Ecuador has come in the focus of world interest during last couple of years due to the

international engagement of Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa. World known political
magazine represented Rafael Correa as a fresh face of South American politics, a man that use
oil reserves to keep social stability and to easy maneuver internal political situation in Ecuador.
Watching from historical perspective and regarding political solutions, presidents Alfaro
and Correa are symbols of political life in Ecuador. Both are left-winged, in relation to social
stability, of course with differences that occur due to time differences and objective
circumstances. Alfaro has declared himself to be radically liberal, while Correa claims to be a
Christian leftist, but many see him as radical left. Many consider him a successor to Hugo
Chavez, as the leader of anti - American liberalism in the areas of Latin America
From the political perspective, last few decades leftist ideologies are on the rise in soil of
the South American continent. New political reality in the last few decades in Latin America is
that dominate regimes that are moderate or radical left. The exceptions are Colombia, Chile and
Central America area, where in most countries the governments are formed by the right-wing
parties. Not long ago, the Roman Catholic Church refuses to withdrawn from Ecuador which
caused Liberal Revolution 1895. Reform conducted by President Alfaro cost him his life.
Journalist Grey Granding wrote about that. Now, president Correa is in a similar situation due to
the large and powerful opposition that counteract to his ways of social structure (

com) Rafael Correa is in a similar situation. such are Columbia and Peru. He also promised a review of the ownership structure of natural and industrial resources in Ecuador.Similar political situation preceded the arrival of both the president to power. The Great Liberal Revolution in Ecuador happened in 1895. alluding to his main political opponent. Correa. In some countries in region. when Eloy Alfaro officially came to power (buenastareas. After the proclamation of the Constitution in 2008. in cooperation with big foreign companies. The church wanted to keep possessions and influence but Alfaro wanted General Alvaro came to power at the end of the 19th century when Ecuador is shaken by economic. as was Alfaro more than 100 years ago. The ultra-conservative government with President Gabriel Moreno was also against Alfaro. He added that he won’t allow exploitation of natural resources without taking care of environment. Almost identical thing happened with the coming to power of Rafael Correa. Ecuador is. In his campaign he promised a new “bourgeois revolution”. in one media conference. Passing the Mining Law in Parliament was cause for a lot of To minimize the influence of Roman Catholic Church. called those who oppose exploitation of natural resources “childish”. during nineties fell into serious financial problems (wsws. He also warned that it would investigate suspicious elite. is functioning really well (ucla. This law was declared in 1985. cultural and social crisis. the only state that can be sure that coup will not happen are the United States . It is famous his statement made in the interview Julian Assange : As Evo Morales said. when started era of mining in Ecuador. that system. They were afraid that someone else will take their jobs (ibid).org) Alfaro’s situation is different because he was a radical liberal and president of the Radical Liberal party.because they . Alfaro was more willing to cooperate with USA (fxmartinez. president Correa started the process of changing the Mining Law. especially among natives. rival Alvaro Noboa.

because after economic crises in the late nineties. (globalresearch. (Ibid. as a modern state. such are establishment of institutions of civil state. Ecuadorian government decided to take US dollar for official currency. social and religious spheres of society (Becker. The most important was freedom of speech and freedom of religion. This ideology is characterized by great social grants from state and critic of the neo-liberalism. we clearly see his difference from Alfaro who thinks of the United States as a country. Liberal Revolution many consider as the true birth of Ecuador. 186 – 189) Alfaro came to power after the Liberal Revolution and Correa in the 2006 elections. as well as economic reconstruction (Conaghan and de la Torre. 270 – 274) Both presidents start from the beginning because it is necessary to convert many years of stagnation in progress. Correa’s opponent is the USA. secularization. (axisoflogic. Alfaro had such a position because in Ecuador there was not secularization because of the dominance of Roman Catholic Church in political. While Alfaro build everything in the country from the beginning. In his campaign. 186 -189) While Alfaro's principal opponent was the Roman Catholic Church. (Beittel. (Becker 186 – 189) Correa called for the reform of the oil industry. a unique ideology in South America. the principle of separation of powers and secularization. he primarily advocates “Socialism for the 21st Century”. proclaiming freedom of religion and starting of the secularization. despite strong opposition in the nation and outside. the base Americans get from the previous government for a period of 10 years.have no US embassy. where is ruled by human rights. In this. Process of secularization established civil rights and freedom that was not existed prior to revolution. It begins with the separation of the church from the state and took over the control of the only US military base in South America. many processes were finished: establishing of the basic principles of civil society. It implies political stability. During his reign. 6) . He resented moves of his predecessors in monetary policy and attachment to the US dollar. regional integration and connectivity. establishment of human rights and reduction of poverty. thanks to changes that

