11/22/2014

1
DR.A.M.SURENDRA KUMAR

INTRODUCTION

The major drawback of the vapour compression refrigeration
system is that it requires large volume of refrigerant vapour
which requires large mechanical power for its operation.

If some

methods are used to reduce this volume before

compression, there would be considerable reduction in weight
of the system and power requirement for its operation.

Heat energy can be used instead of work for producing
refrigeration because it gives high COP of the system with
machine operated with supply of work energy.

 Nowadays. units are developed upto 1500 tons capacity.  A French Scientist Ferdinand Cane developed the first absorption refrigeration machine in early 1860. the compressor is replaced by an absorber.  The units which are generally used for air conditioning purposes are available from 100 tons capacity . generator and a pump. .  In the absorption system. The absorption system differs fundamentally from vapour compression system only in the method of employed for compressing the refrigerant.

 This idea for the working principle of a vapour absorption system was generated by Michael Faraday in 1824.  He knew that silver chloride (AgCl)m a white powder . . had a property of absorbing large amount of ammonia gas at the normal temperature and pressure.PRINCIPLE OF ABSORPTIN SYSTEM  There is the peculiar property of some substances to have affinity for another substances at some temperature and pressure conditions and less affinity at another conditions.

.

. After stopping heat.  The powder was heated up while other end was cooled using circulating water.  Liquid ammonia was obtained in the cool end of the apparatus.  He repeated the experiments and cooling was observed again.  Upon touching the boiling end . it was astonished to find that the vessel was very cold.  This led to invention of the intermittent Vapour absorption system having solid as an absorber. it was observed that.  The white powder was kept inside the first chamber to which ammonia gas was supplied and sealed. started boiling( bubbles produced) and vapour was reabsorbed by the white powder. Two chambers are combined with the help of a tube. the liquid ammonia instead of sitting there.

REFRIGERANT –ABSORBER PAIRS REFRIGERANT ABSORBER STATE OF ABSORBER AMMONIA WATER LIQUID AMMONIA SODIUMTHIOCYNATE SOLID AMMONIA LITHIUM NITRATE SOLID AMMONIA CALCIUM CHLORIDE SOLID AMMONIA ISOBUTANE SOLID WATER LITHIUM BROMIDE SOLID WATER LITHIUM CHLORIDE SOLID METHYL CHLORIDE DIMETHYL ETHER OF TETRA ETHYLENE GLYCOL LIQUID .

SIMPLE ABSORPTION SYSTEM .

.

.

 The basic absorption cycle employs two fluids.  The added heat causes the refrigerant to desorbs from the absorbent and vaporize. and the absorbent. hot water or hot gases.  The most commonly fluids are Water/Ammonia as the refrigerant and lithium bromide/ water as the absorbent.  These fluids are separated and recombined in the absorption cycle. . steam. the absorbate or refrigerant..  Heat is added at the high-pressure generator from a gas burner. In the absorption cycle the low-pressure refrigerant vapor is absorbed into the absorbent releasing a large amount of heat.  The liquid refrigerant/absorbent solution is pumped to a high-operating pressure generator using significantly less electricity than that for compressing the refrigerant for an electric chiller.

and then is recombined with the low-pressure refrigerant vapors returning from the evaporator so the cycle can be repeated. where heat is rejected and condense to a high-pressure liquid. The remaining liquid absorbent. where its pressure is reduced.The vapors flow to a condenser. . in the generator passes through a valve. The liquid is then throttled though an expansion valve to the lower pressure in the evaporator where it evaporates by absorbing heat and provides useful cooling.

The most widely used absorption refrigeration system is the ammonia-water system.Absorption Refrigeration Systems Another form of refrigeration that becomes economically attractive when there is a source of inexpensive heat energy at a temperature of 100 to 200oC is absorption refrigeration.in Qgen . The work input to the pump is usually very small. and the COP of absorption refriger-ation systems is defined as Desired output Cooling effect QL QL COPR     Required input Work input Qgen  Wpump . where the refrigerant is absorbed by a transport medium and compressed in liquid form. where am-monia serves as the refrigerant and water as the transport medium.

AMMONIA-WATER ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM .

.

In this. Tg. The aqua ammonia (ammonia+Water) from the absorber at temperature. The liquid ammonia is throttled to the evaporator pressure where heat transfer from cold chamber causes vaporization of the refrigerant. . Ammonia is used as Refrigerant and Water as an Absorber. the ammonia vapour condense in a heat exchanger at a temperature. On the other hand. V. The weak aqua solution returns back to the absorber through a properly adjusted expansion valve. The heat transfer to the Generator leads to the separation of ammonia vapour from aqua ammonia leaving behind the weak aqua solution. Ta is pumped into the generator at temperature. Ta.

.

ACTUAL AMMONIA-WATER ABSORPTION SYSTEM .

.

.

ELECTROLUX REFRIGERATOR .

.

.

LITHIUM.BROMIDE WATER VAPOUR ABSORPTION SYSTEM .

.

.

Animation of a Direct-Fired Double-Effect Absorpton Chiller Department of Energy. .

.

.  Absorption unit can be built in capacities well above 1000 tons  Space requirement is less.  The pump motor is quite small compared with the compressor motor. the operation is essentially quiet and subjected to a very little wear.Advantages over Vapour compression system  As there is no moving parts in the entire system. where electric power is hard to obtain.  Vapour absorption system is used the thermal energy. they can be used in places. so that the maintenance cost is low.