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P

using

PID, PSS and Fuzzy-PID controlleer.

Siraparapu.Satyanarayana1, Prof. R.K.Sharma2, Asst.Prof. Mukta3, and Sappa.A

Anil Kumar4

1, 2, 3

4

EEE D

Department, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India.

between the LFC and the AVR loops in the Poower Plant. The

combinational effects of these two LFC and A

AVR loops are

studied by extending the linear zed AGC systeem. A complete

system model for LFC with Speed Goverrnor, Turbine,

Integral controller and Power System an

nd AVR with

Excitation System and PID controllers are desscribed. LFC is

for regulation of system frequency. It is also called a power

wer balances in

factor control loop and influence the active pow

the power system network. The LFC is achieveed by the speedgovernor mechanism. The basic principle of the speedgovernor mechanism is to adjust itself as per the load

portional to the

variations. The voltage of the generator is prop

speed and excitation of the generator. If the sspeed is kept at

constant, then the excitation system is used to control the

voltage. The voltage control is also called ass an excitation

control system. This combined model iss tested with

conventional PID Controller, PID with P

Power System

Stabilizer and Fuzzy-PID with Power System Stabilizer. The

results are shown by using simulation; this wiill be reachable

in dynamic and steady state responses.

Index Terms--Active power, automatic, controlller, deviations,

excitation, frequency, fuzzy, generation, geneerator, integral,

load frequency control, power plant, primary ccontrol, reactive

power, secondary control, speed governor,, turbine and

voltage.

II. INTRODUC

CTION

In a modern interconnected pow

wer system, one of the most

significant problem is both activ

ve and reactive power are

never be steady and they will be continuously changes with

increasing and decreasing trend with respect to the load

variations. Due to the load variations,

v

there will be

imbalance between the poweer generation and load

consumption. There may be frequency and voltage

instability problem. When there is a high load variation,

then it may leads to the Poweer blackout conditions or

Power outages in the interconneccted Power System. If we

consider a practical example, th

hat India has two severe

black out conditions in the entiree Indian history. First is on

2nd January 2001, it effect around 300 million people of

northern part of India. Second is on 30th July 2012, it effect

around 670 million people about 9 % of the total population

of the world. The main reason for the blackout on 30th July

2012 is about 27% of the eneergy generated is lost in

transmission or stolen. The afffected areas are northern,

North East, North West, Eastern

n states of the India. The

power was restored in the affectted locations between 31st

July and 01st Aug 2012. The po

ower blackout can also be

seen throughout the world as show

wn in below tabular form.

TABLE I

I. NOMENCLATURE

KA

KE

KF

KG

KI

KP

KT

PE

PL

R

TA

TE

TF

TG

TP

TT

Vref

Vt

VS

The overall gain of excitation system

m

The equivalent gain of a field

The equivalent gain of a governor

Integral controller gain

The equivalent gain of a power system

The equivalent gain of a turbine

Electric Power from AVR Loop

Load disturbance

Speed regulation due to governor acttion

The overall time constant of amplifieer system

The overall time constant of excitatioon system

The overall time constant of a field ssystem

The equivalent time constant of a govvernor

The equivalent time constant of a Po wer system

The equivalent time constant of a turrbine

Reference input voltage

Terminal voltage

Stabilizer output

978-1-4799-4103-2/14/$31.0020 14 IEEE

urs across in the world.

k out condition before it

occurs, there should be some con

ntrol mechanism which has

to be acted automatically for the generation with respect to

the load variations.

III. FREQUENCY

Frequency is very important and plays a vittal role along

with the voltage. Frequency is a global phennomenon; i.e.

Frequency remains same throughout the ssystem. That

means frequency at one end of the system annd at another

end of the system will be same. Generation and load are

responsible for the system frequency. USA and CANDA

countries are having 60 Hz frequency, Indiaa and most of

the Asian countries are having 50 Hz freequency. The

permissible change in frequency is about 22-3% of rated

frequency [1], [3].

By controlling the active power aat generation

side then frequency can be controlled at geneeration side as

well as load side. It is preferred to controol the active

power at the generation side rather than thee load side at

which is done only during the emergencyy conditions.

Active power control is directly related tto frequency

which is same throughout the system [1], [3].

