CE 4312- Water and

Wastewater Engineering
LECTURE 2-Wastewater Flow Rates

Nadeeka Miguntanna

Learning Outcomes
On completion of this unit you should be able to:
•Understand the importance of water and wastewater
transfer and treatment.
•Understand the principles of unit processes in water and
wastewater treatment including: physical, chemical, and
biological treatment principles and the impacts of water
pollutants on human health and the environment.
•Apply the fundamental principles of water and
wastewater treatment in designing water and wastewater
treatment schemes to remove pollutants.

Wastewater collection and treatment
• Introduction and Terminology

• Wastewater flow rates
• Wastewater characteristics
• Wastewater composition

• Wastewater characterization studies
• Primary and secondary treatment of wastewater

Wastewater flow rates

Components of wastewater flows
Variation of wastewater Flow
Analysis of wastewater flow rates
Reduction of wastewater flow rates
Practice Questions


The accurate assessment of wastewater flow characteristics and pollutant concentrations ARE IN CRUCIAL IMPORTANCE WHY? 5 .Introduction Wastewater Quality Monitoring is needed to provide EFFECTIVE wastewater treatment facilities.

 Inequitably of facilities when serve more than one community or district. 6 . construction and functioning of Treatment Plants. • sizing and operational considerations of the treatment system components.Insufficient data on Wastewater Flow Rates LEEDS Improper Design Considerations such as • hydraulic characteristics. • Equipment Selection Un estimated Costs associated with design.

Difficulties in Obtaining Wastewater flow Rates • The complexity of human activities in recreational areas makes estimating water usage and wastewater generation a difficult task • Direct field measurements of wastewater flow rates are not possible. 7 . • Actual wastewater flow rate data are not available.

Industrial Domestic Public Services Components of wastewater flows Infiltration/Inflow Unaccounted Losses and Leakages 8 .

culinary. bathing.Domestic Wastewater • Over one-third of the water used in a municipal water supply system is for domestic purposes such as washing. 9 . land yard watering etc.

10 . • commercial districts.Domestic Wastewater contd: • Principal sources of wastewater generated in a community: • residential areas. • institutional facilities and recreational facilities.

11 Average Water Consumption .

12 . • chemical plants. Etc. and • refineries.Industrial Wastewater Sources : • canneries.

fire fighting. irrigating public parks and greenbelts.Wastewater from Public Services • • • • Sources : public buildings. • system maintenance 13 .

Infiltration/Inflow (I/I) Extraneous flows in sewers called Infiltration/Inflow OR The quantity of water from both infiltration and inflow without distinguishing the source I/I that occurs on a relatively continuous basis 14 .

Infiltration Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system (including sewer service connections and foundation drains) from the ground through: •defective pipes (Broken and damaged pipes). and •manhole walls. 15 . connections. •pipe joints.

soil types and location of water table • Infiltration is not depended on population of the area • Can be incorporated into per capita flow 16 .Infiltration Contd: • Infiltration is expected to present in wastewater flow through out the year • Directly influence by groundwater fluctuations • Infiltration is depended on length of sewer. local construction standards.

Infiltration Contd: The amount of flow that can enter a sewer from groundwater. 200 . or infiltration. may vary between .000 L / km.600 .000 L / ha.km.24.28.day 9.day 8.940 L / mm.4 .day 17 .

Inflow Water other than sanitary flow that enters a sewer system (including sewer service connections) from sources which include. Roof leaders Sump pumps Foundation drains Celler/yard/area basins Cooling towers cross connections between storm sewers and sanitary sewers Surface runoff Street wash water 18 .

• Inflow is largely result from stormwater runoff (wet weather flow) Increases • High Impact on sewer system the wastewater flow • The effect on sewer system is varying with the type of inflow sources exist in the system 19 .

Components of Inflow 20 .

21 .

• When infiltration and inflow enter the sanitary sewer. . showers and washers. where the liquid portion is pumped out and conveyed to Treatment Facility. bathtubs. which comes from fixtures such as sinks. • The infiltration and inflow can cause sewer backups and overflows into the environment during wet weather. • This wastewater then enters the septic tank.I/I Why Is There A Problem? • The sanitary sewers are meant to carry only wastewater. • They can also cause overloading at the treatment 22 facility. they take up pipe space that is required for the wastewater. toilets.

