You are on page 1of 8

Automatic Generaation Control in Power Plant

P
using
PID, PSS and Fuzzy-PID controlleer.
Siraparapu.Satyanarayana1, Prof. R.K.Sharma2, Asst.Prof. Mukta3, and Sappa.A
Anil Kumar4
1, 2, 3
4

EEE D
Department, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India.

EEE Departmennt, Sir CR Reddy College of Engineering, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract--This paper is proposed to show tthe interaction


between the LFC and the AVR loops in the Poower Plant. The
combinational effects of these two LFC and A
AVR loops are
studied by extending the linear zed AGC systeem. A complete
system model for LFC with Speed Goverrnor, Turbine,
Integral controller and Power System an
nd AVR with
Excitation System and PID controllers are desscribed. LFC is
for regulation of system frequency. It is also called a power
wer balances in
factor control loop and influence the active pow
the power system network. The LFC is achieveed by the speedgovernor mechanism. The basic principle of the speedgovernor mechanism is to adjust itself as per the load
portional to the
variations. The voltage of the generator is prop
speed and excitation of the generator. If the sspeed is kept at
constant, then the excitation system is used to control the
voltage. The voltage control is also called ass an excitation
control system. This combined model iss tested with
conventional PID Controller, PID with P
Power System
Stabilizer and Fuzzy-PID with Power System Stabilizer. The
results are shown by using simulation; this wiill be reachable
in dynamic and steady state responses.
Index Terms--Active power, automatic, controlller, deviations,
excitation, frequency, fuzzy, generation, geneerator, integral,
load frequency control, power plant, primary ccontrol, reactive
power, secondary control, speed governor,, turbine and
voltage.

II. INTRODUC
CTION
In a modern interconnected pow
wer system, one of the most
significant problem is both activ
ve and reactive power are
never be steady and they will be continuously changes with
increasing and decreasing trend with respect to the load
variations. Due to the load variations,
v
there will be
imbalance between the poweer generation and load
consumption. There may be frequency and voltage
instability problem. When there is a high load variation,
then it may leads to the Poweer blackout conditions or
Power outages in the interconneccted Power System. If we
consider a practical example, th
hat India has two severe
black out conditions in the entiree Indian history. First is on
2nd January 2001, it effect around 300 million people of
northern part of India. Second is on 30th July 2012, it effect
around 670 million people about 9 % of the total population
of the world. The main reason for the blackout on 30th July
2012 is about 27% of the eneergy generated is lost in
transmission or stolen. The afffected areas are northern,
North East, North West, Eastern
n states of the India. The
power was restored in the affectted locations between 31st
July and 01st Aug 2012. The po
ower blackout can also be
seen throughout the world as show
wn in below tabular form.
TABLE I

I. NOMENCLATURE
KA
KE
KF
KG
KI
KP
KT
PE
PL
R
TA
TE
TF
TG
TP
TT
Vref
Vt
VS

The overall gain of amplifier system


The overall gain of excitation system
m
The equivalent gain of a field
The equivalent gain of a governor
Integral controller gain
The equivalent gain of a power system
The equivalent gain of a turbine
Electric Power from AVR Loop
Load disturbance
Speed regulation due to governor acttion
The overall time constant of amplifieer system
The overall time constant of excitatioon system
The overall time constant of a field ssystem
The equivalent time constant of a govvernor
The equivalent time constant of a Po wer system
The equivalent time constant of a turrbine
Reference input voltage
Terminal voltage
Stabilizer output

978-1-4799-4103-2/14/$31.0020 14 IEEE

Power blackout condition occu


urs across in the world.

In order to avoid black


k out condition before it
occurs, there should be some con
ntrol mechanism which has
to be acted automatically for the generation with respect to
the load variations.

III. FREQUENCY
Frequency is very important and plays a vittal role along
with the voltage. Frequency is a global phennomenon; i.e.
Frequency remains same throughout the ssystem. That
means frequency at one end of the system annd at another
end of the system will be same. Generation and load are
responsible for the system frequency. USA and CANDA
countries are having 60 Hz frequency, Indiaa and most of
the Asian countries are having 50 Hz freequency. The
permissible change in frequency is about 22-3% of rated
frequency [1], [3].
By controlling the active power aat generation
side then frequency can be controlled at geneeration side as
well as load side. It is preferred to controol the active
power at the generation side rather than thee load side at
which is done only during the emergencyy conditions.
Active power control is directly related tto frequency
which is same throughout the system [1], [3].
A. Reasons for Frequency Changes in the Pow
wer System
1) If the total active power demand at the load side is
greater than the total active power of thhe generation
then frequency will be fall (decreaases) at the
generation side. So we have to increasse the active
power at the generation station.
2) If the total active power demand at the load side is
lesser than the total active power of thhe generation
then frequency will be raise (increaases) at the
generation side. So we have to decreasse the active
power at the generation station.
3) If the total active power demand at the load side is
equal to the total active power of the generation then
frequency will be in constant at the generaation side.
So, there is no need to regulatte the active
power since frequency is constant. From thee above three
reasons, we can conclude that the frequuency at the
generation station is inversely proportional to the active
power demand at the load side [1], [3].

