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Experiment 7

Aim: To analyze the given salt and identify the anion and cation present in it.

S.N
O

EXPERIMENT

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

White

Crystalline

Absence of copper,
cobalt,iron,nickel,
manganese.
Absence of carbonate

Soluble

Absence of Carbonate

No characteristic
odour

Absence of acetate
and ammonium salts.

No characteristic
reaction

Absence of
Carbonate,sulphite,nit
rite and sulphide.

Reddish brown
vapors are
evolved.

May be nitrate or
bromide.
NO3--, Br-

A pale yellow ppt


partially soluble
in NH4OH is

Presence of Bromide
is confirmed.
Br-

Preliminary Test
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

COLOUR
The Colour of given
salt is noted.
APPEARANCE
The appearance of the
given salt is noted
SOLUBILITY IN WATER
A little of the given salt
is dissolved in distilled
water in a test tube
ODOUR
ANION ANALYSIS
ACTION OF
DIL.SULPHURIC ACID
To a little of the substance
taken in a test tube a few
drops of dil. Sulphuric acid
is added .
ACTION OF
CONC.SULPHURIC ACID
To a little of the substance
taken in a test tube a few
drops of conc. Sulphuric acid
is added and warmed.
SILVER NITRATE TEST
To salt solution add dil nitric
acid and silver nitrate solution.

8.

9.

10

11.

12.

13.

14.

To the salt add 1ml of CHCl3


and 2ml of chlorine water and
shake well.
CATION ANALYSIS
Original solution is prepared
by dissolving the salt in water
ZEROGROUP(AMMONIU
M)
To a little of the salt sodium
hydroxide solution is added
and heated
I GROUP (LEAD)
To a little of the original
solution dil. HCI is added.
II GROUP (COPPER)
To a little of the original
solution dil. HCI and
Hydrogen sulphide are added.
III GROUP (ALUMINIUM,
IRON)
To a little of the original
solution ammonium chloride
and ammonium hydroxide
are added.
CONFIRMATORY TEST
To the salt Solution add
sodium hydroxide solution.

obtained
Brown/orange
layer is formed.

Presence of Bromide
is confirmed.
Br-

No characteristic
reaction

Absence of
ammonium
Salts
NH4+

No characteristic
reaction

Absence of I group
Pb2+

No characteristic
reaction

Absence of II group
Cu2+

Gelatinous white
ppt is obtained.

Presence of III
group(may be Al3+)

White ppt soluble


in excess sodium
hydroxide is
obtained. .

To the salt solution add blue


Blue ppt floating
litmus followed by ammonium in colorless
hydroxide solution.
solution is seen.

Presence of
aluminium is
confirmed.
Al3+
Presence of
aluminium is
confirmed.
Al3+

Result: The anion present in the given salt is bromide (Br-) and cation is Al+3.
The salt is Aluminium bromide AlBr3.
(Please note below equations for cations and anion to be written on the blank
page of the journal with pencil.)
Equations:
Al3+
1
.

Al3+ + 3OH-

2
.

Al3+ + H2O + NH4Cl

1
.

2Br-- + H2SO4

White ppt
Al(OH)3 + NaCl + NH3

Br--

HBr +

[O]

From conc H2SO4


2
.
3
.

Al(OH)3

Br-- + AgNO3
2Br-- + Cl2

2HBr + SO42-Br2
Brown
AgBr
Br2 +

+ H2O
+ NO3-2Cl--