employed. Selection of Treatment technology depends on nature of pollutant. No difference between water and wastewater (except in biodegradable organic matter).

Simultaneously the wastewater quality to be enhanced since untreated effluent causes deterioration of water quality (This is called source protection. 3.1. Source protection is an effective method of maintaining high quality resulting in reduction in water treatment cost. Before water is supplied to community quality should be enhanced so as to meet WATER QUALITY STANDARDS. 2. 35 .

Typical Engineered system of Treatment 36 .

37 .