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**STRUCTURES WITH LATTICE SKINS
**

Uma Maheshwaraa and Carolyn Conner Seepersad

Mechanical Engineering Department

The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712

Abstract

Purpose: Solid freeform fabrication is particularly suitable for fabricating customized parts,

but it has not been used for fabricating deployable structures that can be stored in a compact

configuration and deployed quickly and easily in the field. In previous work, lattice structures

have been established as a feasible means of deploying parts. Before fabricating the parts with a

selective laser sintering (SLS) machine and Duraform® Flex material, lattice sub-skins are added

strategically beneath the surface of the part. The lattice structure provides elastic energy for

folding and deploying the structure and constrains expansion upon application of internal air

pressure. In this paper, a procedure is presented for optimizing the lattice skin topology for

improved overall performance of the structure, measured in terms of deviation from desired

surface profile.

Design/methodology/approach: A ground structure-based topology optimization procedure

is utilized, with a penalization scheme that encourages convergence to sets of thick lattice

elements that are manufacturable and extremely thin lattice elements that are removed from the

final structure.

Findings: A deployable wing is designed for a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle. A

physical prototype of the optimal configuration is fabricated with SLS and compared with the

virtual prototype. The proposed methodology results in a 78% improvement in deviations from

the intended surface profile of the deployed part.

Originality/value: The results provide proof-of-concept for the use of lattice skins as a

deployment mechanism. A topology optimization framework is also provided for designing

these lattice skins. Potential applications include portable, camouflaged shelters and deployable

aerial vehicles.

**Key Words: deployable structures, topology optimization, lattice structures, solid freeform
**

fabrication, selective laser sintering

1

1. Introduction

Deployable structures can be transformed from a compact configuration to a predetermined,

expanded form for full functionality (Gantes, 2001;Pellegrino, 2001). Deployment mechanisms

include pneumatic arches, membranes, pantographs, and tensegrity structures, as found in

applications ranging from common umbrellas to temporary shelters to expandable satellite

booms for solar arrays or antennas (Gantes, 2001;Pellegrino, 2001).

Collectively, these

**deployment mechanisms often restrict the geometry of a deployed structure to symmetric,
**

polygonal, or spherical shapes and make it difficult to rapidly customize the geometry and

functionality of the device.

**To overcome these limitations, lattice skins have been introduced as a deployment mechanism,
**

along with an accompanying solid freeform fabrication approach for realizing them. The design

and freeform fabrication process is illustrated in Figure 1. Beginning with a part of arbitrary

surface profile and hollow interior, lattice sub-skins are added beneath the surface of the

structure, as illustrated in Step 1. As illustrated in Figure 2, two types of lattice skins can be

applied. Open lattice skins are truss-like structures that provide direct reinforcement of the

surface of a part. Closed lattice structures connect the surface of a part to a concentric, inner

skin. When air pressure is applied between the concentric skins, the closed lattice structures

constrain expansion to maintain the desired surface profile of the part. In Step 2, the lattice

structure is optimized with a topology optimization procedure described in detail in Section 2. If

the part is larger than the build chamber, it is decomposed in Step 3 and fabricated as a collection

of parts that are subsequently joined together. In Step 4, the part is fabricated using selective

laser sintering (SLS) technology and a flexible, elastomer material called Duraform® FLEX.

Processed parts are infiltrated with polyurethane to make the structures air-tight, and parts are

assembled and joined in Step 5. The flexible structure can be folded in Step 6 for ease of storage

and transport and then deployed in the field via a combination of elastic strain energy and

pneumatics in Step 7. In this process, the lattice structure serves several functions. First, during

the folding step, it stores strain energy that can be returned upon unfolding to help deploy the

structure into its original configuration. Second, in its deployed form, the lattice structure

supports the surface of the flexible part to prevent collapse and distortion of the desired surfaces.

2

**Finally, if elastic energy is insufficient for deploying a large structure under its own weight, air
**

pressure is applied inside the structure, and the lattice skin constrains the expansion of the

structure to prevent balloon-like inflation and preserve desired surface profiles. If desired,

thermoset polymers or other coatings can be applied to the deployed part to rigidize it in Step 8.

[INSERT FIGURE 1.]

[INSERT FIGURE 2.]

**Lattice structure deployment mechanisms offer a number of advantages, relative to conventional
**

deployment mechanisms.

They provide shape control of relatively arbitrary, freeform

geometries; occupy very little space in the build chamber; and do not require small-scale pivots

or joints that can be difficult to fabricate and energy-intensive to deploy.

They offer a

**combination of low relative density and high effective stiffness (a common characteristic of
**

cellular or honeycomb materials (Gibson and Ashby, 1997)), providing high levels of rigidity for

controlling deployment of a part without significantly impacting its relative density for collapsed

storage and transport.

The lattice skin can be used for multifunctional purposes, such as

convective cooling when filled with air or blast protection when filled with earth, foam, or other

materials. Finally, lattice skins are conducive to portable deployment, requiring only a portable

air pump, rather than energy-intensive erection equipment or motors.

