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**in the AC Adapter Applications
**

Sungjin Choi, Taeil Kim and Bo. H. Cho

**School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University
**

San 56-1, Shillim-dong Gwanak-gu

Seoul, 151-742, Korea

zerotics@yahoo.co.kr

**lamp ballast case. However, it utilizes a very narrow inductive
**

region, which is highly dependent on the load impedance

variations, and thus, this scheme cannot be applied to wide

load range applications such as AC adapters.

Therefore, some PT primary circuits adopt additional

series inductors to achieve the ZVS condition and the

waveform shaping (Ls-type) [11]. The resonance formed by

the series inductor and the internal input capacitance of the PT.

However, a bulky series inductor has to be designed to provide

both the primary side current and the ZVS current. Thus, the

PT advantages of small size were inadvertently lost. Some

papers[8] have utilized half-bridge pseudo-resonant branches

to provide the soft-switching characteristics. This scheme has

been derived from the topological classification that has been

referred to as the zero-voltage-switching clamped-voltage

(ZVS-CV),partial-resonant, quasi-square wave, or the resonant

transition topologies [7].

In this paper, the pseudo-resonant (Cs-Lp type) halfbridge converter is adopted. In this circuit, the capacitance, Cs,

together with the parallel inductance, Lp, are considered to be

the parameters to be optimally designed so as to provide a

nearly sinusoidal waveform to the PT. By this design process,

reduced switching losses and efficient PT energy conversion

are obtained simultaneously in offline applications.

**Abstract---As a viable alternative to magnetic transformers in the
**

power supply for portable electronics, this paper presents a

miniaturized off-line travel adapter or charger for cellular

phones using the piezoelectric transformer. Various design

considerations in the design of ac PT adapters are investigated

before coming up with the proposed pseudo-resonant topology. A

prototype hardware design is also presented and verified by

simulations and experiments..

I. INTRODUCTION

As the piezoelectric transformer(PT) technology develops,

PTs may become a viable alternative to magnetic transformers

in various applications. Power supplies that employ PTs,

rather than the classical magnetic transformers[1,2], could be

made smaller in size. This paper presents a miniaturized offline travel battery charger for cellular phones using the

piezoelectric transformer as a main energy transferring

component in the ac-dc adapter[9].

The schematic diagram of a piezoelectric transformer

adapter is presented in Fig. 1. An inverter is used to drive the

PT whose driving frequency is determined by the PT’s

mechanical resonant frequency and the gain characteristic of

the PT.

Since the PT acts as a band-pass filter, only the fundamental frequency passes through the PT. The topology used

to drive the PT has to provide a low-harmonic-content ac

waveform, which is tuned to be near the PT mechanical resonant frequency (fm) in order to minimize the circulating energy

through the inherent input capacitance of the PTs. In addition,

the off-line application has a high voltage (~400V) DC link

and should provide a scheme to reduce the capacitive turn-on

losses due to the parasitic capacitance of the small packaged

high-voltage switch component (400V MOSFET in DPAK).

It was shown in [4,5] that by using specific characteristics of the PT with a half-bridge topology, ZVS could be

achieved without any additional elements. This scheme may

be useful when the load impedance is nearly fixed, as in the

Piezoelectric transformer

Bridge

rectifier

Inverter

Rectifier

+

Filter

ac line

220V

Control IC’s

(PFM+PWM)

Fig.1 A general arrangement of PT adapters

**This work was supported by the research program of MOCIE (Ministry of
**

Commerce, Industry and Energy) of Korea and done with Samhwa Yangheng

Co. Ltd.

0-7803-8975-1/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE.

