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OR IGINA L R ESEA R CH

Open Access

square matrix of dimension

Alimohammad Nazari* , Hojjatollah Fereydooni and Mohsen Bayat

Abstract

In this article, we are to find the root of a square matrix A. Specially, if matrix A has multiple eigenvalues, we present a

manual solution so as to find the root of it. In other words, we focus on solving the equation X 2 = A and find the

solutions.

Keywords: Square root of matrix; Matrix equation; Eigenvalue

MSC: 15A24

Introduction

In recent years, several articles are written about the root

of a matrix, and we can refer to [1-6] for instance. In 2007,

Kh. Ikramov tried to solve the matrix equation XX = I

and XX = I.

At first, he considered the problem as

a b

and then generalized it to general case

XX =

c d

XX = In and XX = In [7]. If matrix A has different eigenvalues 1 , 2 , . . . , n , then the root of A, i.e. solution of the

equation X 2 = A is achieved as the following:

X = VEV 1 , E = diag( 1 , 2 , , n ),

(1)

A. If matrix A is not diagonalizable, the solution is not so

simple. In this article, first of all, we are to solve the following matrix equation in different cases and try to generalize

the result for greater dimensions:

a b

= A.

(2)

XX =

c d

In section Solution of X 2 = A, we solve the matrix

A

equation (2). In section Solution of X 2 = A inwhich

a b c

is of dimension 3, we solve the equation X 2 = 0 d e

0 0 f

and ultimately in section Second root of 3 3 matrix,

generalizations of it are verified.

2

Solution of

X =

a b

. In this section, we are to solve the

c d

equation (2) in four cases as the following:

Let A =

Case 2 - The matrix A has two nonzero different simple

eigenvalues and b = 0.

Case 3 - The matrix A has two nonzero different simple

eigenvalues and b = 0.

Case 4 - The matrix A has two different simple eigenvalues which are zero.

For the first case, as the right-hand side matrix is diagonalized, the solution of (2) is as (1).

Lemma 1. (Case two) If A has a multiple nonzero eigenvalue, and b = 0, then solution of the equation (2) is as

below:

3a+d

b

X=

a+d

2

a+d

2

2 a+d

2

a+3d

4

a+d

2

I A = 2 (a + d) + ad bc = 0.

Consider its eigenvalues as follows:

*Correspondence: a-nazari@araku.ac.ir

Department of Mathematics, Arak University, P. O. Box 38156-8-8349, Arak, Iran

1 =

a+d

,

2

2 =

a+d

+ t,

2

(t 0).

2013

2013 Nazari et al.; licensee Springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction

in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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of matrix A, setting

E=

a+d

2

0

a+d

2

+t

eigenvalues is as below:

V =

2b

2b

d a d a + 2t

V 1 =

da+2t 1

4

2t

1

ad

2t

4bt

.

In this case,

X = lim VEV 1 = lim

t0

t0

2b

a+b

2 (ba+2t)+(ad)

2b a+d

2 +t

4bt

a+b

(da) a+d

2 (da+2t)

2 +t(ad)

4bt

3a+d

b

4 a+d 2 a+d

2

= c2

a+3d

2

a+d

2

(ab)

a+d

2b a+d

2 +2b

2 +t

2t

a+b

2

+ (da+2t)

a+d

2

+t

a+d

2

Theorem 1. (Case 3) If A has two simple nonzero eigenvalues, b = 0 and c = 0, then the matrices

a c

a c

X=

c

a , X = 2c

a

a

2 a

are some solutions of (2).

a 0

x y

If A =

and X =

is the root of it, then

c d

z w

setting X 2 = A is the solution above.

Corollary 1. If A has a zero multiple eigenvalue and

b = c = 0, then in addition to the two solutions

in (4), an infinite number of solutions exist as the following

for (2):

a c

a c

, X = 2

,X =

,

X=

a

a a

a

in which , , = 0 C.

Lemma 2. (Case 4) If A has two zero eigenvalues, then

one of the following cases occurs:

a) If b = c = 0, then X = 0 is a solution of the equation.

b) If b = 0 and c = 0, then the equation has no solution.

c) If c = 0 and b = 0, then the equation has no solution.

d) If bc = 0, then the equation has no solution.

x y

, we can verify all four cases prez w

sented before. Case (a) is trivial. For case (b), if b = 0 and

c = 0, then from X 2 = A, we must have:

2

w + xy = 0

x2 + yz = 0

y = 0 or (x + w) = 0.

(x + w)y = 0

z(x + w) = c

Assuming X =

c = 0. If x + w = 0, then we must have c = 0, which is

impossible. Therefore, in this case, the second root of A

does not exist.

Case (c) is similar to case (b) and for case (d), according

to the characteristic equation of matrix A, we have:

2 (a + d) + ab bc = 0.

By our assumption, matrix A has two zero eigenvalues,

then

a+d =0

ad bc = 0.

As a result, a = d and bc = a2 and as b and c are

nonzero, so a = 0. Thus, in removing b and d, we have:

2

a ac

.