**The use of lattice structures for deployment is unique to this research effort, with prior
**

applications of lattice, cellular, or honeycomb materials focused primarily on lightweight

strength and stiffness, energy absorption, and heat transfer (e.g., (Gibson and Ashby, 1997;Evans

et al., 2001;Hayes et al., 2004;Seepersad et al., 2004;Wang et al., 2006)) or on solid freeform

fabrication techniques for those applications (Zimbeck and Rice, 1999;Gervasi and Stahl,

2004;Oruganti et al., 2004;Stampfl et al., 2004;Brooks et al., 2005;Rosen, 2007;Williams and

Rosen, 2007). In previous work by the authors, feasibility studies of lattice skin deployment have

been conducted, and promising results have been reported (Maheshwaraa, 2007;Maheshwaraa et

al., 2007). In this work, the focus is on topology design optimization of inflatable closed lattice

skins for improved surface precision of deployed structures. A ground structure-based topology

optimization approach is presented as a means of formalizing Steps 1 and 2 of the methodology

3

**in Figure 1. The approach is applied to the design of inflatable closed lattice structures for a
**

UAV application.

2. Topology Optimization of Lattice Structures for Deployment

**One of the most influential steps in the methodology for lattice skin deployment (Figure 1) is the
**

design of the lattice structure (Step 2). Previous investigations have shown that the dimensions

and arrangement of the lattice structure have a significant impact on the overall surface profile of

the deployed part (Maheshwaraa et al., 2007). In fact, for a representative airfoil part, strategic

adjustments of the thicknesses and configuration of the closed lattice structure resulted in a 70%

reduction in deviations from the part’s intended surface profile (Maheshwaraa et al., 2007).

Since the dimensions and configuration of the lattice structure have such a significant impact on

the surface profile of the deployed part, a formal topology design procedure has been devised for

systematically designing the lattice structure. The topology design procedure is illustrated in

Figures 3 and 4.

[INSERT FIGURE 3.]

[INSERT FIGURE 4.]

**2.1 Finite Element Analysis for Topology Design
**

As shown in Figure 3, the topology design procedure begins with a CAD file of the part. For a

closed lattice configuration, a concentric skin is added beneath the surface of the part, as

illustrated in the bottom left of Figure 3. The two skins are connected with a dense grid of lattice

elements. From this CAD model, a finite element model is created in ANSYS (2006). The

concentric skins are modeled with two-dimensional quadratic (8-node) elements (PLANE183)

for the two-dimensional cross sections investigated in this paper. The lattice elements are

modeled with beam elements (BEAM3), with nodes located at intersections of lattice elements

and at interfaces between lattice elements and concentric skins. The density of the material is

used to simulate the body weight of the structure in the finite element model, and internal

(gauge) pressure is applied to simulate pneumatic inflation in the space between the concentric

skins, as illustrated in Figure 4. Additional loading profiles and displacement constraints are

4

density of 486 kg/m3. where surface deviation is measured as the displacement of any node on the predicted profile of the deployed part relative to its position in the intended profile of the deployed part. iSIGHT adjusts the in-plane thickness of each lattice element by updating its associated variable in the APDL file. Preliminary work has verified the accuracy of this ANSYS-based finite element model for predicting the structural behavior of Duraform® FLEX in lattice skin applications (Maheshwaraa et al. a scripting language that allows the user to automate tasks and build a model in terms of parametric variables (2006). and material properties for Duraform® FLEX are applied as follows: tensile modulus of 3..applied. a separate variable governs the in-plane thickness of each lattice element. and then reading the ANSYS output file to assess the impact of the change on the surface deviation of the part. Specifically. Specifically. followed by a gradient-based. 5 . The finite element model of the lattice structure is created using an APDL file. The dimensions of the inner and outer concentric skins are not adjusted by the optimization algorithm. the model is useful for predicting the surface deviation of the deployed part. which is iteratively adjusted and re-executed during the optimization process.1 The APDL file is interfaced with iSIGHT design exploration software (2005). deployed profile. sequential quadratic programming algorithm for further refining the best structure identified by the genetic algorithm. for each iteration of its optimization algorithm. executing the APDL file in ANSYS. APDL is the ANSYS Parametric Design Language. Large deformation analysis capabilities are activated in the ANSYS finite element model. as appropriate for specific applications. In the APDL file. 2007). and poisson ratio of 0. The optimization process in iSIGHT proceeds in two stages: a genetic algorithm to explore the nonlinear design space. iSIGHT executes an optimization algorithm to iteratively adjust the dimensions of the lattice elements. as a means of minimizing the deviation of the outer surface of the part from its intended. 1 The intersections of crossed lattice elements are accommodated by dividing each of the two intersecting elements into two BEAM3 elements with coupled in-plane thicknesses. which couples the analysis with an optimization algorithm.45.8 MPa.