A. Reasons for Frequency Changes in the Pow

wer System

1) If the total active power demand at the load side is

greater than the total active power of thhe generation

then frequency will be fall (decreaases) at the

generation side. So we have to increasse the active

power at the generation station.

2) If the total active power demand at the load side is

lesser than the total active power of thhe generation

then frequency will be raise (increaases) at the

generation side. So we have to decreasse the active

power at the generation station.

3) If the total active power demand at the load side is

equal to the total active power of the generation then

frequency will be in constant at the generaation side.

So, there is no need to regulatte the active

power since frequency is constant. From thee above three

reasons, we can conclude that the frequuency at the

generation station is inversely proportional to the active

power demand at the load side [1], [3].

equal to the total reactive pow

wer of the generation then

the voltage will be in constantt at the generation side.

ulate the reactive power

So, there is no need to regu

since voltage is constant at the generation

g

side. From the

above three reasons, we can con

nclude that voltage at the

generation station is inversely pro

oportional to the reactive

power demand at the load side [2]], [3].

V. LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL LOOP

LFC loop is used to regulate the system frequency and the

active power in the Power Plant. It consists of a two loops

namely primary control loop and secondary control loop.

The primary control loop conssists of speed regulation

droop, speed governor, turbine an

nd generator, where as the

secondary control loop consists of integral controller as

well as the primary control loop

p. By using only primary

control loop in LFC is not suffficient to obtain the zero

steady state response. So, there sh

hould be integral controller

action to acquire the zero steady state response by the LFC

loop. Among all the controllers,, we use the integral type

controller in LFC loop for contrrol action because it has a

reset type characteristics and zerro steady state response of

the frequency deviations is obtain

ned. The output frequency

of the generator is sensed by the frequency sensor and feed

to the comparator. If there is any frequency deviations then

the speed governor will be regulaates the steam input to the

turbine either in increase or deccrease manner, in order to

increase or decrease the active power respectively. The

basic principle of the speed goverrnor is to adjust itself with

respect to the load variations [4]-[[11].

IV. VOLTAGE

Voltage is a local phenomenon, i.e. voltage at

one point and at another end point will be different.

Reactive power control is mainly responsiblle for voltage

control. The permissible change in voltage iss about 5-6

% of rated voltage [2], [3].

A. Reasons for Voltage Changes in the Powerr System

1) If the total reactive power demand at thee load side is

greater than the total reactive power of thhe generation

then the voltage will be fall (decreaases) at the

generation side. So we have to increasee the reactive

power at the generation station.

2) If the total reactive power demand at thee load side is

lesser than the total reactive power of thhe generation

then the voltage will be raise (increases).S

So we have to

decrease the reactive power at the generattion station at

the generation side.

978-1-4799-4103-2/14/$31.0020 14 IEEE

y Control Loop

E REGULATOR LOOP

AVR loop is used to regulate the generator terminal voltage

and the reactive power in the Po

ower Plant. It consists of a

regulator or amplifier, controlleer (PID, Fuzzy-PID etc),

exciter Power System Stabilizer and dc field. The terminal

voltage is sensed by the voltag

ge sensor and fed to the

comparator. If there is any deviations in the voltage then

the exciter will be excites the dc field either in increase or

decrease in magnitude in order to

t increase or decrease the

reactive power respectively. Thee Power System Stabilizer

is used to reduce the negative damping

d

of the high gain

or excitation control loop. This loop is mainnly responsible

for the generation of reactive power andd voltage in a

permissible limit with respect to the load variations [8][11].

TABLE II

VII. CONTROLLERS

conventional types. To design a conventioonal controllers

we have to know the mathematical model of the process

where as the for the non conventional coontroller is not

required. Integral, Proportional, PD, PI, annd PD are the

conventional controller. Fuzzy controller, Neeuro or NeuroFuzzy controllers are the non conventional coontroller [22].

uce the negative damping

of the high gain exciter is called

c

a power system

stabilizer. It acts as a supplem

mentary controller to the

excitation system. The inputs to the power system

stabilizer are speed, frequency

y and power (or) the

combination of both. The outpu

ut of the power system

stabilizer is voltage signal which is introduced in the

excitation system in order to conttrol the output of exciter.

