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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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PREFACE

As a part of our third semester curriculum, we have a module called summer project
which was to be done during our summer break. A research and analysis work was
supposed to be done in this context.
There were many suggestive topics related directly or indirectly to the apparel
industry. I had chosen Ecofinishing of fabric under sustainable processing in apparel
industry as my research project.
I feel happy that I worked upon a topic related to Ecofinishing and its
APPLICATIONS. This way I got to learn about natural substance acting as ecofinish
for fabrics.

I would also like to sincerely thank our faculty mentor and guide Mr. K.Anant Phani
for guiding me in the accomplishment of this project.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to take this opportunity to extend my deepest regards to my faculty guide
and mentor, Mr. K.Anant Phani who guided and helped me throughout the progress.
He provided me all the knowledge and information and support that were worth
useful in my research work. I also appreciate his effort to countercheck as well as
give feedback whenever I needed.
Lastly, I am grateful to NIFT-Hyderabad also, for giving me an opportunity to provide
a window in our curriculum to do such a research work.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 5
2. NECESSITY OF ANTI- BACTERIAL AND ANTI-MICROBIAL FINISHES.6
3. ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI BACTERIAL FINISHING METHODOLOGIES6
4. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANTI- MICROBIAL AND ANTI-BACTERIAL..7-9
FINISHES FOR FABRIC
5. CONCLUSION..10
6. REFRENCES11

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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INTRODUCTION

Increasing global competition in textiles has created many challenges for textile
researchers and industrialists. The rapid growth in technical textiles and their enduses has generated many opportunities for the application of innovative finishes.
Novel finishes of high added value for apparel fabrics are also greatly appreciated by
a more discerning and demanding consumer market. Antimicrobial textiles with
improved functionality find a variety of applications such as health and hygiene
products, specially the garments worn close to the skin and several medical
applications, such as infection control and barrier material.
The use of natural products such as chitosan2 and natural dyes3-5 for antimicrobial
finishing of textile materials has been widely reported. Other natural herbal products,
such as Aloe vera, tea tree oil, Eucalyptus oil and tulsi leaf are also playing a vital
role in such finishes.

Fig 1.0 Anti-bacterial sock

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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Necessity of Antimicrobial and Antibacterial Finishes

To control microorganisms and bacteria.


To reduce odour from perspiration, stains and other soil on textile material.
To control spread of disease and danger of infection.
To control the deterioration of textiles particularly fabrics made from natural
fibre caused by mildew.

Antimicrobial and anti bacterial Finishing Methodologies

The antimicrobial agents can be applied to the textile substrates by exhaust,


pad-dry-cure, coating, spray and foam techniques.

The substances can also be applied by directly adding into the fibre spinning
dope.

Insolubilisation of the active substances in/on the fibre

Treating the fibre with resin, condensates or cross linking agents

Micro encapsulation of the antimicrobial agents with the fibre matrix .

Coating the fibre surface.

Chemical modification of the fibre by covalent bond formation.

Use of graft polymers, homo polymers and or co polymerization on to the


fibre.

Fig 2.0 Anti-bacterial bandage

DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANTI- MICROBIAL AND ANTI-BACTERIAL


FINISHES FOR FABRIC
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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EUCALYPTUS OIL: Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus radiate) has terrific cleansing


properties. Eucalyptus oil has been shown to fight against infection causing bacteria,
fungi, and virus very effectively. It is powerful in helping our psoriasis and also it is
natural and complements the skin.
AZUKI BEANS: The water extracts of green, black and red coloured Azuki beans
shows antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, the extract of
white azuki beans shows no inhibition toward any of the microorganisms examined.
These results suggest that polyphenols including proanthocyanidins in colored Azuki
beans may be responsible for their antibacterial activity. This antimicrobial activity of
Azuki beans can also be explored on textile materials as well.
SERICIN: Silk sericin is a natural macromolecular protein formulation because of its
pest repellent properties. It