 Wastewater collection systems must be properly sized to convey the wastewater discharged to the collection system. 23 . manholes and septic tanks. This flow belongs on the ground surface or in drainage ditches.  Inflow that is connected to the sanitary sewer system must be diverted to an acceptable location.What Is The Solution?  Infiltration can be reduced by repairing existing leaky pipelines.

Unaccounted Losses and Leakages Unaccounted system losses are mainly attributed to Unauthorized uses  Incorrect meter calibration or readings Improper meter sizing Inadequate system control Leakages are mainly attributed to System age Type of material of construction Lack of system maintenance 24 .

day.Unaccounted Losses and Leakages contd: • unaccounted losses and leakage vary within the range of 30 to 120 L/capita. 25 .

mile) per inch of pipe diameter. ????? /(?. ??? × ?. ?????/???? × ??? × ?. ????.Example 1 Convert to SI units for the construction allowable infiltration rate of 500 gal/(d. ??) ??? ?? ?? ???? ???????? 26 . ?? = ? ???? × ?. ?? ??/?? ??? = ?. ???????? /??? ? ??????/?.

hourly flow rates were recorded during the peak flow period as well as several days following the storm.752 m3/d. the flow rate averaged 240.000 mm-km.000 m3/d. when rainfall is rare and groundwater infiltration is negligible.000 m3/d excluding those days during and following any significant rainfall events. The flow rate plots are shown in the accompanying figure. Compute the infiltration and inflow and determine if the infiltration is excessive. mm-km of the sewer.Example 2 A large city has measured high flow rates during the wet season of the year. The flow rates during the dry period of the year. During the wet period when groundwater levels are elevated. averages 128. The composite diameter-length of the sewer system is 270. During a recent storm. 27 . Excessive infiltration is defined by the local regulatory agency as rates over 0.

Determine the infiltration and inflow components during the wet season. high groundwater infiltration is computed as peak flow rate – Base (Dry weather) flow rate Infiltration = (240.000 m3/d 28 . a) As the infiltration is low during dry periods.Answer-Example 2 1.000-128.000) m3/d Infiltration = 112.

Example 2 Contd: b) The maximum hourly inflow is graphically determined from the Figure Maximum hourly wet weather flow rate 180 180 Preceding day flow rate 80 33.8 29 .

003785 m3 ∴ ?????? = 378.Example 2 Contd: Maximum Hourly Inflow = Maximum hourly .Comparable flow rate wet weather flow on preceding day ?????? = 180 − 80 ????/? ?????? = 100 ????/? 1 gal= 0.500 ?3 /? 30 .

000 ?3 /? = 270. ?? − ?? 31 . ??? ?? ? .Example 2 Contd: 2). ???????????? ??? ???? ??? − ?????? 112.000 ?? − ?? = ?. Determine if the infiltration is excessive. Infiltration per unit diameter-length of the sewer system.

The infiltration found in this city is not excessive 32 .415 m3/d.mm-km- Excessive The infiltration found in this city is 0.mm-km Therefore.752 m3/d.Example 2 Contd: According to regulatory Authority If the infiltration rate > 0.

33 . The following data are obtained.Example 3 A small community water supply agency furnishes water to 147 customers from a well supply. Water records are kept showing the amount of water pumped to the system. The agency recently installed meters for all customers and total water sales records are also kept.

Example 3 Contd: Determine the amount of water consumed (gal/capita. The average household size as determined by the local planning agency is 2.d) and the amount of water that is unaccounted system loss (as a percent of production).43 persons per service. 34 .

Answer-Example 3 Determine the average daily per capita water consumption for the period of record. ? 35 .046 ???/? ????? ??????????? = 2. Use the sales records because that provides the actual amount of water measured as used by the customers. 35.43??????? 147 ???????? ( ) ??????? ??? ????? ??????????? = 98 ??????.

 The difference between the production rate and sales represents unaccounted system losses and leakage. Unaccounted system losses (46.116 Comment: metering errors often account for a large percentage of system losses and records of meter calibration need to be checked. 36 .Answer-Example 3 Contd: • Determine unaccounted system losses. If water production records are used without investigating unaccounted losses.046) = × 100% = 24% 46.116 − 35. the computed consumption rates may be in error. Differences in production and consumption as large as those in the above example are significant and require investigation.