3) If the total reactive power deemand at the load side is


equal to the total reactive pow
wer of the generation then
the voltage will be in constantt at the generation side.
ulate the reactive power
So, there is no need to regu
since voltage is constant at the generation
g
side. From the
above three reasons, we can con
nclude that voltage at the
generation station is inversely pro
oportional to the reactive
power demand at the load side [2]], [3].
V. LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL LOOP
LFC loop is used to regulate the system frequency and the
active power in the Power Plant. It consists of a two loops
namely primary control loop and secondary control loop.
The primary control loop conssists of speed regulation
droop, speed governor, turbine an
nd generator, where as the
secondary control loop consists of integral controller as
well as the primary control loop
p. By using only primary
control loop in LFC is not suffficient to obtain the zero
steady state response. So, there sh
hould be integral controller
action to acquire the zero steady state response by the LFC
loop. Among all the controllers,, we use the integral type
controller in LFC loop for contrrol action because it has a
reset type characteristics and zerro steady state response of
the frequency deviations is obtain
ned. The output frequency
of the generator is sensed by the frequency sensor and feed
to the comparator. If there is any frequency deviations then
the speed governor will be regulaates the steam input to the
turbine either in increase or deccrease manner, in order to
increase or decrease the active power respectively. The
basic principle of the speed goverrnor is to adjust itself with
respect to the load variations [4]-[[11].

IV. VOLTAGE
Voltage is a local phenomenon, i.e. voltage at
one point and at another end point will be different.
Reactive power control is mainly responsiblle for voltage
control. The permissible change in voltage iss about 5-6
% of rated voltage [2], [3].
A. Reasons for Voltage Changes in the Powerr System
1) If the total reactive power demand at thee load side is
greater than the total reactive power of thhe generation
then the voltage will be fall (decreaases) at the
generation side. So we have to increasee the reactive
power at the generation station.
2) If the total reactive power demand at thee load side is
lesser than the total reactive power of thhe generation
then the voltage will be raise (increases).S
So we have to
decrease the reactive power at the generattion station at
the generation side.
978-1-4799-4103-2/14/$31.0020 14 IEEE

Fig.1. Load Frequency


y Control Loop

VI. AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE


E REGULATOR LOOP
AVR loop is used to regulate the generator terminal voltage
and the reactive power in the Po
ower Plant. It consists of a
regulator or amplifier, controlleer (PID, Fuzzy-PID etc),
exciter Power System Stabilizer and dc field. The terminal
voltage is sensed by the voltag
ge sensor and fed to the
comparator. If there is any deviations in the voltage then
the exciter will be excites the dc field either in increase or
decrease in magnitude in order to
t increase or decrease the
reactive power respectively. Thee Power System Stabilizer
is used to reduce the negative damping
d
of the high gain

exciter. This loop is also called as a reactive power control


or excitation control loop. This loop is mainnly responsible
for the generation of reactive power andd voltage in a
permissible limit with respect to the load variations [8][11].

TABLE II

Performance characteristicss of PID controller.

B. Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

Fig.2. Automatic Voltage Regulator Looop

VII. CONTROLLERS

Controllers are broadly classified into convenntional and non


conventional types. To design a conventioonal controllers
we have to know the mathematical model of the process
where as the for the non conventional coontroller is not
required. Integral, Proportional, PD, PI, annd PD are the
conventional controller. Fuzzy controller, Neeuro or NeuroFuzzy controllers are the non conventional coontroller [22].

The device which is used to redu


uce the negative damping
of the high gain exciter is called
c
a power system
stabilizer. It acts as a supplem
mentary controller to the
excitation system. The inputs to the power system
stabilizer are speed, frequency
y and power (or) the
combination of both. The outpu
ut of the power system
stabilizer is voltage signal which is introduced in the
excitation system in order to conttrol the output of exciter.
The basic idea of power system stabilizer
s
is to introduce a
pure damping term in order to
t control the negative
damping effect of the exciter [12]], [15]-[19].

