How to dimension a newly created Part/Assembly drawing

Yugandhar G
28/10/04 1

Preface
Drawing is the language of engineers. Like any other language it has some rules to be followed. This session has been designed keeping the most common need felt by the new joiners and little experienced engineers in creation of new industrial drawing. These session would give insight into the various drawings, dimensioning practices, GD&T representations and most commonly made mistakes by the associates.

28/10/04

2

Contents
Various types of drawings Drawings stages in product life cycle Fundamental rules of dimensioning Datum selection and representations in drawings Various dimensioning schemes Do’s and Don'ts while creating a new drawing Commonly made mistakes in the drawings
28/10/04 3

Various types of Drawings
Part drawings
Machining Forgings/ Casting Sheet metal Plastics As Molded Machined

Post bend Pre bend As Cast / Forged Machined
28/10/04

4

Importance of various drawings
• Part drawings :

The purpose of these drawings to convey the manufacturing, measuring dimension, testing requirements and to provide general notes like draft angles, fillet dimensions, general wall thickness etc.

Assembly drawings :

The purpose of this drawing is to show some important assembly dimensions, overall dimension of assembly, assembly process requirements like insertion force, tightening torque requirements, test requirements, assembly sequence etc
28/10/04 5

Importance of various drawings
• General arrangement(GA) / interface drawings :
The purpose of this drawing is to convey mounting dimension with the mating components, car assembly positions, testing requirements. Generally these drawings represent the top level assembly being supplied to its customer

28/10/04

6

Examples of various drawings

Completely dimensioned part drawing
28/10/04 7

Examples of various drawings

Assembly drawings with important dimensions
28/10/04 8

Examples of various drawings

28/10/04

Assembly drawings with assembly machining dimensions

9

Examples of various drawings

28/10/04

Interfacing drawings with functional requirements, car co-ordinate position of important points

10

Fundamental rules of dimensioning
• Dimensioning and tolerancing should clearly define the engineering intent • No more dimensions than those necessary for complete definition shall be given. • Dimensions shall be selected and arranged to suit the function and mating relation ship of a part and shall not be subject to more than one interpretation • Importance dimension should have controlled tolerance, otherwise general tolerance would be used. • Dimensions should be arranged to provide required information with optimum readability
28/10/04 11

Drawings stages in product life cycle
Amount of detailing can vary according to the stage
• • • • Concept : Few important details to convey the design concept for further evaluation Proto type : Moderate dimension to produce the parts for Design Validation purpose. Design release: Complete dimensioning of the part for regular production. After market / Service drawing: Few dimensions to identify the part from similar component. Basically overall length, mounting thread size etc
12

28/10/04

Two main points before dimensioning

• Selection of origin (Datum) from which dimensions are shown.
– Origin can be a Plane/Axis

• Type of dimensioning scheme
– Ordinate / Chain / Direct – Combination of above Both generally requires understanding of component geometry, interfacing components and its dimensioning scheme.
28/10/04 13

Selection of Datum features

Datum features most often be:
• Functional:
Representative of seating features, mating features and alignment features

• Accessible:
Which is influenced by sufficient surface area and location

• Repeatable
Which is influence greatly by the feature’s precession of form

28/10/04

14

Various dimensioning schemes
Chain Dimension:
Any variation at one dimension would propagate till end.

Base line dimension:
Tolerance higher than direct dimension Checking of part is easy.

28/10/04

15

Various dimensioning schemes

Direct dimensioning: Used when least tolerance between two features required.

28/10/04

16

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

Rectangular co-ordinate dimension. •This scheme is used when there are series of hole in a plane •Easy for inspection
28/10/04 17

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

Rectangular co-ordinate dimension. • This representation is used not to overload the drawing with dimensions.
28/10/04

• Improves readability

18

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

Polar Dimensioning •This is scheme is used when series of holes on a circular path at various angle •Easy to visualize the hole PCD •If rectangular co-ordinate scheme is used here, PCD need to be arrived.
28/10/04 19

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Direct dimensioning used locally to locate separate components. This way tolerance accumulation at each set of holes can be avoided. Starting of each pitch given from common reference

Combination of Ordinate and chain dimensioning

28/10/04

20

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Assembly exploded view

Resting plane. So dimensions are given from there
28/10/04

This hole act as a alignment feature. So dimensions are given from here.

21

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

28/10/04

This Plane act as a mating feature. So dimensions are given from here.

22

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

28/10/04

Origin taken from here, being it is bearing mating face

Direct dimensioning

23

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Pre Bend drawing Post Bend drawing

Selected as datum, since it has long edges. It is preferred to select non bending edges as datum •Datum convention to be same in pre bend and post bend
28/10/04

Selected as datum, since it has maximum resting area
24

•Principle view of prebend and post bend drawing to be of same orientation to aid easy understanding

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Pre Bend drawing Post Bend drawing

28/10/04

Principle views of various components to be of same orientation to aid better understanding. (Preferably as seen in assembly principle view)

25

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

Detail view taken to avoid overloading of dimensions in principle view.

28/10/04

26

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Origin hole

In PCB plate components, origin to be hole center with ordinate dimension to be follow.
28/10/04 27

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Ordinate dimensioning from center, being it is aligning feature

Direct dimensioning, being these are related to a single mating part
28/10/04 28

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Bearing Motor mating plane

Gear assembly sectional view shown for better understanding of slides to follow.
28/10/04

Motor assembly
29

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Housing – Machining drawing Datum B, being this is bearing seating diameter

28/10/04

These three holes are used to fix a retainer plate to arrest Bearing.