37 . and extinguishing fires.  Water used by consumers whose facilities are not connected to sewers. system maintenance.  For landscape irrigation.Variation of wastewater Flow A considerable portion of the water produced does not reach the sanitary sewer system WHY? Considerable amount of water used as Product water by manufacturing establishments. and  Leakage from water mains and service pipes (unaccounted for losses).

Variation of wastewater Flow Contd: Variations in Water Use Variations in water consumption also effect the rate of wastewater flow 38 .

Water Usage Patterns 39 .

Variations in Wastewater flow rates General terms :  Daily and Hourly Flow Rates Daily indoor water use pattern for single-family residence 40 .

faucets left running). Minimum hourly flows of zero are typical for residential dwellings. Maximum hourly flows as high as 100 gallons (380 L/hr). Hourly flows exceeding this rate can occur in cases of plumbing fixture failure and appliance misuse (e. broken pipe or fixture. 41 .g.. This is due to the variability of typical fixture and appliance usage characteristics and residential water use demands.Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd: Wastewater flow can vary significantly from day to day or Hour to Hour.

Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd:  Peak Flow Rates Peak wastewater flows for single-family home •The peak flow rate from a residential dwelling is a function of the fixtures and appliances present and their 42 position in the plumbing system configuration. .

• The use of several fixtures or appliances simultaneously can increase the total flow rate above the rate for isolated fixtures or appliances. peak discharge rates from a single-family dwelling of 5 to 10 gallons/minute (19 to 38 liters/minute) can be expected. with the exception of the tank-type toilet and possibly hot tubs and bathtubs. . • However. • Although field data are limited. This variability can affect treatment systems by potentially causing hydraulic overloads of the system during peak flow 43 conditions.Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd: • The peak discharge rate from a given fixture or appliance is typically around 5 gallons/ minute (19 liters/minute). attenuation occurring in the residential drainage system tends to decrease peak flow rates observed in the sewer pipe leaving the residence.

g. • These fluctuations are dependent on the characteristics of water-using fixtures and appliances and the business characteristics of the establishment (e. hours of operation.Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd: • Wastewater flows from non residential establishments are also subject to wide fluctuations over time. 44 . fluctuations in customer traffic)..

• Statistical Analysis 3 • Design Flow Parameters 2 • Key Flow Parameters 1 Analysis of wastewater flow rates 45 .

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Key Flow parameters 46 .

• The data based on Sewerage Code in particular catchment. 47 .Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd: Key Flow parameters Contd: The determination of the ADWF. • The historical catchment approach where typically. PDWF and PWWF should be based on: • Actual system performance.

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd: Key Flow parameters Contd: PDWF = C2 x ADWF where C2 = 4.5) In the above formulae. EP is the total equivalent population in the catchments gravitating to a pump station.7 x (EP)-0. 48 .105 PWWF = (5 x ADWF) or (C1 x ADWF) whichever is the larger and C1 = 15 x (EP)-0.1587 (Note: the minimum value of C1 = 3.

day. 49 .Example 4 Calculate the PDWF for a given wastewater flow by considering Equivalent population 15 000. and ADWF =180 L/EP.

Example 4 PDWF ? PDWF = C2 x ADWF Given ADWF =180 L/EP.71 PDWF = 15 000 EP x 180 L/EP.Answer.364 = 1.105 = 4.7 x 15 000-0.day C2 = 4.d x 1.7 x 0.71 = 4 617 kL/d 50 .

51 . Minimum daily and hourly flows. treatment units and other wastewater handling facilities. Maximum daily flow. These include: The average daily flow (Volume per unit time). Peak hourly flow.Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd: Design Flow parameters The parameters which are generally used as the basis of design for sewers. Design peak flow. lift stations. wastewater (sewage) treatment plants.

sludge generation and organic loading rates. Average flow rate is used in evaluating treatment plant capacity and in developing flow rate ratios used in design. •The maximum daily flow The largest volume of flow to be received during a continuous 24hour period. the average flow may be used to estimate pumping and chemical costs. It is employed in the calculation of retention time for equalization basin and chlorine contact time. 52 .Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd: Design Flow parameters Contd: •The average daily flow (Volume per unit time) The average of the daily volumes to be received for a continuous 12 month period of the design year. And also.

based on annual data. wastewater pumping stations. 53 . •The design peak flow The design peak flow is the instantaneous maximum flow rate to be received. settling basins chlorine contact tanks and pipings. It is employed in the design of collection and interceptor sewers.Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd: Design Flow parameters Contd: •The peak hourly flow The largest volume received during a one hour period. wet wells. wastewater flow measurements. The peak Daily/Hourly flow is commonly assumed as three times the average Daily/Hourly flow. grit chambers.