244

Load

which provides a nearly sinusoidal voltage to the PT primary side. ω is the switching frequency of the circuit.2 The pseudo-resonant (Cs-Lp type) half bridge ac adapter using PT II. C eq ≈ C ds1 + C ds 2 + C d 1 where Vdc is the voltage rectified from the ac line. V po and I Lpo are initial values of the resonant period. Because the PT has a very high resonant quality factor. Thus the voltage waveform of the drain to source terminal is a quasi-square waveform. Lp. When the high-side switch is turned on at t=t1. The parameters Lm. Assuming that the current in the parallel inductor. and Cd1 and Cd2 are the capacitances of the primary and secondary electrodes. Equation (2) generates a piecewise sinusoidal voltage waveform which is applied to the PT. input current im(t) can be assumed to be pure sinusoidal and equal to Im at time t=0. In this section. This condition is achieved by using a parallel inductor.d1 Q2 + vo 2) During the Dead-time : Derivation of the ZVS condition To achieve a ZVS condition in the MOSFETs. Cm. When Cs is relatively large. Analysis of the pseudo-resonant half-bridge inverter A pseudo-resonant half-bridge PT driver is shown in Fig. iLp. The PT is represented by an equivalent series-parallel resonant circuit.3. The mode of operations and their corresponding waveforms are illustrated in Fig. C 678 V dc + vp Q1 Cs + Cd1 5 1 V dc 3 1 Q2 ZVS iLp sin[ωo (t − t1 )] . Td. D1 Lf1 Lm Cm Rm 1:N Cs + Lp v D p im Cd2 2 C Lf2 iLp . p C Q2 5 C Q1 Lp d1 _ 2 V dc where. A resonant inductor (Lp) is placed in parallel with the PT and a resonant capacitance (Cs) is placed between the switch leg and the PT.2. detailed analysis and the derivation of the design equation is performed. the resonant voltage. Td is the dead-time period. the PT 1) During the switch ON/OFF : Resonant PT input waveforms During the MOSFET switch on or off stage. respectively. there should be a sufficient current to transit the voltage on the drain-to-source capacitor before the next gate pulse is applied.PT Q1 Cbulk AC Line Therefore a low-harmonic-content waveform is used to drive the PT. is constant during the short transition time. can be approximated by the fundamental harmonic of magnitude of Vpm given by T sin(π d ) ⎛2⎞ T (4) V pm ≈ V dc ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ Td ⎝π ⎠ π T Here it is assumed that the switching frequency of the converter is near the resonant frequency of the PT. Cs. the minimum required current (Ireq) is given by. Cd1 is the PT primary electrode capacitance. ωo = Q1 vds2 1 iLp (t ) = − K ⋅ cos[ω (t − t1 )] + ( I Lpo − K ) cos[ωo (t − t1 )] + Q2 Cd1 + vp _ . The gate drive waveform contains a sufficient deadtime for the ZVS condition. the primary voltage of the PT and the parallel inductor current are given by v p (t ) = Kω ⋅ sin[ω (t − t1 )] + V po ⋅ cos[ωo (t − t1 )] [ ] − Z o ( I Lpo + I m ) + Kω ⋅ sin[ωo (t − t1 )] A= V po Zo Im ω 1− ( o )2 ω L p (Cs + Cd1 ) . Lp. Zo = ZVS Q1 vp 1 2 3 4 (2) Q 2 Cs Lp Q Lp = 4 s L Q2 6 Cd1 s Lp Q2 Cd1 + vp _ Q p Cd1 2 + vp _ Q1 Cs V dc Lp Q2 Fig. resonates with the parallel inductance. then im (t ) = I m cos(ω t ) (1) where. the waveforms are similar to (2). Rm represent the mechanical behavior of the PT. respectively[9]. the series capacitance. and Cds1 and Cds2 are the parasitic capacitances of Q1 and Q2. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND DESIGN OF THE HALF-BRIDGE PT ADAPTER A.3 Waveforms and operation modes of the PT driving circuit 245 p _ 1 L = 8 + v Cd1 Cs Q _ 7 C s V dc + vp Q1 V dc When the low-side switch is turned on. vp(t). V I req = C eq dc Td (3) Cf RL - Fig. their parasitic capacitances should be fully charged or discharged during the gate dead-time. Thus.