The basic idea of power system stabilizer

s

is to introduce a

pure damping term in order to

t control the negative

damping effect of the exciter [12]], [15]-[19].

A. PID Controller

PID controller consists of a proportionnal, integral,

derivative type of control actions. Proportionnal controller

is used for the recent errors, Integral controlller is used for

the past errors and Derivative controllerr is used to

determine the rate of change of errors. Thhese types of

controllers are called conventional controllerrs and widely

used in the industrial control systems. Thesse controllers

can also use as an Integral, Proportional, PI,, PD and PID

combinations for the different type of controol systems. In

LFC loop these controller is used to stabilize the

frequency and where as for the AVR loop is used to

stabilize the voltage. The transfer functiion for PID

controller is written in the below equation [3]].

K

G ( s ) = K P + i + K D s

s

(1)

w Transfer Function.

Fig.4. Power System Stabilizer with

as in above diagram. For local mode of oscillations, the

time constant for wash out filtter is 1 to 2 seconds is

satisfactory. The PSS gain is cho

osen such that it is fraction

of gain corresponding to instabiility. TW is washout time

constant. KS is the gain of the stabilizer. T1 and T2 are the

time constants of phase compensator. An optimal stabilizer

n of the time constants and

is obtained by the proper selection

gain of the PSS [12]-[14].

C. Fuzzy Controller

Fuzzy Logic can be defined as th

he mapping of input space

to the output space with some conditional

c

or rule based.

Fuzzy set is a set without a crisp,, clearly defined boundary.

It can contain elements with only

o

a partial degree of

membership.It describe about vague

v

concepts (e.g., fast

runner, hot weather, weekend

d days). It admits the

possibility of partial membership in it. The degree an object

belongs to a fuzzy set is denoted by a membership value

between 0 and 1. A membership function associated with a

given fuzzy set maps an inputt value to its appropriate

membership value. The multiv

valve inputs and outputs

which are known as a Membeership Functions and the

multivalve logic are known as a rules or conditions [20][22].

if then rule based. Each input and

a output consists of 11

membership functions. Thereforee totally 121 rules will be

implemented using AND operrator as shown in below

tabular form.

TABLE IIII

an 11 membership functions in each with a rrange of -0.1 to

0.1. The input membership functions are mapped to an

output membership function.

nd AVR loops and having

PID controllers. The real power and

a frequency is regulated

by LFC loop, where as the reacctive power and voltage is

regulated by AVR loop. Therrefore, the active power,

reactive power, frequency and vo

oltage can be regulated in

AGC method. In steady state both

h LFC and AVR loops are

non- interactive loop. But during

g transient state condition

both LFC and AVR loops act as

a interactive in nature. In

this state (AGC), voltage is also related with active power

and hence both loops are interaactive in nature [3], [10],

[11].

Fig.9.Proposed model of AGC with LFC and

a AVR loops.

IX. SIMULATION

N RESULTS

A. AGC with PID Controller

and AVR Loop for regulation iss known as a Automatic

Generation Control which is useed to regulate the Active

power and frequency through thee LFC loop where as the

reactive power and the terminal voltage is regulated by

the AVR loop. The integral in the LFC loop and PID

controller in the AVR loop are ussed to achieve the steady

state response.

TABLE IV

TABLE VII

KI

KG

TG

KT

TT

KP

TP

KF

KA

KE

TE

TA

TF

1.7

0.06

0.32

102

20

0.3794

20

2

0.05

0.05

2.9441

TABLE V

K1

K2

K3

K4

K5

1.853

0.1632

0.3457

1.0304

0.0674

The response of AGC with PID controllerr has a high

settling time, more number of oscillations aand also with

the high peak of maximum overshoot. In ordder to reduce

the number of oscillation there should be another

controller loop which is nothing but a Quaddratic control

loop consists of a Power System Stabilizer. The input to

the Power System Stabilizer is frequency frrom the LFC

loop feedback signal. The output voltage of PSS signal is

given to the PID controller then after it fed tto the exciter.

PSS is used to reduce the negative damping oof the high

to introduce a pure damping term

m in order to control the

negative damping effect of the exciter.

e

The settling time

will greatly reduces as compare with the AGC with PID

controller.

TABLE VIII

KPSS

TW

T1

T2

1/3

1.4

0.10

049

0.0197

Fig.11.S

Simulation block diagram for AGC with PID and PSS

Fig.12.Sim

mulation block diagram for AGC with Fuzzy-PID and PSS

A

with all three models

Fig.13.Frequency Deviations for AGC with all three moddels

TABLE VIIII

AGC-PID

MODEL

m

Maximum

Overshoot

Peak

Time

Settling

Time

0.2078

1.294

6.140

Terminal Voltage

Deviation

0.0360

1.432

6.256

Output Power

Deviation

11.340

1.792

6.041

(Low variation

load 0-30% )

Frequency

Deviation

TABLE IX

AGC-PID-PSS

MODEL

Maximum

Overshoot

Peak

Time

Settling

Time

0.0269

1.985

4.056

Terminal Voltage

Deviation

0.040

1.208

3.853

Output Power

Deviation

Absent

4.181

(Medium

variation Load 3060% )

Frequency

Deviation

& PSS

Maximum

Overshoot

Peak

Time

Settling

Time

0.1942

2.118

3.073

Terminal Voltage

Deviation

0.02523

1917

3.188

Output Power

Deviation

Absent

3.043

(High variation

Load above 60%)

Frequency

Deviation

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

TABLE X

AGC-Fuzzy-PIDPSS MODEL

[5]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

X. CONCLUSION

The terminal voltage and frequency of AVR and LFC loops

are inter act with different controllers with PID, Fuzzy-PID

and PSS were analyzed. The LFC is used to maintain a zero

steady state error, while the AVR loop is to maintain the

machine output voltage with- in a specified limit. It can be

conclude that by using AGC with conventional PID

controller the number of oscillation is more and overshoot

peak is high. In order to reduce the number of oscillations,

maximum peak overshoot and settling time is achieved by

using AGC with Fuzzy-PID and PSS. We can also conclude

that by using AGC with PID controller is suitable to the low

variations of loads (0-30%), AGC with PID and PSS is

suitable for medium variations of loads (30-60%) and AGC

with Fuzzy-PID and PSS is suitable for high variations of

loads (above 60%). The reliable power supply has the

characteristics of minimum frequency deviation and good

terminal voltage response. Therefore the quality of power

supply is determined by having constant frequency and

voltage at the Power Plant using AGC.

XI. REFERENCES

[1] S.Sivanagaraju and G.Sreenivasan, Power System Operation and

Control, 1st Edition, India: Pearson Education, 2009, pp.255-265.

[2] S.Sivanagaraju and G.Sreenivasan, Power System Operation and

Control, 1st Edition, India: Pearson Education, 2009, pp.421.

[3] S.Satyanarayana, R.K.Sharma and G.Mukta, Mutual Effect between

LFC and AVR loops in Power Plant, Electrical and Electronics

Engineering: an International Journal, vol.3, pp.61-69, Feb. 2014.

[4] E.Rakshani and J.Sadeh, A Reduced-Order control with prescribed

degree of stability for Two-Area LFC System in a deregulated

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

Exposition, pp.1-8.

J.Sadeh and E.Rakshani, Multi-area load frequency control in a

deregulated power system using optimal output feedback method, in

Proc.2008 5th International conf. on European Electricity Market,

pp.1-6.

D.P.Kothari and I.J.Nagrath, Modern Power System Analysis, 3rd

Edition, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited, 2008,

pp.290-300.

K.Yamashita and H.Miyagi, Multivariable self-tuning regulator for

load frequency control system with interaction of voltage on load

demand, IEEE Proceedings on Control Theory and Applications,

vol.138, pp.177-183, Mar. 1991.

S.C.Tripathy, N.D.Rao and L.Roy, Optimization of exciter and speed

governor control parameters in stabilizing intersystem oscillations

with voltage dependent load characteristics, International Journal of

Electric Power and Energy Systems, vol.3, pp.127-133, Jul. 1981.

Elyas Rakhshani, Kumars Rouzehi, Sedigheh Sadeh, A New

Combined Model for Simulation of Mutual Effects between LFC and

AVR Loops, in Proc.2009 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy

Engineering, pp.1-5.

Yao-Nan Yu, Electrical Power System Dynamics, 1st Edition, London:

Academic Press, 1983, pp.66-72.