A. PID Controller
PID controller consists of a proportionnal, integral,
derivative type of control actions. Proportionnal controller
is used for the recent errors, Integral controlller is used for
the past errors and Derivative controllerr is used to
determine the rate of change of errors. Thhese types of
controllers are called conventional controllerrs and widely
used in the industrial control systems. Thesse controllers
can also use as an Integral, Proportional, PI,, PD and PID
combinations for the different type of controol systems. In
LFC loop these controller is used to stabilize the
frequency and where as for the AVR loop is used to
stabilize the voltage. The transfer functiion for PID
controller is written in the below equation [3]].

K
G ( s ) = K P + i + K D s
s

Fig.3. Conventional controller-PID

(1)

w Transfer Function.
Fig.4. Power System Stabilizer with

The PSS complete transfer function is represented


as in above diagram. For local mode of oscillations, the
time constant for wash out filtter is 1 to 2 seconds is
satisfactory. The PSS gain is cho
osen such that it is fraction
of gain corresponding to instabiility. TW is washout time
constant. KS is the gain of the stabilizer. T1 and T2 are the
time constants of phase compensator. An optimal stabilizer
n of the time constants and
is obtained by the proper selection
gain of the PSS [12]-[14].
C. Fuzzy Controller
Fuzzy Logic can be defined as th
he mapping of input space
to the output space with some conditional
c
or rule based.
Fuzzy set is a set without a crisp,, clearly defined boundary.
It can contain elements with only
o
a partial degree of
membership.It describe about vague
v
concepts (e.g., fast
runner, hot weather, weekend
d days). It admits the
possibility of partial membership in it. The degree an object
belongs to a fuzzy set is denoted by a membership value
between 0 and 1. A membership function associated with a
given fuzzy set maps an inputt value to its appropriate
membership value. The multiv
valve inputs and outputs
which are known as a Membeership Functions and the
multivalve logic are known as a rules or conditions [20][22].

We have considered two inputs and one output using an


if then rule based. Each input and
a output consists of 11
membership functions. Thereforee totally 121 rules will be
implemented using AND operrator as shown in below
tabular form.
TABLE IIII

Fuzzy rule based for the inputs and output.

Fig.5. Schematic Diagram of Fuzzy Logic Conntroller.

They are two inputs and one outpuut is taken with


an 11 membership functions in each with a rrange of -0.1 to
0.1. The input membership functions are mapped to an
output membership function.

VIII. AUTOMATIC GENERATIION CONTROL (AGC)

Fig.6. Fuzzy Input 01 with 11 membership funnctions.

It is the coupling of both LFC an


nd AVR loops and having
PID controllers. The real power and
a frequency is regulated
by LFC loop, where as the reacctive power and voltage is
regulated by AVR loop. Therrefore, the active power,
reactive power, frequency and vo
oltage can be regulated in
AGC method. In steady state both
h LFC and AVR loops are
non- interactive loop. But during
g transient state condition
both LFC and AVR loops act as
a interactive in nature. In
this state (AGC), voltage is also related with active power
and hence both loops are interaactive in nature [3], [10],
[11].

Fig.7. Fuzzy Input 02 with 11 membership funnctions.


Fig.9.Proposed model of AGC with LFC and
a AVR loops.

IX. SIMULATION
N RESULTS
A. AGC with PID Controller

Fig.8. Fuzzy output with 11 membership funcctions.

By coupling of both Load Frequeency Control Loop (LFC)


and AVR Loop for regulation iss known as a Automatic
Generation Control which is useed to regulate the Active
power and frequency through thee LFC loop where as the
reactive power and the terminal voltage is regulated by
the AVR loop. The integral in the LFC loop and PID
controller in the AVR loop are ussed to achieve the steady
state response.

TABLE IV

TABLE VII

LFC parameters for AGC

Parameter values forr AVR loop

KI

KG

TG

KT

TT

KP

TP

KF

KA

KE

TE

TA

TF

1.7

0.06

0.32

102

20

0.3794

20
2

0.05

0.05

2.9441

TABLE V

Gain values for AVR loop


K1

K2

K3

K4

K5

1.853

0.1632

0.3457

1.0304

0.0674

Figg.10.Simulation block diagram for AGC with PID

B. AGC with PID Controller and PSS


The response of AGC with PID controllerr has a high
settling time, more number of oscillations aand also with
the high peak of maximum overshoot. In ordder to reduce
the number of oscillation there should be another
controller loop which is nothing but a Quaddratic control
loop consists of a Power System Stabilizer. The input to
the Power System Stabilizer is frequency frrom the LFC
loop feedback signal. The output voltage of PSS signal is
given to the PID controller then after it fed tto the exciter.
PSS is used to reduce the negative damping oof the high

