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# BEMCO Operator and Maintenance Training

APM Pump

## Overall Training Agenda

Pump Maintenance Training
Day 1 Pump Basics
Section 1

Introduction

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4

Section 5

Section 6

Section 7

Section 8

## APM Pump Maintenance

Section 9

Troubleshooting
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Introduction
Personnel qualification and training
All personnel involved in the operation, installation, inspection and
maintenance of the unit must be qualified to carry out the work
involved.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Why do we need pumps?
To raise liquid from one level to another
Pumps move liquid from a low elevation to a higher elevation.

## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Why do we need pumps?
To overcome pipe friction
Pumps move liquid from one location to another location.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Why do we need pumps?
To force liquid into a pressure vessel
Pumps move liquid from a low pressure area to a higher pressure
area.

## Centrifugal Pump Basics

How Centrifugal Pumps function?
A centrifugal pump works on the principle of converting the kinetic
energy of a flowing liquid (velocity pressure) into static pressure.
This action is described by Bernoulli's Principle.
Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in velocity occurs
simultaneouslyy with decrease in p
pressure.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Bernoulli's Principle

## The figure above illustrates how the air

particles separate at the front of the wing
and join back together at the back.
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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

How Centrifugal Pumps function?
The energy conversion results in an increased pressure on the
downstream side of the pump causing flow.

## Typical Centrifugal Pump

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

How Centrifugal Pumps function?

Point A:
The liquid enters the
pump at the suction
flange.

## Centrifugal Pump Basics

How Centrifugal Pumps function?

Point B:
The liquid flows into
the eye of the impeller.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

How Centrifugal Pumps function?

Point C:
The impeller vanes pick up the
liquid at the impeller eye.

## Centrifugal Pump Basics

How Centrifugal Pumps function?
Point D:
The casing guides the liquid to the
discharge neck where the casing
cutwater splits the flow, the other
portion directed to the pump
discharge (E).

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Positive Displacement vs. Centrifugal Pumps

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Positive Displacement vs. Centrifugal Pumps

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Centrifugal Pumps

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Foot Mounted Pumps
Mounted by their feet to the base
Normally found in low temperature applications
At high temperatures, the shaft to driver alignment will be affected

## Between Bearings Foot

Mounted Axial Split Pump

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Centerline Mounted Pumps
Required by The American Petroleum Institute (API)
Allows for heat expansion
Pump and driver alignment will not be affected

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Q&A

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Understanding Hydraulic Thrust in the Pump
Thrust is the hydraulic forces acting on the impeller
Created by pressures developed in and around the impeller
Change of direction of flow through the impeller.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

The pressure being higher in area 2
than in area 1 causes a radial force
acting against the rotating element as
indicated in picture.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Control of Radial Forces in the Pump
Single volute
Double volute
Diffuser style casing

Single volute
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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Single Volute Compared to Double Volute Type Casing
Radial forces are more balanced in a double or dual volute style pump.

Double Volute
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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Diffuser Style Pump
Fluid directed by multiple cutwaters
Results in near balancing of radial forces
Normally used in high to very high head applications.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Minimum radial force is at Best Efficiency Point
(BEP) with operation to the right or left of BEP

Pump Curve

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Impeller Designs
Impeller designs grouped as either radial flow, mixed flow, or axial flow
depending on their hydraulic geometry.

Mixed Flow

Closed Impeller

Double Suction

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Impeller Types
Impeller configuration as enclosed impeller, semi-open impeller, opens
impeller. In addition, Impeller types can identify single suction or double
suction configurations.

Open Impeller

Semi-open
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Reverse Vane
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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Sealing Device
A device used to control leakage between the rotating pump shaft and
the stationary pump case or rear cover, usually either packing or a
mechanical seal.

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Wear rings

## The radial bearing is closest to the

impeller commonly on overhung pumps

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Main Advantage for Using Wear Rings
Reduced maintenance cost
Front wear rings reduce internal recirculation
Back wear reduce axial thrust and moderate the seal chamber
pressure.

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Axial Forces in the Pump
Axial force is the result of higher
pressure forming behind the
impeller forcing the impeller in the
direction of lowest pressure
Shaft Axial Movement

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Pump Support for Axial Forces
Thrust bearings (Axial bearings) is
normally the bigger bearing or two
back to back bearings and locked
down in the pump casing

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Balance Holes and Impeller Back Vanes
The balance holes allow the liquid that has moved behind the impeller
to pass through
Resulting in reduced axial loads on the pump

## Impeller Balance Holes

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Balance Holes and Impeller Back Vanes
Back pumping vanes remove the liquid from
behind the impeller and pump it toward the
pump discharge
Moderate the seal chamber pressure as well

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Using a Balance Drum For Multistage Ring Section Pumps

## Ring Section Radial Split Pump

fitted with Balance Drum

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Impeller Back to Back Arrangements
For multistage double volute style pumps
The axial thrust is partly balanced

## Rotor indicate the direction of flow within the pump

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## Centrifugal Pump Basics

Using a Double Suction Impeller
For single stage pumps
Low pressure at both ends of the pump
Result in axial balance of the rotating element

## Between Bearings Axial Split pump with double suction impeller

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