Haadi Saadat, Power System Analysis, 2rd Edition, New York: The

McGraw-Hill Primis, 2010, pp.528-562.

P.Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, 1st Edition, New

York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 1994, pp.766-770.

K.Ogata, Modern Control Systems, 5th Edition, United States:

Prentice Hall Publications, 2010, pp.669-674.

P.Kundur, M.Klein, G.J.Rogers and M.S.Zywno, Application of

power system stabilizers for enhancement of overall system stability,

IEEE Trans. on Power systems, vol.4, pp.614-626, May.1989.

E.V.Larsen and D.A.Swan, Applying Power System Stabilizers part

I: General Concepts, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,

vol.100, pp.3017-3024,Jun.1981

E.V.Larsen and D.A.Swan, Applying Power System Stabilizers part

II: Performance Objective and Tuning Concepts, IEEE Trans. on

Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.100, pp.3025-3033, Jun.1981.

E.V.Larsen and D.A.Swan, Applying Power System Stabilizers part

III: Practical Considerations, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and

Systems, vol.100, pp.3034-3046, Jun.1981.

Adam Dys KO, William E. Leithead, and John O Reilly, Enhanced

Power System Stability by Coordinated PSS Design, IEEE

Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 25, pp.413-42,. Feb. 2010.

Mahiraj Singh Rawat, R. N. Sharma, The Effective Role of PSS in

Damping Inter Area Mode of Oscillation Using MATLAB/

Simulink, in Proc.2011 International Conference on Computational

Intelligence and Communication Systems, vol.3, pp. 732-736..

I. Kocaarslan and Ertugrul Cam, Fuzzy logic controller in

interconnected electrical power systems for load-frequency control,

International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol.

27, pp. 542-549, Oct.2005

V.D.M. Kumar, Intelligent controllers for automatic generation

control, in Proc. IEEE Region 10 International Conference on

Global Connectivity in Energy, Computer, Communication and

Control, vol. 2, pp. 557-574.

Ertugrul Cam, Ilhan Kocaarslan, A fuzzy gain scheduling PI

controller application for an interconnected electrical power system,

Electric Power Systems Research, vol.73, pp.267-274, Mar. 2005.

XI. BIOGRAPHIES

Siraparapu.Satyanarayana who was born at

Andhra Pradesh; in India on 1990. He had

received his B.Tech degree in Electrical and

Electronics Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru

Technological University Kakinada, India in 2012

and M.Tech degree in Electrical Engineering

(Power Systems) from Lovely Professional

University, Punjab, India in 2014. He has

published 3 papers in International Journals. He

nd

got 2 Prize in Poster Presentation for the M.Tech thesis work which was

held at Lovely Professional University. His area of research includes

Power Systems and Automatic Generation Control in Power Plant.

Currently working as a Project Manager in Industrial.

Department of Electrical and Electronics

Engineering since from 2002 to till date in

Lovely Professional University (LPU),

Punjab, India. He had published several

papers in National and International

Journals.

He received his Master of

Engineering in Electrical and Electronics

Engineering from

Punjab Technical

University, Chandigarh, India in 1998. His specialisation includes Power

System and Power Electronics.

Professional University, Phagwara, Jalandhar

from July 2013 in Electrical Engineering. She

has done Masters of Engineering (M.E.) in

Power Systems from PEC University of

Technology, Chandigarh formerly Punjab

Engineering College in 2011-2013.She has

done B.E. in electrical engineering, from

CRSCE, Murthal (Haryana) in 2010. She has

published 5 papers in total in various

international journals and conferences(2 in International conferences

conducted by IRD, 2 in online International journals-IJSCE,IJEAT, one in

national conference conducted by GGGOI, Shahabad). She has got best

Paper award for one of her research paper in an International Conference

by IRD on 25th Nov, 2012.

Pradesh in India on 1990. He received his

B.Tech in Electrical and Electronics

Engineering

from

Jawaharlal

Nehru

Technological University Kakinada, India in

2011.He is currently pursuing the M.Tech

degree in Electrical Engineering at the Sir CR

Reddy College of Engineering, Andhra

Pradesh, India. His specialisation includes in Power Systems and

Automation.

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