A=

c a

Now,

weclaim that this matrix has no square root. If

x y

X=

is its root, then according to X 2 = A, we have:

z w

w2 + xy = a2 ,

(3)

x2 + yz = a,

(4)

xy + yw =

a2

,

c

(5)

xz + wz = c,

(6)

a2

,

c

and also from (6), with c = 0, we have:

y(x + w) =

(7)

z(x + w) = c x + w = 0 and z = 0.

According to both (5) and (6), we achieve

c2

y,

a2

z=

and (8), conclude that

(x + w)(

c2

y) = c.

a2

x2

y2 c2

a2

(8)

y

z

a2

c2

(9)

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w2

c2

a2

y2 = a

x2 w2 = 2a

(10)

2

2cy

a

;

= 2a x w =

(x w)

cy

a

(11)

x+w=

a2

;

cy

(12)

2x =

Proof. 1 = a, 2 = d, 3 = d + t (t 0) E =

a 0

0

0

d 0 .

d+t

0 0

AX1 = 1 X1 X1 = 0

d

AX2 = 2 X2 X2 =

betc e T

AX3 = 3 X3 X3 = t(adt) t 1

2c

az

c

a2

y

x= y

;

a

cy

a

2cy

1 b

V = 0 a d

0 0

2

c

a2

a2

c 2 y2

y

= a 2 = 0 a = 0,

a

2cy

az

4c yz

X = lim VEV 1 =

0

t0

0

The second root of all square matrices that have different eigenvalues are achieved. In this article, the cases are

studied in which eigenvalues are not different.

The second root of a matrix A is X = VEV 1 , where V

is a matrix, rows of which are eigenvectors of A and also

V is diagonal matrix, and the entries on its diagonal are

square root of eigenvalues of A, because

X 2 = (VEV (1) )2 = VEV (1) VEV (1) = VE2 V (1) = A.

In this section, we solve the problem for the triangular

matrix A. Next, we attempt to solve the problem for a

more generalized case.

Theorem 2. The second root of matrix

a b c

A = 0 d e ,

0 0 d

m=

be( d a) + (d a)(

be

2 d

(a d)2

m=

b

a+ d

2 d

be

2 d

(a d)2

+ c d c a)

1 4 9

Example 1. The second root of A = 0 4 1 equals:

0 0 4

4 26

1 3 9

X = 0 2 14

.

0 0 2

d b c

Theorem 3. The second root of A = 0 d e , in which

0 0 a

a = d and d = 0 equals X such that

b

d 2d

X = 0 d

0 0

+ c d c a)

be( d a) + (d a)(

a b m

a+

d

e ,

X= 0

d

2 d

0

0

d

in which

be+tc

td+t 2 ta

e

t

2 d

(ad)2

e

a+ d

1 = d, 2 = d + t (t 0),

d 0

0

3 = a E = 0

d+t 0

a

0

0

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1 bt be+cacd

2

(ad)

e

Proof. AXi = i Xi , i = 1, 2, 3 V = 0 1

ad

0 0

1

b

2 d

(ad)2

2 d

.

e

X = lim VEV 1 =

0

d

t0

a+

d

a

0 0

9 6 17

Example 2. Second root of A = 0 9 14 is equal

0 0 25

3 1 75

32

with X = 0 3 74 .

0 0 5

a b c

Theorem 4. Second root of A = 0 d e in which a = d

0 0 a

a b

n

a+

d

d e

a+

d

a

0

0

and n is as n =

(beca+cd)(a+d)

+eb

2 a

(ad)2

d+c a(ad)

1 = a, 2 = d, 3 = a + t(t 0)

a 0

0

E= 0

d 0 , AXi = i Xi , i = 1, 2, 3

a+t

0 0

1 b

Proof. V = 0 d a

0 0

be+ct+cacd

(ad)2

e

t+ad

X = lim VEV 1 = 0

(beca+cd)(a+d)

+eb

2 a

(ad)2

X= 0

0

e

a+

d

d+c a(ad)

Example 3.

b

a+

d

t0

n=

and

9 7 5

Second root of A = 0 16 4 equals:

0 0 9

31

1 42

4 47 .

0 3

a b c

Theorem 5. Second root of A = 0 a d , that a = 0 is

0 0 a

4cabd

b

a 2

a 8ad a

X= 0

a 2 a .

0 0

a

1 = a, 2 = a + t, (t 0), 3 = a + 2t,

a 0

0

,

a+t 0

(t 0) E = 0

a + 2t

0

0

bd+2ct

1 bd+tc

t2

4t 2

d

,

Proof. AXi = i Xi , i = 1, 2, 3 V = 0 dt

2t

0 1

1

4cabd

b

a 2

a 8a a

1

d

X = lim VEV = 0

a 2a .

t0

0 0

a

4 9 3

Example 4. Calculate the second root of A = 0 4 11 ,

0 0 4

9 147

2 4 64

.

X = 0 2 11

4

0 0 2

matrix that has iterated eigenvalue (the four cases mentioned previously), we do as the upper triangular matrix

since (At )m y = (Am y)t .