the lattice structure is modeled as a ground structure.. Elements with in-plane 2 All elements are assigned a unit depth in the out-of-plane direction. A constraint is placed on volume fraction. tmax. and a variable in-plane thickness. thereby minimizing the surface deviation from the desired surface profile.2 Ground Structure-Based Topology Design with Penalty Functions The goal of the design effort is to tailor not only the dimensions but also the topology of the lattice structure to achieve the intended deployed surface profile as closely as possible. Equation (1) in Figure 4). The design variables are adjusted to minimize the maximum displacement. defined as the fraction of the maximum possible in-plane area. ti. as illustrated on the right side of Figure 4. 6 . 1989. 3 A stress constraint could also be added to the problem formulation. of each element. and the maximum allowable in-plane thickness of a lattice element. each finite element is assigned a constant length. the lattice element scaling factors and corresponding thicknesses vary between large upper bounds (3 cm for tmax.2 The optimization algorithm adjusts the thickness of each element indirectly by varying the scaling factor. (Topping.0001tmax.3 Under the restriction of the volume fraction constraint. Amax. After the optimization algorithm converges.Ohsaki and Swan. according to Equation (3) in Figure 4. occupied by lattice elements with uniformly maximum thickness (cf. v. of any node on the outer surface of the part relative to its intended position. li. ti. 1984. In keeping with the ground structure approach. δ. The density of the ground structure is selected by the practitioner to provide a network of candidate lattice elements that is sufficiently dense to significantly improve the surface deviation of the part. As shown on the right side of Figure 4. In the ground structure. 1964) for an introduction). the optimization algorithm strategically allocates material to the elements with the greatest impact on the surface deviation of the part. the elements have different in-plane thicknesses. Towards this goal. Equations (2). ti.2. consisting of a grid of regularly spaced nodes that are connected with beam finite elements in a predetermined pattern. in this example) and extremely small lower bounds (0. It was not included in the present work because maximum in-plane stresses in the lattice elements were observed to be at least an order of magnitude less than the tensile strength of the material for the example reported in Section 3. which is related to its in-plane thickness. (4) and (5) in Figure 4). the in-plane thickness. 2002) for relevant reviews and (Dorn et al. of element i is equivalent to its cross-sectional area. the topology of the lattice structure is represented and modified using a discrete topology design approach based on ground structures (cf.Kirsch. ρi. in this example) during the design process (cf. Therefore.

This penalization scheme is designed to encourage convergence to either lower or upper bounds of element thickness and to discourage intermediate element thicknesses. p. 2001) for a review). If the penalization scheme were removed from the topology optimization formulation (e.thicknesses near the lower bound do not contribute significantly to the surface profile of the deployed part. This type of ground structure-based topology design method is frequently applied to problems with truss-like structures (Ohsaki and Swan. p. undesirably high deviations from the desired surface profile). Each element removal constitutes a topology change in the lattice structure. in the calculation of volume fraction. The penalty factor. 2001) and crashworthy structures (Pedersen.. resulting in undesirably high objective function values (i. relative to continuum-based approaches (cf. equal to one in Figure 4). The effectiveness of the penalty factor depends on its magnitude.. penalizes intermediate thickness elements with an artificially high contribution to the volume fraction. elements with thicknesses near the lower bound are removed in a post-processing step. 2003) that incorporate the large deformation analysis required for the present example. (Eschenauer and Olhoff.e. One of the unique aspects of the topology optimization approach is the penalization scheme.g. The penalization scheme is implemented as a penalty factor. since the lower bound is several orders of magnitude smaller than the upper bound and the dimensions of the surrounding structure. ρi. v. and straightforward translation into finalized truss designs. Manufacturability is the primary rationale for this penalization scheme. Ground structure methods have also been applied to problems such as compliant mechanisms (Saxena and Ananthasuresh. applied to the scaling factor. Elements with thicknesses near the lower bound contribute negligibly to structural properties. p. ranging from the lower bound to the upper bound on thickness. and they are 7 . 2002) because it offers reduced computational expense. Therefore. Thick elements remain in the final lattice structure with their optimized thickness values. by setting the penalty factor. and they are not depicted in the final design. Parametric studies of penalty factor values for the present application indicate that smaller values are not effective for discouraging intermediate element thicknesses while larger values promote premature convergence of the search process. the resulting topology would include elements with a broad variety of thicknesses. A penalty factor value of 3 is used in this research. in Equation (4) in Figure 4.

the penalization scheme seeks to replace intermediate thickness elements with thicker elements that provide greater stiffness with nearly equivalent contributions to the volume fraction. to avoid distortion of element thicknesses or stiffness matrices and to preserve the accuracy of the displacement and surface deviation calculations that determine the objective function values for the present application. Elements with relatively large thicknesses (0.5 mm or larger) are manufacturable with the SLS process and remain in the final structure. (Kaveh and Kalatjari. In the SIMP approach. However. 2001). but they can have a significant collective effect on structural properties.Sigmund. but it is significantly different with respect to its purpose and means of implementation. 2003. the approach proposed in this paper preserves the continuous nature of the problem.2 mm) are problematic because they are not manufacturable with the SLS process.g. This type of approach does not address the issue of element in-plane thickness and manufacturability. rather than the stiffness. The proposed approach is most similar to the penalty functions in the SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) or artificial material approach to continuum topology optimization (Bendsoe.Tang et al. The function penalizes deviation from a desired element length (or location in a ground structure). Sigmund (1995) devised a function for penalizing element length and/or location. 2005)). which is exploited in the gradient-based phase of the optimization process and avoids unnecessarily assigning discrete element sizes. to obtain structures with generally longer or shorter elements. The penalization scheme builds on related work in ground structure-based topology optimization. 1989. Several authors impose manufacturability without penalty functions by specifying a discrete set of available element sizes for selection by a genetic algorithm (cf. Accordingly. optimized topologies that are realized with the penalization scheme tend to exhibit element thicknesses that are clustered near their upper and lower bounds. 0. Elements of intermediate thickness (e. 8 . By penalizing the contribution of intermediate thickness elements to the volume fraction constraint. In contrast.removed from the final topology. the approach proposed in this paper applies the penalty function to the volume fraction. For example... intermediate stiffnesses are penalized to encourage convergence to solutions with predominantly solid (maximum density) and void (minimum density) regions.

A standard profile... 1959. The aerodynamic characteristics of the cross-section are analyzed with a linear vortex panel method (Katz and Plotkin. 1999. as documented in Table 1 and Figure 5.Stampfl et al.Moran.Hyun and Torquato. NACA 4420. 2006.Wang.. 2004.Brooks et al.Wang et al. 1995.. Deployable UAV Wing Example The topology design approach is applied to design a deployable UAV wing that can be folded into a compact form and then deployed to its full size using an air pump.Sigmund.Seepersad et al.The proposed topology optimization approach also differs from similar efforts to design lattice. Several basic assumptions are applied to the UAV wing. or triangular cells (cf.. 2004. Much of the foundational research in cellular and honeycomb materials focuses on developing analytical expressions for the properties of standard cell topologies such as hexagonal. 2005). 2004.Seepersad et al.. or cellular structures for additive manufacturing applications.Rosen. honeycomb.. 1994. (Gibson and Ashby. 2001. but they focus primarily on designing periodically repeating unit cells of material. 2002. The coefficient of pressure can be used to calculate the pressure profile along the outer surface of the wing as follows: 9 .Chu et al.. 2006.Hayes et al. The approach is demonstrated in the next section. 1984). 2001) and a boundary layer growth method (Moran.Gervasi and Stahl. 2005. The approach proposed in this paper accommodates not only functionally graded lattice structures but also the highly nonlinear material behavior associated with the elastomeric materials that comprise the lattice skins. 1999. 2008). One of the results is the coefficient of pressure (Cp) along the outer profile of the airfoil section. In notable recent work.Seepersad et al. 2007. 3. square. 1984).Evans et al. 1997. is chosen for the cross-section of the wing (Abbott and Von Doenhoff. and several additive manufacturing researchers have investigated the challenges of fabricating these standard structures (Zimbeck and Rice. 2004. Other researchers have focused on developing ground structure-based or continuum topology optimization approaches for designing lattice or cellular structures (Sigmund..Oruganti et al..Evans et al. 2007).. 2005. 2004)). Rosen and coauthors demonstrated a topology design optimization technique for realizing functionally graded lattice structures (Wang.

Cp = P − P1 (2) συ12 where σ is the density of air.5 mm.] [INSERT TABLE 1. and the concentric distance between them is 10 mm.45. Vertical and horizontal displacements are constrained at the left-most point of the cross-section. A dense network of lattice elements is added between the skins. The network is denser in regions of relatively high curvature. This strategy is based on the results of preliminary topology design exercises. as shown in Figure 6. [INSERT FIGURE 6. and the lattice elements are modeled using BEAM3 one-dimensional elements. The outer and inner skins are assigned a thickness of 1. and vertical displacement is constrained at the right-most point. The outer profile of the wing follows the NACA 4420 profile and the dimensions documented in Table 1. which indicated that reducing the density of the lattice network leads to significant deterioration of the overall objective function while increasing the density provides insignificant improvements relative to the increased computational expense of the denser network. [INSERT FIGURE 5. The inner skin and outer skin are modeled using PLANE183 two-dimensional elements. υ1 is the velocity of surrounding air at ambient pressure P1. and P is the pressure profile. The edge length for the two-dimensional mesh is set at 0. and a density of 486 kg/m3. As a worst case scenario for this analysis.1 UAV Wing Modeling and Topology Optimization Setup For the purpose of topology design.] A finite element model of the cross-section is created in ANSYS finite element analysis software (2006).] 3. The material is assumed to be Duraform FLEX with a Young’s modulus of 3. based on physical experiments performed in the laboratory.8 MPa. the wing section is assumed to be crushed by equivalent pressure acting on the top and bottom surface. a two-dimensional cross-section of the wing is modeled as shown in Figure 6. The pressure profile from Equation (1) is applied to the outer surface of the 10 . a Poisson ratio of 0.0005 mm.

is limited to 3 mm. The penalty factor. ρi. The algorithm parameters are documented in Table 2. and the maximum in-plane thickness of a lattice element.5. Each phase of the topology optimization is governed by the problem formulation in Figure 4. Air pressure is applied between the inner skin and the outer skin at 700 Pa (gauge) to maintain the intended profile of the wing.11 mm. for each element (i) is assigned a random value within the bounds specified in Figure 4. and the volume fraction. The topology optimization problem is challenging. [INSERT TABLE 2. This nonlinear problem is expensive to solve iteratively with ANSYS. For the initial lattice structure. vf. followed by a sequential quadratic programming algorithm. tmax. Atmospheric pressure is applied to the inside surface of the inner skin. p. The next step is to optimize the topology of the lattice structure. the intermediate structure is optimized by varying the lattice elements in the right section of the UAV wing. which refined the best solution identified by the genetic algorithm. the scaling factor. Then. the lattice elements in the left section are fixed with their optimal thickness values. and there are a total of 5700 finite elements in the entire structure. the optimization problem is split into two phases. the flat middle section of the wing separates the two sections and reduces variable interactions between sections. Each optimization (left section and right section) was performed by a genetic algorithm. To reduce computational expense. the maximum surface deviation was 6.] 11 . the UAV wing is optimized by varying the thickness of lattice elements in the left section of the UAV wing illustrated in Figure 6. After the left section is optimized. At the beginning of the topology optimization process. Other constraints are listed in Figure 4. is assigned a value of three. There are 76 lattice elements in the leading (left) and trailing (right) edges of the initial ground structure illustrated in Figure 6. The self weight of the structure is simulated by setting a gravity load in ANSYS. was approximately 0.wing. The split is justified by the architecture of the part.] [INSERT TABLE 3. First.