Position tolerance given with respect to Datum B. 30

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
3 1 2

1) Dimension from center to end: To control end mating plane 2) Direct dimension form end to Bearing butting face: To control bearing position with respect to motor rotor
28/10/04

3) Direct dimension for Bearing width

31

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Housing – Casting drawing

Some of the important dimension to ensure sufficient clearance in assembly and to ensure machining stock

28/10/04

32

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Mating face, so dimensions are given from here

Cover – Machining drawing Only machining details would be given. 28/10/04 Dimensions are given from center, since it is aligning feature 33

Selection of origin and dimension scheme
Origin is the machining plane in the casting drawings also

Notes showing draft, radius, nominal thickness, general tolerance Cover – Casting drawing
28/10/04

Only casting details would be given.

34

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

Here direct dimension given to reduce the tolerance accumulation
28/10/04

This hole act as a alignment feature. So dimensions are given from here.
35

Selection of origin and dimension scheme

This defines the length of engagement of mating component. These dimensions to be given from end. (not from center)
28/10/04 36

Dimensioning of Taper parts

Unlike cylindrical parts, taper feature diameter varies along with length. So fix a particular diameter called “GAUGE dia”, corresponding length would have tolerance.
28/10/04 37

Datum representation

28/10/04

If misaligned, it means to the tangent line, not to the axis

38

Datum representation

If misaligned with dimension, it means datum to the top plane only.
28/10/04 39

Datum representation

28/10/04

40

Datum representation

28/10/04

41

Reference dimensions

32.90 Ref

28/10/04

42

Reference dimensions
• It is just a balance dimension in a set of dimension. • The tolerance on this dimension to be is arrived from its driving dimension. • It is just given for ready reference ( to avoid calculations). • When the dimension is repeated in the drawing. • Generally reference dimension need not be used while modeling. • Disadvantages of showing reference dimensions: Possibility of not updating when driving dimension changes. This is the reason some of the reference dimensions will not match while conversion jobs
28/10/04 43

Meaning of Basic dimension

A dimension for which tolerance is specified elsewhere in the drawing, in this case it is specified in the hole positional tolerance. This also called True dimension. The Ø symbol in tolerance control frame to be used when feature is circular ie hole, arc and this circular tolerance zone is for the feature axis.
44

28/10/04

Meaning of QA dimension
This is the index, based on which Quality personnel will check the dimension. This would ensure they have not missed any dimension

28/10/04

45

Do's while creating a drawing
Selection of principle view:
• As seen in the assembly orientation. • To have most important details to show. • Circular components to be detailed axis horizontal.

Selection of scale:
• Drawing should not be dominated by too many dimensions compared to part geometry. • When taken in actual print, geometry should be readable.
28/10/04 46

Do's while creating a drawing
• Different views for different purposes / details for complex parts

Have a separate to view to show related dimensions like Hole dimensions, placement Slot dimension and placement Undercut dimensions Groove dimension etc Place the reference dimension for a detail in its parent view only
28/10/04 47

Do's while creating a drawing
Sectional views:
• When aligned with parent view: Follow the rule of I / III angel projection • When not aligned with parent view for space reasons: Place in the proper side with respect to arrow from parent view. Here also follow the angle of projection

28/10/04

48

Do's while creating a drawing
• Avoid crossing of leader lines • Use detail views to avoid cluster of dimensions • Always use upper case letters in drawing ( exceptions: units etc) • Place the dimensions in most appropriate view • Use MS word to spell check if it is meaningful • Look for Ø, R symbols before circular dimension, since in some software it does not come by default • Leader line to be slanted. ( Not horizontal or vertical)
28/10/04 49

Do's while creating a drawing
• Blank some components, tangent lines for clarity if possible • Group all the related details to its view • Look for angle of projection when referring drawing from other sources • Avoid repeated and redundant dimensions • Show center lines for a circular feature where it is being dimensioned • Place the detail view hatch style as in parent view • Update the view to avoid unwanted datums, lines
28/10/04 50

Do's while creating a drawing
• For non 45 degree chamfers show land, angle separately • Always keep mating component and its dimensioning scheme in mind • Keep reference dimensions to the minimum • Follow the sequence in labeling the views (Excluding I, O, Q, S) • For flexible parts like seals, O-rings, springs drawings need to be created at free state • Do not keep trailing Zeros in Basic (True) dimensions
28/10/04 51

Do's while creating a drawing
If the dimension is over written (fake) or not to scale, underline the same.

28/10/04

52

Do's while creating a drawing

In multi sheet complex drawings show index in first sheet containing • Datum planes and its definitions, • Section and detail views reference and where it is shown

28/10/04

53

Do's while creating a drawing
For splines and gears, dimension over pins need to be given

28/10/04

Dimension not to be given here

Dimension to be given in appropriate view like this.

54

Do's while creating a drawing

28/10/04

Separate views to show different zones

55

Don'ts while creating a drawing

28/10/04

Find the errors in this drawing?

56

Don'ts while creating a drawing
Repeated

Avoid Redundant dimensions
28/10/04 57

Don'ts while creating a drawing

28/10/04

Section view with out hatching

58

Commonly made mistakes in drawings

28/10/04

Lines missed for threads

59

Commonly made mistakes in drawings

Ø missed
28/10/04 60

Commonly made mistakes in drawings

28/10/04

Datum misaligned with dimension, which gives entirely different meaning

61

Commonly made mistakes in drawings

Datum misaligned with dimension, which gives entirely different meaning
28/10/04 62

Commonly made mistakes in drawings

Right M5x25

Wrong M5 x 25 –No space between M 5x25 – No space between M and 5

28/10/04

M5X25 – use lower case “x”

63

Queries?

28/10/04

64

Thank You

28/10/04

65

28/10/04

66

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful