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Definitions:

define scalar and vector quantities and give

examples;

average speed, velocity and acceleration;

define and apply the torque of a couple;

define thinking distance, braking distance

and stopping distance;

define the joule;

define power as the rate of work done;

define the watt;

define and use the terms stress, strain,

Young modulus and ultimate tensile strength

(breaking stress);

plastic deformation of a material;

Examples: Length, area, volume, distance,

speed, mass, density, pressure,

temperature, energy, work, power, electrical

potential, charge, time

Vector: A quantity that has (both) magnitude

/ size and direction

Examples: Displacement, velocity,

acceleration, momentum, force (lift, drag,

thrust, weight), field(s), a.c. voltage, current

(when calculating fields only)

Displacement = (net) distance moved in a

particular direction.

Instantaneous speed = speed measured

between two point a very small time apart

Average speed = distance covered / time

taken

Velocity = speed in a given direction

Acceleration is the gradient of a velocity vs

time graph. (= change in velocity / time

taken)

The (net) force which gives a mass of 1kg an

acceleration of 1 ms-2.

one of forces perpendicular distance

(between forces) (Not force x perpendicular

distance)

moment = force x perpendicular distance

from pivot / axis / point

Thinking distance: The distance travelled (by

the car) from when the driver sees a problem

and the brakes are applied

Braking distance: The distance travelled (by

the car) whilst the brakes are applied and the

car stops (wtte)

Stopping distance: Thinking distance +

braking distance

work done = force x distance moved /

travelled in the direction of the force

Energy required to move a weight of 1N

(through) a distance of 1 m

power = work (done)/time or power =

energy/time or power = rate of work done

Power required to move 1N through a

distance of 1m in 1 sec (Rate of doing work)

Stress = force/(cross-sectional) area

Strain = extension/original length

Young modulus = stress/strain / Young

modulus is equal to the gradient from stressstrain graph (in the linear region)

Ultimate tensile strength = Maximum stress

material can withstand (before fracture)

Elastic: extension (or compression)

Define density

length / shape/ size (is permanently

deformed / longer) when the force / stress is

removed

Density = mass/volume or mass per (unit)

volume

derive the equations of motion for constant

acceleration in a straight line from a velocity

against time graph;

the equation for the change in gravitational

potential energy;

www.thestudentroom.co.uk

Area of triangle = (v-u) t [(v-u) = at]

= a t2

Area of rectangle = ut add the two together

Work done = force x distance

Force = mass x acceleration

Weight = mass x gravitational field strength

G.P.E. = m x g x h

displacement, speed, velocity and

acceleration

apply the equations for constant acceleration

in a straight line, including the motion of

bodies falling in the Earths uniform

gravitational field without air resistance

apply the equations of constant acceleration You can talk about large

to describe and explain the motion of an

deceleration/acceleration but not quick

object due to a uniform velocity in one

direction and a constant acceleration in a

perpendicular direction

apply the equations for constant acceleration

and F = ma to analyse the motion of objects

apply the principle of moments to solve

Clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment

problems, including the human forearm

apply the idea that work done is equal to the transfer of energy to solve problems

select and apply the equation for kinetic energy

Ek = mv2

select and apply the equation for the change in gravitational potential energy near the

Earths surface Ep = mgh

apply the principle of conservation of energy

to determine the speed of an object falling in

the Earths gravitational field

select and apply the relationship for efficiency

Efficiency = total input energy 100%

useful output energy

select and apply the equation F = kx, where k is the force constant of the spring or the wire

Describe:

describe an experiment to determine the

acceleration of free fall g using a falling

body;

uniform gravitational field with drag;

the centre of gravity of an object;

distance and braking distance;

Time (of fall)

Instruments:

Stop watch/timer/clock/video

Ruler/tape (measure)

Calculation:

g = 2s/t2 or g = 2 gradient of

.

s-t2 graph

g is an estimate: air resistance / drag

parallax (landing time)

starting/stopping the clock

((v+u)/t = s/t, v=u+at, u=0)

(s=ut+1/2at2 (ut=0), s = at2/2, a(g)=2s/t2)

Acceleration:

Terminal velocity:

Net / total / resultant force (on drop) is zero

upward force = downward force /

weight = drag / weight balances drag

Suspend object from a point and then) mark a

vertical line on the object

Plumb line / pendulum (used to find the

vertical line)

Hang from another point / place (and draw

another vertical line) (wtte)

Where the lines intersect gives position of

centre of gravity (wtte)

speed, mass, condition of tyres/tread, condition

of brakes, condition of road (surface), gradient

of road

For each factor, correct description of how

braking distance is affected :

Greater speed means greater distance OR

2

belts and crumple zones in cars reduce

impact forces in accidents;

triggering mechanism;

distance speed

Greater mass means greater distance OR

distance mass

Worn tyres / brakes implies less friction

therefore greater distance

Bald tyres

Wet / slippery / icy road means less friction

therefore greater distance

Uphill means shorter distance

Prevent collision with steering wheel /

windscreen /dashboard

Time for stopping is more / distance for

stopping is more / seat belt stretches

Smaller deceleration / acceleration (of person)

Reference to K.E.=Fs or mv2=Fs

Large deceleration / rapid decrease in speed

(triggers the air bag)

used in GPS

forms, its conversion and conservation,

and apply the principle of energy

conservation to simple examples;

describe how deformation is caused by a

force in one dimension and can be tensile

or compressive;

describe the behaviour of springs and

wires in terms of force, extension, elastic

limit, Hookes law and the force constant

(ie force per unit extension or

compression);

windscreen / dashboard

(Several) satellites used

Distance from (each) satellite is determined.