The maximum nodal deflection of the UAV 12 . as illustrated in Figure 8.] [INSERT TABLE 5. the in-plane area of the lattice structure was reduced to an in-plane area of 118 mm2. The deflection value decreases because the optimized structure distributes material more effectively for maximum stiffness and reduced weight of the structure. An element was removed from the initial ground structure if its final. During this process. As documented in Table 3. the left lattice structure retained 14 of the 30 elements in its initial ground structure. The final values of the in-plane thickness of each element are listed in Table 4.2 Results of Topology Optimization of UAV Wing The results of the topology optimization of the left and right sections of the lattice structure are summarized in Table 3. optimized thickness was near the lower bound (less than 0. relative to the maximum in-plane area of the elements.3.] The overall surface deviation was further minimized by optimizing the right section. The topology optimization process reduced the number of lattice elements in the left ground structure from 46 to 25. from 1.98 mm (after optimization of the left section) to 1. As a result of the topology optimization process. [INSERT FIGURE 7. which corresponds to a volume fraction of 0. which is 65% less than the pre-optimized deflection of 6. The maximum surface deflection in the optimized UAV wing was 1.98 mm. The maximum surface deviation was reduced another 33%.] The final lattice element configuration with 39 retained lattice elements in the left and right sections of the UAV wing is shown in Figure 9.24. The in-plane thickness of each retained element is listed in Table 5.11 mm. [INSERT FIGURE 8. the lattice elements in the left section were fixed with their optimal lattice element thickness values from the previous optimization. 491 mm2 (calculated with all elements assuming a maximum thickness of 3 mm).1 mm in this example). as illustrated in Figure 7.30 mm.] [INSERT TABLE 4.

30 mm for a structure with bounding dimensions of 27 cm by 40 cm. 0.wing after optimization is improved by 78% from 6. The surface deviations of the UAV wing before and after optimization are illustrated in Figure 10. [INSERT FIGURE 11. 0. As illustrated in Figure 11. Without the penalty function.11 mm to 1.1 < t < 0.] 3.com). [INSERT FIGURE 9.5 mm) for any of the optimization trials. optimized element thicknesses assumed a relatively uniform distribution of values between the lower bound and the upper bound. optimized element thicknesses bifurcated into two distinct sets.1 mm. non-manufacturable region (i.e. One set clustered near the upper bound. Three trials were conducted. The optimal lattice topology was used to generate the cross section of the prototype 13 .7 and 3 mm.1 < t < 0. resulting in several elements with thicknesses that were neither negligible nor manufacturable (i.3 Final Model and Prototype The results of the topology optimization procedure were used to design a prototype of the UAV wing. After the penalty function was implemented.8 MPa for Duraform FLEX (www.e. which had a remarkable impact on the final topology. with element thicknesses between 0. Validation also focused on the penalty function. and each resulted in a final surface deviation of less than 2 mm. Also. different results are obtained for each trial. There were no element thicknesses in the non-negligible.5 mm). with values less than 0. each convergence plot showed a gradual (but somewhat stochastic) convergence from the genetic algorithm followed by a uniform convergence from the sequential quadratic programming algorithm.3DSystems..] [INSERT FIGURE 10. relative to a reported tensile strength of 1. Since the genetic algorithm is stochastic..] The results were validated by repeating the optimization procedure and by analyzing the convergence trends. final. The other set of element thicknesses bunched near the lower bound. Maximum stresses in the final part were approximately 80 kPa. the final. convergence plots were studied for gradual convergence to a final solution.

Figure 13 displays the endcap that was used to seal the open end of the UAV wing. The span-wise depth of each lattice structure was fixed at 2 mm. 14 .bjbenterprises. The UAV wing was inflated successfully using an air pump at 1500 Pa (gauge pressure). The profile after inflation is shown in Figure 15.com/pdf/ST3040.pdf) to make it air tight.] [INSERT FIGURE 13. One end of the UAV wing remained open for removing unsintered powder from the internal voids. The bounding dimensions of the folded UAV wing were 120 mm (length) x 70 mm (width) x 60 mm (height). The UAV wing was rolled along the span of the wing to condense it into a compact form as shown in Figure 14. [INSERT FIGURE 12.] [INSERT FIGURE 15. The UAV wing was then infiltrated using a mixture of ST-1040A and ST-1040B polyurethane (www.shown in Figure 12.] [INSERT FIGURE 14. the lattice cross-sections were repeated every 7 mm along the span of the wing to ensure that the wing could be folded.] The part was fabricated using Duraform® FLEX material in a selective laser sintering (SLS) machine and post-processed to remove unsintered powder. The open end of the UAV wing was attached to its endcap with adhesives. As shown in the figure. whereas the bounding dimensions of the deployed UAV wing were 380 mm (length) x 100 mm (width) x 20 mm (height).