0 0 0

Theorem 6. If A = a 0 0 , d = 0 then

b c d

(a) If a = 0, then A has no lower triangular second root.

(b) If a = 0, then A has infinite second roots as

0

0 0

0 0

X = t

, where t is a free parameter.

b dtc c

d

d

d

0 0 1, 100

Example 5. Find the second root of 0 0 1, 200

0 0 1, 600

such

that sum of allentries is

100.

0 10 20

0 t 1103t

4

X = 0 0 30 X = 0 0 30 .

0 0 40

0 0 40

Theorem 7. Find the second root of a lower triangular

matrix which has three eigenvalues (all are 0);

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0 0 0

considering A = a 0 0 , with b = 0, we have the

b c 0

following:

(b) If at least a or c is not 0, then A has no lower triangular

second root.

Example 6. Calculate the second root of A

0 0 1, 390

0 0 0 such that sum of all entries is 1,391.

0 0 0

0

X = 0

0

1,390

t

0

0

0

0

t X = 0

0

0

0

X = 0

0

1 0

0 1, 390 or

0 0

0 1, 390

0 1 .

0 0

Theorem

a 0 b

0 a 0 , when a = b, and a = 0, equals:

0 0 d

0

0

bc d a+ ad

2 a

(ad)2

a

0

0

d

0

0

bc d a+ ad

2 a

(ad)2

c

a+ d

b

a+ d

.

0

1

V = 0

0

bc

t(ad+t)

1

c

ad+t

b

0 ,

da

da 0

0

1 bc

1

c

,

adjA =

=

d a ad+t

t

detA

da

b

0

1

a x12

VEV 1 = 0 a + t

0 x23

b

a+

d

d ,

1

(13)

where

x12

when A is special 3 3 non-triangular matrix.

a 0 b

Theorem 9. The second root of matrix A = 0 a 0 ,

0 0 d

when a = b, and a = 0, equals

V 1

Example 7.

9 0 19

0 9 0 .

0 5 16

95 19

3 294 7

The solution is X = 0 3 0 .

0 57 4

has the following form:

b

a+ d

det(A I) = 0, we have = a, a, d. Thus,

a 0

0

a + t 0 .

E= 0

0

d

x32

=

,

t(d a)(a d + t)

c a + t(d a) c(d a) d

.

=

(d a)(a d + t)

tends to zero; therefore,

X = lim VEV 1

t0

a

=

0

0

)

bc( d a+ 2ad

a

(ad)2

c

a+ d

b

a+ d

.

0

3 permutation

0 1 0

0 0 1

matrices P12 = 1 0 0 , P13 = 0 1 0 and

0 0 1

1 0 0

i+1 1i i+1

1i

1 0 0

2

2 0

2 0 2

i+1

, 0 1 0

P23 = 0 0 1 equals 1i

2

2 0

1i

i+1

0 1 0

0 0 1

2 0 2

1

0

1i

, respectively, where i = 1.

and 0 i+1

2

2

i+1

0 1i

2

2

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I) = 0, we have

= 1, 1, 1. Thus,

the matrix

1 0

0

1 1 1

E = 0 1 + t 0 , and the matrix V = 1 1 1 .Then,

1 0 0

0

0

i

1+t+i

1+ti

1

1

+

t

2

2

2

0

0

1

and by taking limit when t tends to zero, we obtain

solution.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors contributions

AN and HF carried out the proof. AN and MB read and approved the final

manuscript.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to an anonymous referee, whose sensible suggestions led to

a significant rewrite which greatly simplified the overall presentation of the

results.

Received: 10 May 2013 Accepted: 24 July 2013

Published: 27

24 July

Aug 2013

2013

References

1. Cross, GW, Lancaster, P: Square roots of complex matrices. Linear

Multilinear Algebra. 1, 289293 (1974)

2. Higham, NJ: Computing real square roots of a real matrix . Linear Algebra

Appl. 8889, 405430 (1987)

3. Bjorck, A, Hammarling, S: A Schur method for the square root of a matrix.

Linear Algebra Appl. 5253, 127140 (1983)

4. Higham, NJ: Stable iterations for the matrix square root. Numer.

Algorithms. 15, 227242 (1997)

5. Higham, NJ, Mackey, DS, Mackey, N, Tisseur, F: Function preserving matrix

groups and iterations for the matrix square root. SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl.

26(3), 849877 (2005)

6. Liu, Z, Zhang, Y, Santos, J, Ralha, R: On computing complex square roots

of real matrices. Appl. Math. Lett. 25, 15651568 (2012)

7. Ikramov, KhD: On the matrix equation X X = A. Dokl. Math. 79(1), 5355

(2009)

10.1186/2251-7456-7-44

doi:10.1186/2251-7456-7-39

Cite this article as: Nazari et al.: A manual approach for calculating the root

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of square matrix of dimension . Mathematical Sciences 2013

journal and benet from:

7 Convenient online submission

7 Rigorous peer review

7 Immediate publication on acceptance

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