structural analysis

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structural analysis

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004

Spring, 2009

Block 4:

Structural Behavior of

Slender Members (1-D)

Unit M4.1 - p. 1

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

Through participation in the lectures, recitations, and work

associated with Block M4, it is intended that you will be

able to

.describe the key aspects composing the model of

the one-dimensional structures of a rod, a beam, a

shaft, and a column

.identify the limitations associated with these models

.apply the basic equations of elasticity to derive the

solutions for the general cases of various onedimensional structures

.apply these models to examine the behavior of

various structural configurations

Paul A. Lagace 2008

Unit M4.1 - p. 2

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

Unit M4.1

Summary of Equations of Elasticity

Readings:

CDL 5.6

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

Through participation in the lectures, recitations, and work

associated with Unit M4.1, it is intended that you will be

able to

.summarize the governing equations of elasticity and

explain the fundamental concepts upon which they

are based and that they represent

.describe the logical steps to be taken in applying

these equations for a given structural configuration

Unit M4.1 - p. 4

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

then see where we can go with this.

Given general body under applied surfaces forces and body forces

Figure M4.1-1

x3

x1

x2

Paul A. Lagace 2008

Unit M4.1 - p. 5

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

point:

u1

u2

u3

2 2u2 u21 3 2 22 2 2 1 31 313 22 2 2 13 1 3

3 3u3 u32 3 3 33 3 3 2 32 323 33 3 3 23 2 3

3

+

displacements

6

+

6

strains

stresses

15

unknowns

equations:

1 um

u

mn

n

mn Equilibrium:

=

+

(3)

+ fn = 0

2 xn

x mn

1 um

un

(6) Strain-Displacement: mn =

+

2

x

x

n

m

(from compatibility)

(6) Stress-strain:

(constitutive)

mnmn == EEmnpq

mnpq

p qp q

or

p q = S pqmn mn

Paul A. Lagace 2008

Unit M4.1 - p. 6

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

=> 15 equations in 15 unknowns (see handout M-8 for fully written out)

But, recall assumptions/limitations:

e.g., - small strain

- linear behavior

.

.

.

Also, we had the 6 equations of strain-compatibility

These equations then have to be solved for the particular configuration.

This involved a basic logical set of steps:

1. Modeling Assumptions

Modeling assumptions are made for the particular class of structural

member

Paul A. Lagace 2008

Unit M4.1 - p. 7

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

a) Geometry

b) Loading /Stress State

c) Deformation/Strain State

These assumptions result in limitations on the behavior

Again, a key issue is consistency.

Note: A component may actually be classified

differently if it is used differently although it

physically is the same piece (example: a rod

and a beam can look exactly the same)

2. Boundary Conditions

but

There are two types of boundary conditions (B.C.):

(a) on stresses (call such area A)

(b) on displacements (call such area AU)

All surface area must have one or the other (note that a

value of 0 is a boundary condition)

Paul A. Lagace 2008

Unit M4.1 - p. 8

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

Figure M4.1-2

Au

need (this is the Theory of Elasticity)

to solve the formulated problem

Once the problem is modeled, there are basically two approaches:

a. Exactly/Analytical -- satisfy all equations and B.C.s

--> Can be done for certain special models (will see in

second term of Unified, 16.20)

b. Numerical Techniques -- come as close as possible

Paul A. Lagace 2008

Unit M4.1 - p. 9

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

--> most often used nowadays, but analytical solutions still

important in preliminary design or for checking some

modeling

--> All bodies are 3-dimensional, but can often model some

as 1-dimensional (our focus this term)

1-Dimensional structures:

Rods

Beams

(Unified & 16.20)

Columns

Torsional rods (more generally 16.20)

2-Dimensional structures:

Plates

(16.20)

Shells

Unit M4.1 - p. 10

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

statically indeterminate. Thus, must use deflection of

body with static equilibrium, compatibility, and stressstrain relations to solve the problem.

Unit M4.1 - p. 11

MIT - 16.003/16.004

Spring, 2009

Au -- surface area of body over which displacement is prescribed (e.g., a boundary condition)

A -- surface area of body over which stress is prescribed (e.g., a boundary condition)

B.C. -- boundary condition

ui -- displacement of point of body in xi direction (i = 1, 2, or 3)

ij -- strain of point of body (i, j = 1, 2, 3)

x1, x2, x3 -- coordinate directions

Unit M4.1 - p. 12

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