4 1. are charged alternately providing nearly half of the output current and can be implemented with lowprofile surface mount (SMD) type inductors. the minimum driving frequency of the adapter circuit is determined.15 1.1 1.6 n i a G 0.5. Piezoelectric transformer Figure 4 shows the structure of the 5W multi-layered PT sample used in this paper. and RL is the load resistance.15 1. Thus the effective ripple current on the output filter capacitor is reduced. (Rubicon) • MOSFET : FQD2N40/FQD2P40 (400V/1A DPAK Coss:40pF@400V.23. From (3) and (5).25 1. Among various voltage-driven-type rectifier topologies. Therefore. Lf1 and Lf2.8 Req=25ohms Req=50ohms Req=100ohms Req=250ohms 0. VF is the output diode forward voltage drop.5A SMD (TDK) • Output capacitor : 220uF/10V SMD Tantal (Hitachi) B. Fairchild) • Resonant tank : Cs=3. Output filter Control stage consists of : • Controller : TL494 with external VCO circuit • Frequency control range : 131kHz<f<140kHz (above resonant frequency) • Opto-isolator : PC817 • Output regulator : TL431 246 . respectively. input current will cross zero during the dead-time.4 1.4 0. because the input voltage and current waveforms have the same phase[3].3 1.4 Physical layout of the PT sample used in this paper C.2 1.1 1.5 5 x 10 200 e e r g e d e s a h P 100 0 -100 -200 1.7uF Electrolytic.3 1. 0. Cm =37. frequency with variable load resistance III. an inductance value for the ZVS is derived.25 1. From (7). Vo is the output dc voltage. The maximum Lp should be designed to be T sin( 2π d ) ⎛2⎞ T ⋅ Td ⋅ T Lp ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ (6) T 2π ⋅ C eq π ⎝ ⎠ 2π d T HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS A prototype 5W adapter / Li-ion battery charger for the cellular phones is designed and constructed as in Fig.35 Frequency Hz 1.45 1.2 1.0 [pF]. The specifications of the target system are : • AC input voltage : 220 ± 10 % [Vrms] • Line frequency : 60 Hz • Regulated output voltage : 5 V • Maximum output current : 1 A Power stage components are : • Bridge rectifier : MB4S (GE) • Bulk capacitor : 400V 4. and can be approximated by V pm T I Lpo = ⋅ cos(π d ) T 2π ⋅ f ⋅ L T (5) sin( 2π d ) ⎛2⎞ T ⋅ V dc =⎜ ⎟⋅ T 2π ⋅ f ⋅ L ⎝π ⎠ 2π d T where T=1/f is the switching period.2nF(1kV ceramic).45 1. Req. Lp=2.9[mH]. Lm=40.) • Output inductor : 100uH/0.7mH(Axial φ7) • Piezo Transformer : PZT #4A-1 (Dong-il Tech. The primary and the secondary electrode are placed on the inner and outer section of the PT. the inductor current in the beginning of the dead-time region determines the ZVS operation. which will reduce the output filter size.6[Ω]. The PT gain curve is derived as in Fig. To calculate the voltage conversion ratio of the PT. 6. Cd2=13. a current-doubler is adopted because only half of the output current is processed in each output inductor. This can be assumed to be a pure resistor.2 are as follows: Cd1=331[pF]. Its mechanical resonant frequency is about 130kHz. N=0.35 1.5 PT gain curves vs. the input impedance of the output rectifier stage must be derived. The measured parameter values for the equivalent circuit in Fig.5 5 x 10 Fig.inductors. Auxiliary electrode Prim ary electrode Secondary electrode Fig. From the gain curve. Rm=34. Analysis of current-doubler output rectifier stage The generated charges on the output electrode caused by a mechanical vibration of the PT performs as a sinusoidal voltage source. the equivalent resistance of the output rectified stage is obtained and is used for the gain calculation of the PT. with a variable load resistance of the PT. Req is obtained as V π2 (7) (1 + F ) 2 R L Req = 2 Vo where.5[nF].2 0 1. By using a first-order harmonic approximation and some calculations.