has been derived from silkworm Bombyx mori and

constitutes a potential to inhibit growth of bacteria both Gram 25-30% of silk protein.
Most of the sericin are used in textile application as an antimicrobial agent.
CHITOSAN : Chitosan and its derivatives have received a lot of biodegradable
polymer. .Chitin is one of the attention as antimicrobial agents for use in textiles.
Most abundant polysaccharides found in nature, Chitosan can be attached
chemically onto the cotton derived from marine shells and mollusks. . Chitosan
citrate has been a linear chain of acetylglucosamine groups while used as a nonformaldehyde based durable press chitosan is obtained by removing enough acetyl
finish having antimicrobial properties.
ALOE LEAF: Contains aloe vera also possesses antifungal and antibacterial 75
nutrients and 200 active compounds, including properties, which can be exploited for
medical textile 20 minerals, 18 amino acids and 12 vitamins. These applications,
such as wound dressing, suture, rich constituents give the Aloe vera gel special
bioactive textiles, etc.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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NEEM EXTRACT: It has been recognized as one of the most promising sources of
compounds with insect control, antimicrobial and medicinal properties. Several other
sources of plant dyes rich in napthoquinones such as heena, lawsome are reported
to exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-fungal

activities. Scientists have studied

antimicrobial Tannins66 are naturally occurring poly-properties of eleven natural dyes


against Gram phenols, which are water soluble and found in positive and Gram
negative bacteria. They found many plant species as well as trees, accumulated in
that the antimicrobial efficacy of a dye would vary parts such as bark, wood, leaf,
roots or fruits.
PRICKLY CHAFF FLOWER: It is novel medicinal activity is yet to be explored
Prickly chaff flower (Achysanthus aspera) is one of on textile substrates. The
Ayurvedic herbs found all over India.It showed anti-microbial activity on both the
Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial but its level of antibacterial activity was
found to be lower than that of neem oil.
TULSI LEAVES: Tulsi belonging to Labiatae extracted from rhizomes of several
species, has been family consists of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum used as a
colorant for dyeing of wool, silk and Linn. The main constituents of tulsi are eugenol
which act as a amtimicrobial agent. During studies it has been seen that it has good
effect on cotton.
TEA TREE: Tea tree is native to the north coast of New South Wales. The oil of tea
tree brings together over 100 different compound and is globally recognized as a
natural medicinal product. It has antiseptic, dermatological and anti-fungal benefits
and can be also used to fight infection. The oil is active against wide range of
bacteria. Its oil also gained widespread therapeutic use for fungal and anti microbial
infection and is registered for exploration on textile substrate.
ONION SKIN AND PULP EXTRACT: Onion member of Lilliceae family, has property
of anti-microbial when treated on cotton fabric. The oxygen plasma treated cotton
fabric were grafted for different duration at 70C with onion pulp extracts.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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OTHER HERBAL PRODUCTS : Turmeric or cumin, a yellow florescent pigment


extracted from rhizomes of several species, has been used as a colorant for dyeing
of wool, silk and unmordanted cotton. The turmeric also imparts antimicrobial
property because of its bactericidal activity. A recent study has been reported on the
application of hiba oil (cypress oil) as an antimicrobial agent for textiles.

Fig3.0 Anti-bacterial gloves

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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CONCLUSION

There is a vast resource of natural antimicrobial agents, which can be used for
imparting useful antimicrobial property to textile substrates. Although, there are many
cited literature, wherein efforts have been made to exploit these ecofriendly bioactive
natural products for textile application, but there are very few studies which have
carried out systematic in-depth investigation. The major challenges in application of
natural products for textile application are that most of these biomaterials are
complex mixtures of several compounds and also the composition varies in different
species of the same plant. The activity and composition also vary, depending on their
geographical location, age and method of extraction.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

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REFRENCES
1. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research ,Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 295-304 by
M Joshia, S Wazed Ali & R Purwar

WEB REFERENCE
2. http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/pdffiles/antimicrobial-finishes.pdf
3. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehosdt/ebookviewer/ebook/bmxIYmtfXzUxNzExNF9fQU
41?sid=1b7271b7-56f9-405c-ac6002966cc6sf81@sessionmgr4002&vid=3&format=EB&rid=1
4. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&sid=1b7271b7-56f9-405c-ac6002966cc6sf81@sessionmgr4002&hid=4104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGI27Q
%3d%3d#db=teh&AN=13467143

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