Time taken for signal to travel from satellite to

car/delay time for signal is determined.

Distance = c x delay time

Position / distance is determined using c /

speed of e.m waves / radio waves /

microwaves and delay time

Trilateration is used to locate the position of

the car OR position of car is where

circles/spheres cross/intersect.

Measurement:

original / initial length (Not: final length)

extension / initial and final lengths, weight /

mass

Equipment:

Micrometer / vernier (calliper) (for the diameter

of the wire)

Ruler / (metre) rule / tape measure (for

measuring the original length / extension)

Travelling microscope (for measuring

extension)

Scales / balance (for measuring the mass &

mg equation is used or for measuring weight) /

Newton meter (for the weight of hanging

masses) / known weights used

Young modulus of a metal in the form of a

wire;

www.thestudentroom.co.uk

describe the shapes of the stress against

strain graphs for typical materials

www.cyberphysics.co.uk

Determine:

determine velocity from the gradient of a displacement against time graph;

determine displacement from the area under a velocity against time graph

determine acceleration from the gradient of a velocity against time graph.

determine the acceleration of an object in the presence of drag;

determine the area under a force against extension (or compression) graph to find the

work done by the force;

Use:

use correctly the named units listed in this

specification as appropriate;

use correctly the following prefixes and their

symbols to indicate decimal sub-multiples or

multiples of units: pico (p), nano (n), micro

(), milli (m), centi (c), kilo (k), mega (M), giga

(G), tera (T);

the resultant of two coplanar vectors such as

displacement, velocity and force

select and use the relationships

average speed = distance / time

acceleration = change in velocity / time

to solve problems

Select and use the equations of motion for

constant acceleration in a straight line:

v = u + at ,

s= (u + v)t

s = ut + at2

v2 = u2 + 2as

select and use the relationship:

weight = mass acceleration of free fall

(W = mg);

use and explain the term terminal velocity.

draw and use a triangle of forces to

represent the equilibrium of three forces

acting at a point in an object;

1012

109

106

103

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

tera

giga

mega

kilo

centi

milli

micro

nano

pico

T

G

M

k

c

m

n

p

1 000 000 000

1 000 000

1 000

0.01

0.001

0.000 001

0.000 000 001

0.000 000 000 001

clockwise moments about a point = sum of

anticlockwise moments about the same

point.

select and use the equation for density:

=m/V

select and use the equation for pressure

p = F/ A

where F is the force normal to the area A

select and use the equations for elastic

potential energy

E = Fx and E = kx2

Explain:

explain that some physical quantities consist

of a numerical magnitude and a unit

explain how experiments carried out by

Galileo overturned Aristotles ideas of motion

experiences a resistive or a frictional force

known as drag

explain that a couple is a pair of forces that

tends to produce rotation only

explain that both the net force and net

moment on an extended object in equilibrium

is zero

different masses dropped (from leaning

tower of Pisa) / rolled down incline plane

Objects have the same acceleration (of free

fall)

Objects hit ground at same time

Drag/air resistance/air friction (makes the

time longer)

drag is proportional to speed2

A pair of equal and opposite force

recall that according to the special theory of relativity, F = ma cannot be used for a particle

travelling at very high speeds because its mass increases

state the factors that affect the magnitude of Area

the drag force

Speed/velocity

(surface) texture/aerodynamic (shape)

Viscosity (of air)/temperature/density

state that the weight of an object is the gravitational force acting on the object

state that the centre of gravity of an object is a point where the entire weight of an object

appears to act

state the principle of conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it

can only be transferred/transformed into

other forms

or

The (total) energy of a system remains

constant

or

(total) initial energy = (total) final energy

state that the efficiency of a device is always less than 100% because of heat losses

State Hookes Law

Extension is proportional to force (applied)

(as long as the elastic limit is not exceeded)

Mathematical requirements:

Make suitable estimates of physical quantities included within this specification

calculate the resultant of two perpendicular vectors such as displacement, velocity and force

resolve a vector such as displacement, velocity and force into two perpendicular components

Solve problems using the relationship: net force = mass acceleration (F = ma) appreciating that

acceleration and the net force are always in the same direction

analyse and solve problems using the terms thinking distance, braking distance and stopping distance

calculate the work done by a force using W = Fx and W = Fx cos

analyse problems where there is an exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic

energy

calculate power when solving problems

interpret and construct Sankey diagrams

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