10 Efficiency of the PT vs line ( Maximum load condition) 247 .8 Hardware waveforms (ch1: low side gate.0 Charging Unit CS (b) Vac=242 [Vrms] Vo[V] MOSFETs 6. ch3: PT primary voltage ) 15. ch2: drain-to-source voltage ch3: PT primary voltage.0 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 ac line voltage [Vrms] Fig.00 5.50 V AC[V] 4. Figure 9 and 10 show the performance of the hardware system.50 45.5 Control Circuitry 5. With the proposed resonant driving method.0 81.5 efficiency[%] 83. Low-profile AC Adapter/Charger using the PT 6.0 Conventional Design Proposed Design 83. increase of PT operating efficiency of 1~2% was obtained.50 5. ch4: output voltage ) 84.(a) Circuit Configuration (a) Vac=198 [Vrms] 43.00 4.0 Figure 7 and 8 show the PT driving circuit waveforms in the two extreme input conditions. As predicted from the analysis.5 81.6 8 10 20 40 RL [Ω] (b) load regulation Fig. and the PT input waveform is nearly sinusoidal.00 5 6.7 Simulation waveforms (ch1: low side gate. (b) Photograph of the 5W prototype hardware [unit : mm] 226 233 240 248 255 (a) line regulation Vo[V] Fig. the drain-to-source voltage is a trapezoidal shape which accomplishes a ZVS operation successfully.00 191 198 205 212 219 Bulk Piezoelectric LP Capacitor Trans.00 5. ch2: drain-to-source voltage.5 82.9 Output characteristics (a) Vac=198 [Vrms] (b) Vac=242 [Vrms] Fig.00 4.9 Fig. 6. 82.50 4.

M. On Power Elec. Zaitsu. The proposed topology provides a nearly sinusoidal voltage on the primary side of the PT to reduce the circulating energy utilizing a partial resonance during the dead-time. pp. vol.3. 309-314 [5] S. O. O. “Inductor-less Piezoelectric Transformer Ballast for Linear Fluorescent Lamps. ”Design and Analysis of Piezoelectric Transformer Converters. 2000. No. C.585 . Baker and D.585 . 2000.” IECON '94.3043 [3] L.” IEEE Trans. M.572 [11] T. Y. F. Iwamoto. L. 1992.1669 [8] T. Kustera. T. vol. Lin. A design of the ac piezo-adapter using the above topology is also presented and verified by simulations and experiments. “Switch mode power supply adapters for portable applications”. pp. Okabe.” IEEE APEC '97. Y. pp.590 [6] C. Ohnishi.3. pp. Y. CONCLUSION This paper presents a pseudo-resonant topology which is suitable for the off-line piezo-adapter.174-182 [4] R. ”2 MHz power converter with piezoelectric ceramic transformer”. Shoyama. T. Yamane. S. A. M. Ninomiya.” Ph. Katsuno. April 1988. Fuda. June 1994. M. Virginia Tech. G. pp. C. ”Cell-phone battery charger miniaturization”. Lee. Hua. REFERENCES [1] R.. Y. Oct. S.. Minomiya.D Dissertation. Zaitsu.430 – 437 [10] T. 1255-1261 248 . Lin. The resonance characteristics provide additional gain of the inverter which eases the PT voltage gain design. Ninomiya. the parallel inductor branch also provides a ZVS condition to both of the main switch pairs.Steigerwald. T. F. Hamamura. Inoue. ” New piezoelectric transformer converter for AC-adapter. ”Efficiency improvement of piezoelectric-transformer DC-DC converter. T. A. T. Sabate.2.” CPES Power Electronics Seminar Proceedings. pp. Chen. T. Zaitsu. pp. M. vol. Shoyama.IV. Fuda. Zaitsu. vol.2. Industry Applications Conference. Portable by Design. Inoue. T.1665 . During the gate dead-time. Shoyama. ” Zerovoltage-switching techniques and their application to high-frequency converter with piezoelectric transformer. INTELEC '92. D.568 . July 1997 [7] T. Ohnishi.Ben-Yaakov.” IEEE PESC 98.2. Inoue. C. “Design considerations for achieving ZVS in a half bridge inverter that drives a piezoelectric transformer with no series inductor. Ninomiya.” IEEE PESC’02 . Frizzell. pp. Zaitsu. Sridhar. March 2427. E. “A comparison of Half-Bridge Resonant Converters. T. Hamamura. Vol.1. vol.589 [9] T. and S. and S.2.pp.” IEEE PESC '94 Record.3036 . 1997 [2] J. “Piezoelectric transformer operating in thickness extensional vibration and its application to switching converter. Y.Bronstein. Lee.

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