Suryakanta | July 6, 2015 | Aggregate, Materials, Tests On Aggregate | 3 Comments

Aggregates influence the properties of concrete/mortar such as water requirement, cohesiveness
and workability of the concrete in plastic stage, while they influence strength, density, durability,
permeability, surface finish and colour in hardened stage.

The surface moisture in the aggregate, influences the water cement ratio, strength and durability
of the mix. To determine the surface moisture of moist or wet aggregate, method is as follows-

The following apparatus are required:

A frying pan or metal tray,

Gas stove or an electric hair dryer,

A metal or glass stirring rod and

Scales to measures.

The following procedure is followed during the test

For coarse aggregate 2 kg sample is adequate and for fine aggregate 0.5 kg sample is


The wet/moist sample is then weighed wet weight (W)


Heated very gently on the frying pan or metal plate and stirred with a glass or metallic rod
to maintain uniform distribution of heat, until the sheen disappears from the surface. The
fine aggregates become surface dry when it just starts showing free flowing characteristics.


The aggregates is then cooled and reweighed. The surface dry aggregate weight (Wsd) is
noted. The surface moisture is then calculated as follows-

Surface moisture = [(W – Wsd) / Wsd] x 100%

Overheating must be avoided, as it will not give the correct surface moisture.

2. If heating is continued either on the fry pan or in the oven till the aggregate is bone dryaggregate weight is then noted (Wbd) after continuous heating. it should not be used for crushed rock sand. The absorption (absorbed water content) is then calculated as follows- Absorption = [(Wsd – Wbd) / Wbd] x 100% Similarly. SILT CONTENT TEST FOR SAND Silt content test The permissible silt content in sand (fine aggregate) must not exceed the values as specified in the standards. The apparatus required for this test is only 250 ml glass measuring cylinder. The silt content determination by volume is done in the following manner: . if the dry aggregates are received on site and absorption capacity is to be determined then the aggregates are first soaked in water and then the above methods are deployed to determine the absorption capacity of aggregates. However.6. this method can only be used for natural sand.

6. The silt content can be calculated as follows: Silt (%) by volume = [(Thickness of silt layer/ Height of sand + Silt) x 100 %] If silt content by weight exceeds 3% then washing of sand is necessary. 5. Wait for three hours for silt to settle on top of sand. The sand is filled. Care should be taken that sand does not overflow during the flooding and compaction. 2. 7. 4. Add sand until the level of the sand is upto 100 ml mark. 3. Measure the thickness of the silt layer and the height of the sand. The bulking test is done as follows: 1. 3. Bulked sand occupies more volume and hence if volumetric measuring is done while proportioning it. Add further salt-water solution till 150 ml mark is reached. a co-relation can be developed for silt layer thicknesses at various intervals of time. 4. Place the palm on the mouth of the glass cylinder and shake it vigorously. Place the cylinder on hard levelled surface and tap it all round so that sand is leveled. the water coating on the surface of each sand particle causes separation of particles from one another due to surface tension. BULKING OF SAND When sand is damp. This causes sand to bulk. The bulking will vary from load to load and day to day depending on the fineness of sand and its surface moisture content. The box is then flooded with water and rodding is done to make the sand settle and consolidate. 3. The glass cylinder is filled with salt-water solution (concentration of the solution will teaspoon full of common salt for every 570 ml) upto 50 ml mark. in loose condition in a box of measured height (H cm). bulking correction is necessary. The sand is then leveled in the box and the drop in height is measured (h cm). Bulking is calculated as: Bulking % = h/H x 100% Dry sand occupies the same volume as fully saturated sand. The silt content at 10 minutes can be fixed as inspection criteria. It is . 2. After conducting few tests.1.

e. Shake vigorously the sieve set for at least 2 minute.5 kg) 2. Take required amount of aggregate sample (for coarse aggregate take apprx. Moisture contents %age by wt. Bulking % by volume 2 15 3 20 4 25 5 30 4. SIEVE ANALYSIS Sieve analysis is done to check the gradation of aggregate. very essential to make bulking corrections by checking the actual bulking of sand proposed to be used by volumetric batching for mortar or concrete. keep the sieve having largest size opening at the top and the smallest size opening at the bottom) 3. . Grading limit of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate is given below for reference. The test is done as follow. 1.there-fore.5 kg and for fine aggregate take 0. (i. 4. Then measure the weight of aggregate on each sieve and express it as the percentage of passing. Now compare these values with the recommended values to know whether it falls within the range or not. Arrange the required no of sieves as per the contract or job requirement in an descending manner. If not falling within the desired gradation then take necessary action. 2.

1. 5.18 mm. Sieve the aggregate using the appropriate sieves (80 mm. Record the weight of aggregate retained on each sieve. 4.Grading Limit of Coarse Aggregate Grading Limit of Fine Aggregate This test is done initially for concrete mix design and later conducted periodically for mix proportion adjustments if it is suspected that the grading of aggregates has changed considerably. FINENESS MODULUS Fineness modulus is generally used to get an idea of how coarse or fine the aggregate is. 40 mm. More fineness modulus value indicates that the aggregate is coarser and small value of fineness modulus indicates that the aggregate is finer. 2.36 mm.75 mm. 600 micron. 300 micron & 150 micron) 2. . 1. 10 mm. 20 mm.

Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate retained.6 to 2.3. 5. Add the cumulative weight of aggregate retained and divide the sum by 100. This value is termed as fineness modulus Compare the test value with the values given in the following table and you can get an idea about how coarse or fine the sand is.6 to 2. Type of Sand Fineness Modulus Value Very fine sand Below 2.2 Fine sand 2. Only sand between FM 2.2 .2 to 2.9 Coarse sand 2.9 to 3.2 Very coarse sand Above 3.6 Medium sand 2.9 is considered suitable for nominal mix proportion. 4. Calculate the cumulative weight of aggregate retained on each sieve.