•The minimum hourly flow The smallest hourly flow rate occurring over a 24-hour period based on annual data. This is important in the sizing of conduits where solids might be deposited at low flow rates.Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd: Design Flow parameters Contd: •The minimum daily flow This the smallest volume of flow received during 24-hour period. 54 . chemical-feed systems and pumping systems. This is important to the sizing of wastewater flowmeters.

Assume average water consumption is 200 L/c.d and assume 80% of water consumption goes to the sewer.000 persons.Example 5 Estimate the average and maximum hourly flow for a community of 10. 55 .

000 persons×0.80×10.d)×0.Example 5 STEP1 Average Wastewater flow= 200 L/(c.001 m3/L Average Wastewater flow= 1600m3/d STEP2 Compute Average Hourly Flow Rate Average hourly flow Rate= 1600m3/d × 1d/24 h Average hourly flow Rate= 66.Answer.67 m3/h 56 .

67 m3/h × 3 Maximum Hourly Flow Rate = 200 m3/h 57 .Example 5 Contd: STEP 3 Estimate the Maximum ( peak) Hourly Flow Rate Assumption :The peak hourly flow rate is three times the average hourly flow rate Therefore. Maximum Hourly Flow Rate = 66.Answer.

2 miles • 12-in submains = 9.Example 6 The following data is given: Sewered population = 50.6 miles • 6-in building sewers = 13.000. 58 .mile) per inch of pipe diameter Sanitary sewer systems for the city: • 4-in house sewers = 66. Average domestic wastewater flow = 100 gal/c.4 miles Estimate the infiltration flow rate and its percentage of the average daily and peak daily domestic wastewater flows.8 miles • 18-in mains = 7.2 miles • 8-in street laterals = 35.d Assume infiltration flow rate = 500 gal/(d.

000 gal/d Peak Daily Flow (Qp) Peak Daily Flow (Qp) = 5500.Step 1 Answer.d)× 55.Example 6 Calculate the Average Daily Flow (Q) and Peak Daily Flow (Qp) Assume Qp=3Q Average Daily Flow (Q) = 100 gal/(c.000 gal/d × 3 = 16500.000 persons Average Daily Flow (Q) = 5500.000 gal/d 59 .

2 × 6+ 35.2×8+ 9.mile. I I = infiltration rate × length× diameter I = 500 gal/(d.8×12 + 7.in I = 439.4×4 + 13.Step 2 Compute total Infiltration flow.4×18) mile.in) × (66.000 gal/d 60 .

0 % I/Qp = (439.000 gal/d)/ (5.000 gal/d ) ×100 I/Q = 8.300.500.000 gal/d ) ×100 I/Qp = 2.66 % 61 .000 gal/d)/ (16.Step 3 Compute percentages of infiltration to daily average and peak daily flows I/Q = (439.

62 . standard deviation and coefficient variation Based on the assumption that data are distributed normally. Commonly used statistical measures include the mean. mode. median.Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd: Statistical Analysis of Flow Rates Determination of statistical parameters used to quantify a series of measurements.

How to determine the type of Distribution? plotting the data on both arithmetic-probability and log-probability paper. Note whether the data can be fitted with a straight line or not. How to plot the Data? 63 .

Plotting of Data Arrange the measurements in a data set in order of increasing magnitude and assign a rank serial number. Compute a corresponding plotting position for each data point using following formula. 64 . Plotting position (%) = m/(n+1) × 100 Where m= rank serial number n= number of observations The plotting position represents the percent or frequency of observations that are equal or less than the indicated value.

The Resultant Table Rank Serial Number (m) Flow Rate 2000 2 3000 3 4 Continuing 1 Plotting Position % 3250 4000 n Number of Observations Prepared in Ascending Order of the Values (just set of example values) 65 .

66 .Log Scale Arithmetic-probability paper Arithmetic Scale Plot the data on arithmetic-probability and logprobability paper.

Log Scale Log-probability paper Log Scale 67 .

The probability scale is labeled “ percent of values equal to or less than the indicated value” If the data plotted on arithmetic probability paper and if the data set fit with a straight line then the data are assumed to be normally distributed Can calculate statistical measures Which include mean. standard deviation and coefficient variation IF NOT 68 . mode. median.