Gain exciter. The basic idea of power system stabilizer is


to introduce a pure damping term
m in order to control the
negative damping effect of the exciter.
e
The settling time
will greatly reduces as compare with the AGC with PID
controller.
TABLE VIII

Parameter valuess for PSS


KPSS

TW

T1

T2

1/3

1.4

0.10
049

0.0197

Fig.11.S
Simulation block diagram for AGC with PID and PSS

C. AGC with Fuzzy-PID Controller and PSS

Fig.12.Sim
mulation block diagram for AGC with Fuzzy-PID and PSS

D. Comparison Results of AGC with PID, PSSS and FuzzyPID Controller

Fig.15.Output Power Deviations for AGC


A
with all three models
Fig.13.Frequency Deviations for AGC with all three moddels
TABLE VIIII

Different parameter responsees for AGC with PID


AGC-PID
MODEL

m
Maximum
Overshoot

Peak
Time

Settling
Time

0.2078

1.294

6.140

Terminal Voltage
Deviation

0.0360

1.432

6.256

Output Power
Deviation

11.340

1.792

6.041

(Low variation
load 0-30% )
Frequency
Deviation

Fig.14.Terminal Voltage Deviations for AGC with aall three models.

TABLE IX

Different parameters response for AGC with PID & PSS


AGC-PID-PSS
MODEL

Maximum
Overshoot

Peak
Time

Settling
Time

0.0269

1.985

4.056

Terminal Voltage
Deviation

0.040

1.208

3.853

Output Power
Deviation

Absent

4.181

(Medium
variation Load 3060% )
Frequency
Deviation

Different parameters responses for AGC with Fuzzy-PID


& PSS
Maximum
Overshoot

Peak
Time

Settling
Time

0.1942

2.118

3.073

Terminal Voltage
Deviation

0.02523

1917

3.188

Output Power
Deviation

Absent

3.043

(High variation
Load above 60%)
Frequency
Deviation

[6]
[7]

[8]

[9]

TABLE X

AGC-Fuzzy-PIDPSS MODEL

[5]

[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]

X. CONCLUSION
The terminal voltage and frequency of AVR and LFC loops
are inter act with different controllers with PID, Fuzzy-PID
and PSS were analyzed. The LFC is used to maintain a zero
steady state error, while the AVR loop is to maintain the
machine output voltage with- in a specified limit. It can be
conclude that by using AGC with conventional PID
controller the number of oscillation is more and overshoot
peak is high. In order to reduce the number of oscillations,
maximum peak overshoot and settling time is achieved by
using AGC with Fuzzy-PID and PSS. We can also conclude
that by using AGC with PID controller is suitable to the low
variations of loads (0-30%), AGC with PID and PSS is
suitable for medium variations of loads (30-60%) and AGC
with Fuzzy-PID and PSS is suitable for high variations of
loads (above 60%). The reliable power supply has the
characteristics of minimum frequency deviation and good
terminal voltage response. Therefore the quality of power
supply is determined by having constant frequency and
voltage at the Power Plant using AGC.
XI. REFERENCES
[1] S.Sivanagaraju and G.Sreenivasan, Power System Operation and
Control, 1st Edition, India: Pearson Education, 2009, pp.255-265.
[2] S.Sivanagaraju and G.Sreenivasan, Power System Operation and
Control, 1st Edition, India: Pearson Education, 2009, pp.421.
[3] S.Satyanarayana, R.K.Sharma and G.Mukta, Mutual Effect between
LFC and AVR loops in Power Plant, Electrical and Electronics
Engineering: an International Journal, vol.3, pp.61-69, Feb. 2014.
[4] E.Rakshani and J.Sadeh, A Reduced-Order control with prescribed
degree of stability for Two-Area LFC System in a deregulated