It would also be interesting to include shape optimization of the concentric skins and lattice structure. the lattice skin needs to be designed in three dimensions with characteristics such as fold-ability taken into account. In future work. these results provide additional proof of concept for the use of lattice skins as deployment mechanisms. The proposed ground structure approach penalizes lattice elements of nonmanufacturable thicknesses. repeated infiltration with polyurethane appears to provide adequate short-term air tightness for pneumatic inflation. For the UAV airfoil. freeform structures with lattice skins as the deployment mechanism. Finally. but further work is needed to identify thermoset polymers or other spray-on materials for rigidization and long-term stability of the deployed structure. A ground structure approach for topology optimization of the lattice structure has been presented and applied to a representative. Closure A methodology has been presented for deploying flexible. it may be necessary to reduce computational complexity by continuing to design the lattice skin in spatial segments. the topology optimization procedure is performed in two dimensions for cross-sections of the lattice skin and then periodically repeated in the span direction. By adjusting the lattice structure density and configuration. When coupled with prior feasibility studies. in addition to the topology design procedure. A physical prototype of the structure was fabricated with SLS and Duraform® FLEX material. the topology optimization procedure resulted in a 78% improvement in maximum surface deviation when compared with a nonoptimized structure. Opportunities for ongoing work include increasing the comprehensiveness of the topology optimization procedure and formalizing post-processing steps for infiltrating and rigidizing deployed parts. it would be interesting to explore the 15 . In this paper.4. but more systematic methods for decomposing the problem are needed. It was successfully folded into a package with a maximum dimension of 120 mm. With respect to post-processing. the focus has been primarily on the methodology for generating lattice structures and optimizing them so that the deployable structure maintains it profile after deployment. deployable UAV wing. resulting in lattice structure topologies that meet manufacturability requirements while minimizing surface displacement as much as possible. relative to a maximum dimension of 380 mm for the deployed wing. For large structures.

171-221. W.. 7. "Rapid Design and Manufacture of Ultralight Cellular Materials. 6. “The Topological Design of Multifunctional Cellular Materials. Dover Publications. 46. F. W. to Jennifer Torkelson for her help with the Duraform® FLEX material and infiltrant. pp." Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (J.. “Multifunctionality of Cellular Metal Systems. Gibson. ANSYS. 16 . “Optimal Shape Design as a Material Distribution Problem. F. Todd and R. NC. Abbott. J. Graf and D. Cambridge. TX. 6. 5. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the University of Texas at Austin. 3. Vol. N. 2. David Bourell for his valuable insights on SLS and motivation for the study of deployability. A. W. Vol.). R. P. Bendsoe. 4. Austin.. Olhoff (2001). Greenberg (1964). D. A. 9. (2005). TX. 1.” Computer-Aided Design & Applications. Hutchinson... New York. Wadley (2001). pp. References 1.” Progress in Materials Science. pp. W. Fleck. Eschenauer. R. Inc.” Journal de Mecanique. and N. L. Eds. Ashby and H. Beaman. 8. Gervasi. Mines (2005). (2006). Hutchinson and M. F. Ashby (1997). Evans. Stahl (2004). 3. N. 54. W. Austin.. D. Gantes. ANSYS. C. H. 309-327. 5. 686-696. Bourell et al. Canonsburg. 193-202. M. “Design for Additive Manufacturing of Cellular Structures. E. 11. C. Beaman. 3-4. Evans. and A. J. P. Brooks. G. A. Sutcliffe. Catherine Tradd and Brandon Walther. J. Trevor Page. Vol. A. 4. Inc. Eds. UK. The authors owe a special thanks to Dr. 10. E. Theory of Wing Sections. PA. Boston. G. Fox. 5.possibility of virtually collapsing parts and fabricating them in their collapsed form. and M. Gomory and H. Chu. pp. 43. No. Dorn. Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties. J. L.. Cantwell. and D. Vol. L. "Design and Fabrication of Components with Optimized Lattice Microstructures. and to the undergraduate students who participated in this project: Brian Nowotny. (2001). Cambridge University Press. 25-52.. G. as a replacement for the current process of decomposing large parts into manufacturable pieces. C. M. Vol. H. “Automatic Design of Optimal Structures. C. pp. 5. Vol. 12. Inc. No. Von Doenhoff (1959). 331-389. V. Cary. J. WIT Press.” Structural Optimization. No. Deployable Structures: Analysis and Design. Bourell et al. Rosen (2008). S. iSIGHT. G. J. (1989).” Applied Mechanics Reviews. 13. No.). Engineous Software. J. pp. I.” Progress in Materials Science." Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (J. 3. J. W. “Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures: A Review. Ashby (1999).

