Resistance Temperature Detector

Prof.G.Aarthi, SENSE,EEM

Introduction to Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
 An RTD is a temperature detector based upon a variation in electric


 Resistance-temperature detectors, or resistance thermometers, employ a

sensitive element of extremely pure platinum, copper, or nickel that
provides definite resistance value at each temperature within its range.

 The commonest metal for RTD is platinum, hence sometimes designated as
PRT (platinum resistance thermometer)

Prof.G.Aarthi, SENSE,EEM

Molybdenum etc.G.EEM .  RTDs are made up of Platinum.  But a metal is densely packed material. the electrons in the valence bands are free to move.Introduction to Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)  RTD is a positive temperature coefficient device which means that its resistance increases with temperature.  This makes the resistance of a metal to increase with the increase in temperature.Aarthi. Nickel. Prof. Also conduction and valence band are overlapped. SENSE. Copper.  When temperature of a metal increases.

Aarthi.G.Prof. SENSE.EEM .

G.EEM . SENSE.Aarthi.Line L represents a linear approximation of resistance versus temperature between T1and T2 Prof.

T1 and T2. SENSE.EEM .Aarthi.G.A straight line has been drawn between the points of the curve that represent temperature. and T0 represent the midpoint temperature. Prof.

SENSE.RTDs-Principle of Working Prof.Aarthi.EEM .G.

G.Aarthi.EEM . SENSE.Prof.

Aarthi. R2  R1   R (To )(T2  T1 ) TCR decreases for increasing temperature.G. α= 0.00389 (Ω/Ω)/K-TCR of Platinum at 00C Prof.EEM .Fundamentals of RTDs-Dynamic Model  TCR can be calculated from the resistance measured at two reference temperatures . SENSE.

SENSE.EEM .G.Aarthi.Example Prof.

G.EEM .Example Solution Prof.Aarthi. SENSE.

G.EEM .More accurate representation of R-T curve over some span of temperatures Prof.Aarthi. SENSE.

G.Aarthi. SENSE.R(T) = quadratic approximation of resistance at temperature T R(T0) = resistance at temperature T0 α1 = linear fractional change in resistance with temperature α2 = quadratic fractional change in resistance with temperature ΔT = T .T0 Prof.EEM .

Aarthi. Prof. between 60O and 90O F. SENSE.Example Find the quadratic approximation of resistance versus temperature for the same data as the already given problem.G.EEM .

Aarthi.Prof.G. SENSE.EEM .

EEM . SENSE.Aarthi.G.Types of RTDS and their specifications Prof.

Aarthi.Temperature range of RTDs Temperature range of RTD depends on the material used • Platinum (in oC)= -200 to +850 • Copper (in oC)= -200 to +260 • Nickel (in oC)=-80 to +320 • Molybdenum (in oC)=-200 to +200 Prof.G. SENSE.EEM .

SENSE. • In the industrial RTD’s.G.EEM ..Aarthi.Construction of RTD • The construction is typically such that the wire is wound on a form (in a coil) on notched mica cross frame to achieve small size. the coil is protected by a stainless steel sheath or a protective tube. improving the thermal conductivity to decrease the response time and a high rate of heat transfer is obtained. Prof.

Prof.G.Aarthi. SENSE.EEM .

Aarthi.G.EEM .Prof. SENSE.

 RTDs use low-cost copper connections compared to thermocouples and hence these are cheaper than thermocouples.  Less expensive in the case of Copper or Nickel based RTDs.Aarthi.Principal advantages of RTDs  Platinum RTDs are highly sensitive (ten times that of thermocouples) but among Pt. Long term stability and high accuracy.Ni RTD has highest sensitivity and Pt RTD has lowest sensitivity. Cu and Ni RTDs .EEM .  They have high repeatability. SENSE.G. Prof.

EEM . in domestic appliances (Ovens).Applications of RTD • Thin film platinum probes are extensively used to control thermal processes in chemical industry. Prof. in automobiles. SENSE. • Platinum temperature probes are also used to measure fluid velocity in the hot wire anemometer. and buildings (Central heating systems).G. • For temperature and humidity compensation.Aarthi.

EEM . SENSE.G.Prof.Aarthi.