[17]
[18]
[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

environment, in Proc.2009 Power Systems Conference and


Exposition, pp.1-8.
J.Sadeh and E.Rakshani, Multi-area load frequency control in a
deregulated power system using optimal output feedback method, in
Proc.2008 5th International conf. on European Electricity Market,
pp.1-6.
D.P.Kothari and I.J.Nagrath, Modern Power System Analysis, 3rd
Edition, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited, 2008,
pp.290-300.
K.Yamashita and H.Miyagi, Multivariable self-tuning regulator for
load frequency control system with interaction of voltage on load
demand, IEEE Proceedings on Control Theory and Applications,
vol.138, pp.177-183, Mar. 1991.
S.C.Tripathy, N.D.Rao and L.Roy, Optimization of exciter and speed
governor control parameters in stabilizing intersystem oscillations
with voltage dependent load characteristics, International Journal of
Electric Power and Energy Systems, vol.3, pp.127-133, Jul. 1981.
Elyas Rakhshani, Kumars Rouzehi, Sedigheh Sadeh, A New
Combined Model for Simulation of Mutual Effects between LFC and
AVR Loops, in Proc.2009 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy
Engineering, pp.1-5.
Yao-Nan Yu, Electrical Power System Dynamics, 1st Edition, London:
Academic Press, 1983, pp.66-72.
Haadi Saadat, Power System Analysis, 2rd Edition, New York: The
McGraw-Hill Primis, 2010, pp.528-562.
P.Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, 1st Edition, New
York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 1994, pp.766-770.
K.Ogata, Modern Control Systems, 5th Edition, United States:
Prentice Hall Publications, 2010, pp.669-674.
P.Kundur, M.Klein, G.J.Rogers and M.S.Zywno, Application of
power system stabilizers for enhancement of overall system stability,
IEEE Trans. on Power systems, vol.4, pp.614-626, May.1989.
E.V.Larsen and D.A.Swan, Applying Power System Stabilizers part
I: General Concepts, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,
vol.100, pp.3017-3024,Jun.1981
E.V.Larsen and D.A.Swan, Applying Power System Stabilizers part
II: Performance Objective and Tuning Concepts, IEEE Trans. on
Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.100, pp.3025-3033, Jun.1981.
E.V.Larsen and D.A.Swan, Applying Power System Stabilizers part
III: Practical Considerations, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and
Systems, vol.100, pp.3034-3046, Jun.1981.
Adam Dys KO, William E. Leithead, and John O Reilly, Enhanced
Power System Stability by Coordinated PSS Design, IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 25, pp.413-42,. Feb. 2010.
Mahiraj Singh Rawat, R. N. Sharma, The Effective Role of PSS in
Damping Inter Area Mode of Oscillation Using MATLAB/
Simulink, in Proc.2011 International Conference on Computational
Intelligence and Communication Systems, vol.3, pp. 732-736..
I. Kocaarslan and Ertugrul Cam, Fuzzy logic controller in
interconnected electrical power systems for load-frequency control,
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol.
27, pp. 542-549, Oct.2005
V.D.M. Kumar, Intelligent controllers for automatic generation
control, in Proc. IEEE Region 10 International Conference on
Global Connectivity in Energy, Computer, Communication and
Control, vol. 2, pp. 557-574.
Ertugrul Cam, Ilhan Kocaarslan, A fuzzy gain scheduling PI
controller application for an interconnected electrical power system,
Electric Power Systems Research, vol.73, pp.267-274, Mar. 2005.

XI. BIOGRAPHIES
Siraparapu.Satyanarayana who was born at
Andhra Pradesh; in India on 1990. He had
received his B.Tech degree in Electrical and
Electronics Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University Kakinada, India in 2012
and M.Tech degree in Electrical Engineering
(Power Systems) from Lovely Professional
University, Punjab, India in 2014. He has
published 3 papers in International Journals. He
nd
got 2 Prize in Poster Presentation for the M.Tech thesis work which was
held at Lovely Professional University. His area of research includes
Power Systems and Automatic Generation Control in Power Plant.
Currently working as a Project Manager in Industrial.

Prof. R.K.Sharma who is the Head of the


Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering since from 2002 to till date in
Lovely Professional University (LPU),
Punjab, India. He had published several
papers in National and International
Journals.
He received his Master of
Engineering in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering from
Punjab Technical
University, Chandigarh, India in 1998. His specialisation includes Power
System and Power Electronics.

Gaur. Mukta, Assistant Professor in Lovely


Professional University, Phagwara, Jalandhar
from July 2013 in Electrical Engineering. She
has done Masters of Engineering (M.E.) in
Power Systems from PEC University of
Technology, Chandigarh formerly Punjab
Engineering College in 2011-2013.She has
done B.E. in electrical engineering, from
CRSCE, Murthal (Haryana) in 2010. She has
published 5 papers in total in various
international journals and conferences(2 in International conferences
conducted by IRD, 2 in online International journals-IJSCE,IJEAT, one in
national conference conducted by GGGOI, Shahabad). She has got best
Paper award for one of her research paper in an International Conference
by IRD on 25th Nov, 2012.

Sappa.Anil Kumar who was born at Andhra


Pradesh in India on 1990. He received his
B.Tech in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering
from
Jawaharlal
Nehru
Technological University Kakinada, India in
2011.He is currently pursuing the M.Tech
degree in Electrical Engineering at the Sir CR
Reddy College of Engineering, Andhra
Pradesh, India. His specialisation includes in Power Systems and
Automation.