M. Low-Speed Aerodynamics. Moran. 26. McDowell and F. Vol. 25. No. J. 42. Ed. 25. Kirsch. No. No. TX. “Thermal Expansion Behavior in Fabricated Cellular Structures. J. International Center for Mechanical Sciences. K. 22. No.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. F. Saxena. New York. and S. Vol. pp. Katz. 3. Mazumder (2004). (2001). CISM Courses and Lectures No. Ananthasuresh (2001). “Optimal and Manufacturable Two-Dimensional.” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design. 5-6. pp. An Introduction to Theoretical and Computational Aerodynamics. Kaveh. A. Allen. 42. 16. McDowell and F. McDowell (2004). 58. (2007). Torquato (2002).. 213-225. L. U. Bourell (2007). “Design and Freeform Fabrication of Deployable Structures with Lattice Skins. pp. Burns.14.). 13. Kalatjari (2003). No. pp. "Topology and Geometry Optimization of Trusses and Frames. C. L. American Society of Civil Engineers. J.” Mechanics of Materials. pp. 137144. C. L. L. J. C.” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. pp. Dempsey. New York. A. Vol. 1025-1033.” Applied Mechanics Reviews. K. 1285-1297. 17 . A. (2003). Mistree (2006). 5. “Topology Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms for Nonlinear Force-Deflection and Curved Path Specifications.” Computer-Aided Design & Applications. 2434. 123. M. 19. S. “Computer-Aided Design for Additive Manufacturing of Cellular Structures. Vol. Mechanical Engineering. A. 5. Seepersad and D. pp. Cambridge University Press. K. No. Deployable Structures. Vol. John Wiley and Sons. 8. 4. “Topology Optimization Design of Crushed 2D-Frames for Desired Energy Absorption History. “Topology Optimization of Trusses Using Genetic Algorithm. W. Vol. and V. New York. 031404-1-13. "Feasibility Study of Lattice Structure based Deployment Mechanism for Freeform Structures. Vol. Hyun. (1984). 585-594. M. 691-713. Seepersad. D. A. Vol. 28. D. K. McDowell (2004). Vol. Mistree (2007). C. C. pp. A. Swan (2002). The University of Texas at Austin. Maheshwaraa. Ohsaki. pp. Seepersad. Wang." M. Mistree and D. and A. Pellegrino. (2007). Ghosh and J. Reston.. and C. 15. Allen. W." Recent Advances in Optimal Structural Design (S. Allen. 18. Vol. C..” Rapid Prototyping Journal. L. “Robust Design of Cellular Materials with Topological and Dimensional Imperfections. Vol. pp. U. 21. 371.. 24. “Optimal Topologies of Structures. pp. 4. 412. 29. and G. 6. 33-42. Inc. Oruganti. Springer-Verlag. 20. K. 128..S. R. K. Plotkin (2001). 8. 27.” AIAA Journal. Rosen. U. No. (1989). No. Ed. M. B. J. Austin. 17. C. C. 30. B... C. C. Pedersen. VA. “Mechanics of Linear Cellular Alloys. 1. 36. D. Force Method and Graph Theory. B. 368-382. 771-791. Seepersad.” Materials Science and Engineering A. Vol. S. 17. No. Dempsey and D. No.” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design. 1. 130. pp. 223-239.” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design. “Multifunctional Topology Design of Cellular Materials. “Design of Multifunctional Honeycomb Materials. Maheshwaraa. Thesis. Kagome-Like Cellular Solids. Hayes.” Journal of Materials Research. 23..

G. 1933-1951. J." Solid Freeform and Additive Fabrication. 4.” International Journal of Solids and Structures. R. Johnston and D. 4. O. 2313-2329. Seidler. R. 351-368. S. (1995).). Tang. Rice (1999). “Shape Optimization of Skeletal Structures: A Review. Atlanta. Warrendale.” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. 21. “Fabrication and Moulding of Cellular Materials by Rapid Prototyping. Vol.. Wang. Fratzl (2004). “Materials with Prescribed Constitutive Parameters: An Inverse Homogenization Problem. 285-296. B. Austin." Ph. C. Vol. 31. 35.” International Journal of Materials and Product Technology. B. pp. 34. Danforth et al. No. 21. (1994). and D. S. “A 99 Line Topology Optimization Code Written in Matlab. Bourell et al.). 32. 36. H. “Improved Genetic Algorithm for Design Optimization of Truss Structures with Sizing. 33. 20. Sigmund. 542..W. (2001). J. Vol. Eds. W.). O. C. S.. No.. H. 17. (1984). 1737-1762. H. R. and R. (2005). Tong and Y. pp. D.31. Georgia Institute of Technology.D. "A Unit Cell Approach for Lightweight Structure and Compliant Mechanism. A.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 38. J." Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (J. pp. TX. "Cellular Materials via Three-Dimensional Printing of Metal Oxide Powders. L. 37. “Tailoring Materials with Prescribed Elastic Properties. W.. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (D. Materials Research Society. No. V. Schwager. Fouad. Gu (2005). Eds.” Mechanics of Materials. "Freeform Fabrication of Components with Designed Cellular Structure. Vol. Rosen (2006). Vol. GA. 109. Shape. No. 40. Sigmund. Beaman. pp. Beaman. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering. L. TX. Vol. O. F. 120-127. 62. "Design of a Graded Cellular Structure for an Acetabular Hip Replacement Component. and Topology Variables. Woesz and P..” Journal of Structural Engineering. 39. Liska. 8. W. W. Vol. Wang. Austin. Dissertation. W. PA. L. Dimos. 18 . Williams. Topping. Bourell et al. pp. H. Zimbeck. Sigmund. pp. D. Eds. Rosen (2007)." Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (J. Stampfl.

Figure 8. Dimensions are in meters.. Figure 12. Figure 11. 19 . Cross-section of 3D prototype of UAV wing. Figure 9. Figure 15. UAV wing profile with initial lattice structure. Figure 10. A sample convergence plot for the UAV wing example. Topology design problem formulation and ground structure diagram. Figure 6.List of Figures Figure 1. Figure 13. Endcap for sealing the open end of the UAV wing. Figure 5. 2007). Surface Deviation/Deflection of UAV wing profile before (top) and after (bottom) topology optimization. UAV wing in folded configuration. Figure 4. Figure 3. Open and closed lattice structures (Maheshwaraa et al. Results of topology optimization of UAV wing left section with retained elements in bold. Results of topology optimization of UAV wing right section with retained elements in bold. Wing dimensions. Topology design process. Figure 14. Design and solid freeform fabrication methodology for freeform deployable parts with lattice skins. Figure 7. Final optimal lattice configuration of the UAV wing with retained elements in bold. Figure 2. UAV wing inflated using air pump at 1500 Pa (gauge pressure).

