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Choice and sequence of equipment

Valve VLV-100

The amount of pressure
released by valve VLV100 is too much for any
normal valve to handle.
If the pressure if too
high, the valve would fail
and be damaged.

Shell and tube heat

exchanger (after E7.1)

The shell and tube heat

exchanger depicted in
the PFD should not be


No need for incinerator

as the stream to be
burnt off is vapour
phase. Incinerators are
commonly used to
handle solid wastes.

Pump P-103

The pump sequence is


Considering the fact that
the pressure released is
a lot, 1500kpa, the
suggestion is that the
valve to be replaced by
a valves which are
specifically designed to
handle high pressure
such as choke valve and
hydraulic valve. Another
method to overcome this
high pressure release by
using conventional
valves is by using
multiple valves in series
to gradually release the
pressure. With pressure
being distributed
gradually across several
valves, it would be safer
and better for the
process pipeline.
There should be a liquidliquid extractor or an
azeotropic distillation to
separate the azeotropic
mixture between water
and acetic acid as they
have similar boiling
points For liquid-liquid
extraction, there are
several experiments that
have been conducted
(appendix). For
azeotropic distillation,
according to SV Gadekar
2009, entrainer can be
used in a batch
distillation of acetic acid
water system, by using
entainers such as
toluene, benzene and
ethyl acetate.
It is recommended to
use flare gas system or
flare stack. Flares are
combusted directly in
burners on stack with
sufficient height. Flares
do not have a flue gas
handling system as the
vapour to be burnt off
does not emit dangerous
chemicals into the air as
regulations are mostly
enforced when there is
release of sulphur gas
into the atmosphere.
There is no need for a
pump for the feed

Table 1: Distribution ratios and separation factors for extraction of acetic acid
from dilute solution in water with several different solvents at 298.15 K.
Ternary system
Water + Acetic Acid +
Ethyl Acetate
Water + Acetic Acid +
Cyclohexyl Acetate
Water + Acetic Acid +
Dimethyl Phthalate
Water + Acetic Acid +
Diethyl Phthalate
Water + Acetic Acid + 1Pentanol
Water + Acetic Acid +
Water + Acetic Acid +
Water + Acetic Acid +
Methyl Isopropyl Ketone






Sayar et al., 1991



Dramur and Tatl, 1993



Dramur and Tatl, 1993



Fahim et al., 1996



Higashiuchi et al., 1993



Colombo et al., 1999



Correa et al., 1989

Colombo et al., 1999

1. Colombo, A., Battilana, P., Ragaini, V. and Bianchi, C.L., Liquid-Liquid
Equilibria of the Ternary Systems Water+Acetic Acid+Ethyl Acetate and
Water+Acetic Acid+Isophorone (3,3,5-Trimethyl-cyclohexen-1one), J.
Chem. Eng. Data, 44, No.1, 35 (1999).
2. Sayar, A.A., Tatl, B. and Dramur, U., Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of the System
Water +Acetic Acid+Cyclohexyl Acetate Ternary, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 36,
378 (1991).
3. Dramur, U. and Tatl, B., Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of Water+Acetic
Acid+Phatalic Esters (Dimethyl Phatalate and Diethyl Phatalate) Ternaries,
J. Chem. Eng. Data, 38, No. 1, 23 (1993).
4. Fahim, M.A., Al-Muhtaseb, S.A. and Alnashef, I.M., Liquid-Liquid Equilibria
of the Ternary System Water+Acetic Acid+1-Pentanol, J. Chem. Eng. Data,
41, No. 3, 562 (1996).
5. Higashiuchi, H., Sakuragi, Y., Nakahara, S., Masamoto, H. and Arai, Y.,
Measurement and Correlation of Liquid-Liquid Equilibria for the WaterOrganic Compound-Acetic Acid Ternary Systems, Memoirs of the Faculty of
Engineering, Kyushu University, 53, No. 4, 235 (1993).
6. Correa, J.M., Blanco, A. and Arce, A., Liquid- Liquid Equilibria of the System
Water+Acetic Acid+Methyl Isopropyl Ketone Between 25 and 55 C, J.
Chem. Eng. Data, 34, No. 4, 415 (1989).
7. Gadekar S V. Narik R V & Bapat J D. Batch distillation parameters for
heterogeneous azeouopic systems. J Chem Engg World. 42 (2007) 44-50.
8. Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Electronic Release,
Wiley InterScience, 2007
9. Patnik T., Solid-Liquid Separation: A Guide to Centrifuge Selection, HEINKEL
Filtering Systems, Inc., American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AiCHE),
July 2012