. Both presidents realize their importance on time. After the death of the head of household. During the presidential campaign. They were paid poorly and often they were in debts so they needed to continue to work for masters after one year. he came in contact with them because in his youth. He later mentions natives in the Constitution of 2008. It was practically slavery. they situation changed and they got into an unenviable position even though they are an important factor of Ecuadorian society. Alfaro insisted on national unity and improving of native’s life. Reforms did not succeed because Alfaro was unable to solve poverty problem in such short period of time. of which the majority was native Ecuadorian. They were just pawns on the farm of their bosses or patrons. and this is caused protests in the twenties of the 20th century. were in the unenviable position while the system was According to researches. because the farm owners paid for their basic necessities such as Baptisms. he learned the language Quichuas. (countrystudies. his debt has exceeded to his closest relatives. Owner also had the right to imprison workers if they did not pay taxes. weddings and funerals. He said it himself after inauguration. 187) which regulated the concertaje. It was a special social system that reigned in Ecuador before the reforms of General Alfaro.Yet reforms that Alfaro began that are referring to the Indian question did not fully succeed. Same thing happened to president Correa 100 years later. This system is taken from the Incas and meant that Indians have to work one year in public works. and the government of General Alfaro finally put to stop this practice (Becker 186). that brought him the significant number of votes. Natives came directly to the president when they had problems with their landlords. Correa also realizes the importance of Ecuadorian natives. (gregpalast. With the arrival of The workers. Mark Becker wrote about this. They were living with their families on some others property. The most populous group is Quechuas who make up over 90% of the native population. This is the reason for proclamation of Patronage Law in 1897 (Becker. They were never paid.Native Ecuadorians live in the territory of Ecuador for centuries.

Social situation of the poorest segments of society during the Alfaro’s reign also get better. corrupted riches and politicians (Becker. thanks to social benefits and transfer of ownership of the property that once belonged to church (Becker. In 1896. Correa is really dedicated to this task. Even though education in Ecuador was quite well before his coming to power. 186 – 189) Correa takes similar steps. He raised many schools and institutions of education. His measures decrease difference by 50% in only 7 years (gregpalast. and Correa is elected for a third term in 2013. Poverty was the greatest problem in Ecuadorian society. he declares the Social Welfare Junta that addresses to poor. Alfaro had a break in the presidency of five years at the beginning of the 20 th It should be noted that social spending during the Correa presidency increased from 3. He strongly opposed the IMF and other institutions for which he claimed that are the one to blame for the economic situation in the country and the financial crisis. Correa’s administration is successful in raising school attendance from 92% to 96% and engaging in the educational system more than 1 million people.6% in 2006 to 11% in 2014. (Weig) President Correa wanted to strengthen the national unity and improve economic situation. At the time of his coming to power. He helped the poor by giving those people expropriated properties that once belonged to Roman Catholic Ecuadorian presidents won elections couple of times. The elections were declared regular even though Correa was accused to by social peace and votes using social grants (economist. 186 – 189) Both presidents knew about the importance of education and schooling. He re-negotiated concessions on large projects related to state business. the wealthiest earned 44 times more than the poor. Idea that is a guide for him is that knowledge is the most powerful weapon in the fight against poverty. and industrial giants and managed to get . The beginning of the presidency of General Alfaro is marked with dealing with poor population in Ecuador (Colloredo-Mansfeld 232 -235). He takes the measures to reduce the difference between the poorest and richest.

President Alfaro took a clear stance in the spirit of civil society. Something similar done President Alfaro. He repeatedly declared in public as a humanist and Christian Socialists. He parted with religion in desire to reduce her impact in Ecuador. They are not able to develop missionary activity. liberal democracy and human rights. because Christianity in his base is deeply related to faith and social ideology. with the support of government. when he ordered nationalization of the church property. He said he would resign if a law allowing abortion passes. Alfaro removed the ban that refers to the operation of Protestantism in the territory of Ecuador. in Ecuador religion played a great role. or to perform religious rituals (fxmartinez. Especially in the period after Ecuador gained independence. it also had an absolute right to religious activities. (news. It is more evidence that Christianity could agrees with extreme left ideologies in Latin America and not necessarily contradict them. Archbishop of Guayaquil called his efforts worthy of praise in every sense. These activities are in the spirit of civil In 1904. which Correa uses in his political actions. and during the second mandate promulgated the Law of charity.better sales conditions. By this. As in all of Latin America. Religious Law is brought that referred to the expropriation of church property. Other religious communities are hyped as satanic and they were not allowed to work. That was the case with President Alfaro and the current president of . he received praise from representatives of religious communities. which he announced. Due to the great power the Roman Catholic Church had in Ecuador. In some ways this is logical. especially on the issue of abortion and other topics related to religious Rafael Correa is different in this point from the President Alfaro. especially after the great revolutions and He introduced the regular civil marriage and divorce. as is officially confirmed by Vatican portal. where he gave church property to public institutions (fxmartinez. For his views. he is completely different from Eloy Alfaro It is a custom for new government to adopt a new constitution.

he in clever way excludes the impact of foreign companies and organizations over natural resources in Ecuador. After several decades. especially the natives. Rafael Correa. And what is perhaps his most important contribution is that he equalized all in front of the law. the Constitution repealed any form of hereditary position and hereditary privilege as an achievement of the previous regime. to become president again in 1906. truly in the spirit of change that followed his rise to power. During the Alfaro’s presidency. Basically. ratified Rights of Nature. in certain provisions. Their constitutions are different regarding contents. With this Constitution. the Constitution of 1895 declared the freedom of conscience and gave foreigners the same rights as citizens of Ecuador within the legal system (countrystudies. Rafael Correa adopted a constitution in 2008. many social categories factually were unprotected and exposed to the mercy of various circumstances. freedom of belief. first in the beginning of 1897. officially are proclaimed freedom of religion. which still exists in many countries. two constitutions are Alfaro pause the presidency for almost 5 years. Alfaro’s 11th Constitution of Ecuador is a civil and liberal. In addition. It is important to emphasize that the Alfaro’s Constitution guaranteed free education for all. but both represent reform.Ecuador. Before this Constitution. it is the first time . He overturned any subventions for schools and classes that are not conducted under the auspices of the municipality or the state. Correa's present Constitution. and the other at end of 1906. Rafael Correa won elections convincingly in the 2009. He officially confirmed achievements of Liberal Revolution that occurred two years ago. This Constitution is principally oriented towards environmental protection and manufacturing of healthier food. It abolished the death penalty. Also. as one of the fundamental human rights and freedoms.

which was not the case in previous years. In his second term. culturally. Due to the pronounced poverty that prevailed in Ecuador. it turns out that the railway was extremely expensive. in 20 and 40 years of the 20 th century.that Ecuador received re-elected president. His major work is the construction of a railroad from Guayaquil to Quito in a length of over 400 km in order to reduce poverty and link the two most important cities in the state. After the construction of the railway it was much easier to connect the population economically. He continued with the construction of public schools. 1). embodied in environmental policy (Fitz-Henry. .com).The second mandate of General Eloy Alfaro was much more active and prosperous than the first. Foreign companies were forbidden to do business if they do not meet the strict regulations set by the government of Ecuador. instigated a civil or secular education and worked actively for the establishment of a civil society. which is in the Andes and Guayaquil. Quito. Similar situation exist in the first two years in office of President Correa. He manages to reform higher education but also met the first major riots instigated by the miners. which represent the most significant port. He continued with the policy of combating the influence of the Roman Catholic Church and the confiscation of church property. but he had to cope with a large number of disgruntled opponents. It was profitable only twice. but its significance is far greater when viewed from the perspective of national unity. This has led to a serious crisis. (notmytribe. He takes the steps against impact of foreign companies. and politically. President Alfaro continued where he started in the first term.

The poorest strata of society are expecting rapid progress and change of their social situation. he lost his main lever for controlling power which he possessed. Society as such is not ready for the sudden change. the successful completion of the transition process usually lasts for several years. President Alfaro is paid creation of a modern. he introduced a legal framework for the creation of a modern civil society in which society is separate from the . when police protested. day to day process could not take place. Journalist Sara Liana reported about this event. Not only that.Within a fragile democracy or sudden political changes often happens sharp and violent social Eloy Alfaro is creator of a modern Ecuador. Main roads were blocked and normal. even decades. President Correa was in a similar situation many times. Correa was negotiating with them. When he left the army. Correa declared a state of emergency and was saved by the army. The opponents were trying to create chaos in society that would generate discontent. The group of criminals broke into the prison where he was detained with his supporters and killed president Alfaro (Gaeleano. the President Alfaro was unable to control large-scale crisis in which ended Ecuador after the great Liberal Revolution. but instead of making a deal. Since President Alfaro could do not provide them benefits as fast as they had expected. After many years. After returning from exile in Panama. he was taken hostage by the police. 28) First time President Correa met with dissatisfy circles of society is in 2010. democratic state with his life. Eloy Alfaro has incurred the wrath of the Roman Catholic Church and the big capitalists and corrupt politicians from the previous time. Alfaro was kidnapped and imprisoned. (csmonitor. they soon abandoned him.

more socialist than liberal.. Monthly Review Press. Many times. gas . 1971. came accusation that he is controlling media in order to remove critics (panampost. protector of whistleblowers and the successor of Hugo Christian and young leader. Open Veins of Latin America.).. Even though he managed to regain control of natural resources (oil. Eduardo. p28 . He introduced the basic principles of rights and freedoms. not just from Ecuadorian media. The law covered all citizens of Ecuador and insisted on educating the population. Bibliography Galeano. he is under great pressure. Pressure is so big that in a couple of occasions it could result in his death. to invest in education and infrastructure. to reduce poverty. He is one of the harshest critics of the Government of the United States in the world. Rafael Correa is more radical.

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us/ecuador/57. (Ecuador).2012-13 Fitz-Henry. RAFAEL CORREA’S POLITICAL PRETENTION AND REALITY http://countrystudies.Erin.html Social Memories of the Guayaquil- Quito ‘Extractive Nationalism’?:Energy Sovereignty in a Petrochemical Era.http://www.csmonitor. ECUADOR’S ’CIVIC REVOLUTION’ BEFORE ITS STRESS TEST. 1897-1960.19 Berthold Weig. University of Melbourne. AUSTRALIA. 1.htm PROJECT BETWEEN . Melbourne. https://nacla.thenation. The Stormy Relations between Rafael Correa and Social Movements in Ecuador June S. Ecuador: Political and Economic Conditions and Congressional Research http://www. . July 3. Relations. Beittel.S.economist.Marc Becker.html rafaelcorrea? zid=309&ah=80dcf288b8561b012f603b9fd9577f0e http://www. 1-9 http://www.