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BEMCO Operator and Maintenance Training

APM Pump

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Overall Training Agenda


Pump Maintenance Training
Day 1 Pump Basics
Section 1

Introduction

Section 2

Centrifugal Pump Design

Section 3

Pump System Hydraulics

Section 4

Pump Performance and NPSH

Day 2 APM Pump Operator and Maintenance


Section 5

APM Pump Description

Section 6

Drawing and Parts List

Section 7

APM Pump Operation

Section 8

APM Pump Maintenance

Section 9

Troubleshooting
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Introduction
Personnel qualification and training
All personnel involved in the operation, installation, inspection and
maintenance of the unit must be qualified to carry out the work
involved.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Why do we need pumps?
To raise liquid from one level to another
Pumps move liquid from a low elevation to a higher elevation.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Why do we need pumps?
To overcome pipe friction
Pumps move liquid from one location to another location.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Why do we need pumps?
To force liquid into a pressure vessel
Pumps move liquid from a low pressure area to a higher pressure
area.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


How Centrifugal Pumps function?
A centrifugal pump works on the principle of converting the kinetic
energy of a flowing liquid (velocity pressure) into static pressure.
This action is described by Bernoulli's Principle.
Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in velocity occurs
simultaneouslyy with decrease in p
pressure.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Bernoulli's Principle

The figure above illustrates how the air


particles separate at the front of the wing
and join back together at the back.
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Centrifugal Pump Basics


How Centrifugal Pumps function?
The energy conversion results in an increased pressure on the
downstream side of the pump causing flow.

Typical Centrifugal Pump


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Centrifugal Pump Basics


How Centrifugal Pumps function?

Point A:
The liquid enters the
pump at the suction
flange.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


How Centrifugal Pumps function?

Point B:
The liquid flows into
the eye of the impeller.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


How Centrifugal Pumps function?

Point C:
The impeller vanes pick up the
liquid at the impeller eye.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


How Centrifugal Pumps function?
Point D:
The casing guides the liquid to the
discharge neck where the casing
cutwater splits the flow, the other
portion directed to the pump
discharge (E).

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Positive Displacement vs. Centrifugal Pumps

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Positive Displacement vs. Centrifugal Pumps

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Centrifugal Pumps

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Foot Mounted Pumps
Mounted by their feet to the base
Normally found in low temperature applications
At high temperatures, the shaft to driver alignment will be affected

Overhung Foot Mounted


Radial Split Pump

Between Bearings Foot


Mounted Axial Split Pump

Multi Stage Foot Mounted


Radial Split Pump

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Centerline Mounted Pumps
Required by The American Petroleum Institute (API)
Allows for heat expansion
Pump and driver alignment will not be affected

Overhung Centerline Mounted

Multi Stage Centerline Mounted

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Q&A

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Understanding Hydraulic Thrust in the Pump
Thrust is the hydraulic forces acting on the impeller
Created by pressures developed in and around the impeller
Change of direction of flow through the impeller.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Radial Forces in a Pump
The pressure being higher in area 2
than in area 1 causes a radial force
acting against the rotating element as
indicated in picture.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Control of Radial Forces in the Pump
Single volute
Double volute
Diffuser style casing

Single volute
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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Single Volute Compared to Double Volute Type Casing
Radial forces are more balanced in a double or dual volute style pump.

Double Volute
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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Diffuser Style Pump
Fluid directed by multiple cutwaters
Results in near balancing of radial forces
Normally used in high to very high head applications.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Casing Types Radial Load Comparison
Minimum radial force is at Best Efficiency Point
(BEP) with operation to the right or left of BEP
producing higher radial loads.

Pump Curve

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Impeller Designs
Impeller designs grouped as either radial flow, mixed flow, or axial flow
depending on their hydraulic geometry.

Mixed Flow

Closed Impeller

Double Suction

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Impeller Types
Impeller configuration as enclosed impeller, semi-open impeller, opens
impeller. In addition, Impeller types can identify single suction or double
suction configurations.

Open Impeller

Semi-open
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Reverse Vane
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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Sealing Device
A device used to control leakage between the rotating pump shaft and
the stationary pump case or rear cover, usually either packing or a
mechanical seal.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Support for Radial Forces
Radial bearing
Wear rings

The radial bearing is closest to the


impeller commonly on overhung pumps

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Main Advantage for Using Wear Rings
Reduced maintenance cost
Front wear rings reduce internal recirculation
Back wear reduce axial thrust and moderate the seal chamber
pressure.

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Axial Forces in the Pump
Axial force is the result of higher
pressure forming behind the
impeller forcing the impeller in the
direction of lowest pressure
Shaft Axial Movement

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Pump Support for Axial Forces
Thrust bearings (Axial bearings) is
normally the bigger bearing or two
back to back bearings and locked
down in the pump casing

Axial Bearing (Thrust Bearing)

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Balance Holes and Impeller Back Vanes
The balance holes allow the liquid that has moved behind the impeller
to pass through
Resulting in reduced axial loads on the pump

Impeller Balance Holes


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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Balance Holes and Impeller Back Vanes
Back pumping vanes remove the liquid from
behind the impeller and pump it toward the
pump discharge
Moderate the seal chamber pressure as well
as reduce the axial loads.

Impeller Back Vanes

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Using a Balance Drum For Multistage Ring Section Pumps

Ring Section Radial Split Pump


fitted with Balance Drum

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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Impeller Back to Back Arrangements
For multistage double volute style pumps
The axial thrust is partly balanced

Rotor indicate the direction of flow within the pump


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Centrifugal Pump Basics


Using a Double Suction Impeller
For single stage pumps
Low pressure at both ends of the pump
Result in axial balance of the rotating element

Between Bearings Axial Split pump with double suction impeller


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