The implication here is that the logarithm of the observed values is normally distributed. i. Geometric Standard Deviation etc Scope : we are dealing with arithmeticprobability papers Only.e We are looking at Normally distributed data sets only. Have to go for the measures such as Geometric Mean. 69 .If the data is not fitting to a straight line (which is called as Skewness) the data is re-plotted on the logprobability paper.

70 .Example 7 Using the following weekly flow rate data obtained from an industrial discharger for a calendar quarter of operation. determine the statistical characteristics and predict the maximum weekly flow rate that will occur during a full year’s operation.

Example 7 Contd: 71 .

6 12 4015 85.3 3 3135 21.3 10 3770 71.0 8 3540 57.% 1 2900 7.9 7 3450 50.7 13 4080 92.7 6 3360 42.9 Plotting position (%) = m/(n+1) × 100 Where m= rank serial number n= number of observations 72 .4 4 3180 28.Answer. m3/wk Plotting position.4 11 3810 78.6 5 3265 35.Example 7 Set up the Data Analysis Table Rank Serial No.1 2 3040 14.1 9 3675 64. m Flow Rate.

Normal Distribution statistics can be applied. 73 .Answer. Data fall on a straight line Therefore.Example 7 • Plot the weekly flow rates expressed in m3/wk versus the plotting position.

360 3.Example 7 Cond: Determine the statistical characteristics of Data Set.084 191.649 88.265 3.804 45.924 784 3.844 38.900 3.369 13.372 74 .Setting up data analysis table to obtain the values needed to determine the statistical characteristics Flow Rate (? − ?)2 m3/wk ? ?−? 2.015 4.884 117.681.675 3.Answer.080 45.540 3.224 288.135 3.220 -578 -438 -343 -298 -213 -118 -28 62 197 292 332 537 602 334.264 110.770 3.450 3.404 1.810 4.180 3.369 362.040 3.809 85.

Answer.220 ?= 13 ? = 3478 ?3 /?? 75 .Example 7 Cond: Determine the statistical characteristics using the parameters given in The Table I . Mean ? ?= ? 45.

Answer. Median (The Middle Most Value ) Looking at the Table Median = 3450 m3/wk III .Example 7 Cond: II. Mode ???? = 3 ??? − 2? ???? = 3 3450 − 2478 ???? = 3394 ?3 /?? 76 .

3 ?3 /?? 12 77 .372 = 374. Standard Deviation ?= ?= (? − ?)2 ?−1 1681.Answer.Example 7 Cond: III .

8% 3478 78 .3 ?? = = 10.Example 7 Cond: III . Coefficient of Variation 100 ? ?? = ? 100 × 374.Answer.

Answer.Example 7 Cond: Determine the probable annual maximum weekly flow rate Determine the probability factor ? 52 ???? ???? = = = 0.981 ? + 1 52 + 1 Determine the flow rate from the graph obtained for the 98.1 percentile value Peak Weekly Flow Rate = 4500 m3/wk 79 .

• The reduction of wastewater flow rates from domestic sources results directly from the reduction in interior water use.Reduction of wastewater flow rates • Because of the importance of conserving both resources and energy. various means for reducing wastewater flow rates and pollutant loadings from domestic sources are gaining increasing attention. • Therefore. 80 . the terms " interior water use" and "domestic wastewater flow rates" are used interchangeably.

. • They reduce both the flow rate and splashing. but will reduce the amount of water needed for a thorough 81 rinsing. • Aerators will not reduce the amount of water needed to fill a sink or water jug.Flow Reduction Devices and Appliances Faucet aerators •Faucet aerators mix air and water as the water leaves the spout. This conserves water and improves faucet performance at the same time. while increasing areas of coverage and wetting efficiency.

• The greatest savings on kitchen and bathroom faucets comes
from proper operation. Do not leave the faucet running when
washing, shaving, brushing teeth, or washing dishes. This one
precaution can save five or 10 times the water of an efficient
faucet or aerator alone.


Low flush toilet

Pushing the handle on dual-flush
toilet down uses 1.6 gallons; pushing
it up uses just 1.1 gallons.

Limiting-flow shower heads
This device places restrictions on people
who linger too long in the shower by
drastically reducing flow when time's up.

Water efficient dishwasher

Reduces the water used


Water efficient clothes washer

Reduces the water used

86 .

87 .