Add Lattice Elements STEP1 2. Stiffen STEPS 7/8 FINAL PART Functional Deployed Part Figure 1. Decompose into Small Parts Virtually STEP 3 STEP 4 4. Assemble and Join Parts STEP 5 6. Design and solid freeform fabrication methodology for freeform deployable parts with lattice skins. Deploy 8. Selective Laser Sintering (Beaman et al.Arbitrary 3D Surface INITIAL PART 1. 1997) 5. 20 . Fold/Compact STEP 6 7. Design Lattice Structure STEP2 3.

21 . Open and closed lattice structures (Maheshwaraa et al. 2007).Open lattice Structure Closed lattice Structure Figure 2..

igs format ANSYS model created using APDL iSight 9. 22 .8 mm Final 3D CAD model creation using SolidWorks 2005 Figure 3. Topology design process.CAD file in .0 optimization using APDL Parameters in APDL modified during runtime Optimized lattice elements Removal of thin lattice elements of thicknesses less than 0.

i p.5 Given Constants li.0 (1) Constraints (2) v ≤ 0. length of each lattice element. scaling factor for each lattice element. volume fraction Calculations (3) ti = ρi tmax v=∑ ρi1/ p li AMax (4) AMax = ∑ li tmax 2D Plane183 Element Pressure = 700 Pa BEAM ELEMENT Boundary Conditions Uy = 0 ti li (5) Figure 4. maximum displacement of any node on the outer surface relative to its intended position Find ρi.Minimize δ. Topology design problem formulation and ground structure diagram. in-plane thickness of lattice element i tmax. i Satisfy Bounds 0. penalty factor (p=3) ti. maximum allowable in-plane thickness of a lattice element v. 23 .0001 ≤ ρi ≤ 1.

Span t chord Figure 5. 24 . Wing dimensions.

UAV wing profile with initial lattice structure.Figure 6. 25 .

Results of topology optimization of UAV wing left section with retained elements in bold.Figure 7. 26 .

27 . Results of topology optimization of UAV wing right section with retained elements in bold.Figure 8.

Final optimal lattice configuration of the UAV wing with retained elements in bold. 28 .Figure 9.

Dimensions are in meters. Surface Deviation/Deflection of UAV wing profile before (top) and after (bottom) topology optimization. 29 .Figure 10.

Figure 11. 30 . A sample convergence plot for the UAV wing example.

Figure 12. 31 . Cross-section of 3D prototype of UAV wing.

Endcap for sealing the open end of the UAV wing.Figure 13. 32 .

UAV wing in folded configuration. 33 .Figure 14.

Figure 15. 34 . UAV wing inflated using air pump at 1500 Pa (gauge pressure).

Pre.and post-optimization characteristics of the lattice structure. Table 2.List of Tables Table 1. Optimized in-plane thickness values (in mm) for retained elements in Figure 7. Optimization parameters for topology design. Optimized in-plane thickness values (in mm) for retained elements in Figure 8. Table 5. 35 . Table 4. Table 3. Basic flight and wing parameters for the UAV example.

Table 1. Maximum flight speed Altitude of flight Pressure (P1) at 200 m Density of air (σ) at 200 m Chord Span Required lift Maximum wing thickness 25 m/s 200 m 9.945 x 104 Pa 1.81 N (1 kg per wing) 27 cm 36 . Basic flight and wing parameters for the UAV example.15 kg/m3 10 cm 40 cm 9.

Algorithm Genetic algorithm (Step 1) Sequential Quadratic Programming (Step 2) Parameter Sub Population size Number of islands Number of generations Rate of Mutation Rate of Crossover Max.001 37 .000001 0. Optimization parameters for topology design.01 0.Table 2. No of iterations Termination accuracy Gradient Step Value 10 10 10 0.95 25 0.

32 1.24 6.5 0.Table 3.96 mm2 0.49 mm2 0. Number of initial lattice elements Number of retained lattice elements Maximum in-plane area of lattice Initial volume fraction of lattice Final volume fraction of lattice Initial surface deviation Final surface deviation Total iterations for convergence Time required for convergence4 4 Left section 30 14 491.30 mm 1146 24 hrs 12 mins x86 PC running Windows XP with a 3. Pre.98 mm 1467 33 hrs 24 mins Right section 46 25 598.5 0.11 mm 1.0 GHz dual processor and 2 GB RAM 38 .and post-optimization characteristics of the lattice structure.

624 1.954 1.371 1.743 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1.259 1.179 2.810 1.927 0.932 1. Optimized in-plane thickness values (in mm) for retained elements in Figure 7.Table 4.298 0.039 1.860 2.263 1.752 39 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1.689 0.033 1.150 1.977 2.928 2.087 2.014 1.Table 5. Optimized in-plane thickness values (in mm) for retained elements in Figure 8.557 0.827 1.677 1.826 1.532 1.687 2.997 1.933 40 .497 2.290 1.132 0.534 2.818 1.067 2.239 0.157 1.016 0.844 1.

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