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You are on page 1of 14

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS

Chapter Nineteen Readings

Akasofu, S., "The Dynamic Aurora," Scientific American, May 1989, p. 90.

Banerjee, S., "Polar Flip-Flops," The Sciences, November/December 1984, p. 24.

Bitter, F., Magnets: The Education of a Physicist, Science Study Series, Garden

City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1959.

Bloxham, J, and Gubbins, D., "The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field,"

Scientific American, December 1989, p. 68.

Carrigan Jr, R.A. and Trower, W.P., "Superheavy Magnetic Monopoles,"

Scientific American, April 1982, p. 106.

Felch, S., "Searches for Magnetic Monopoles and Fractional Electric Charge,"

The Physics Teacher, March 1984, p. 142.

Hoffman, K.A., "Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo,"

Scientific American, May 1988, p. 76.

Kolm, H.H, and Freeman, A.J., "Intense Magnetic Fields," Scientific American,

April 1965, p. 66.

Rillings, J.H., "Automated Highways," Scientific American, October 1997, p. 80.

Yam, P., "Medical Technology: Magnet on the Brain," Scientific American,

October 1997, p. 80.

L

Review The resistance of the wire used to make the solenoid is R = A . Hence, the length of the wire to

be used is:

RA (5.00 )[(2.50 x 10-4 m)2]

L=

=

= 57.8 m.

1.70 x 10-8 m

The number of times this length will wrap around a 1.00 cm radius cylinder (i.e., the total number

L

57.8 m

of turns of wire that will be on the solenoid) is: N =

=

= 920 . Since the

2r 2(10-2 m)

magnetic field inside a solenoid is given by B = nI, the number of turns of wire needed per unit

length of solenoid is given by:

B

4.00 x 10-2 T

n=

=

= 7.96 x 103 m-1.

I (4 x 10-7 N/A2)(4.00 A)

Thus, the needed length of the solenoid is;

N

920

l= n =

= 1.16 x 10-1 m = 11.6 cm.

7.96 x 103 m-1

19.1 (a), (b), and (c) The direction is given by the right hand rule and recognizing that electrons are

negatively charged.

(d) F = qvBsin = qvBsin(180) = 0.

19.2

(a)

(a) to left,

(b) into page

(c)

out of page

(b)

19.3

(e) into page

(f) out of page

If the charge is negative, the right hand rule is still used, but the direction for the force is

changed by 180. Thus, the answers here are reversed in direction from those given above.

(a) into page,

(b) toward the right

(c)

19.4

F = 2.6 x 10-11 N, directed due west.

19.5

(a)

(b)

19.6

F = 8.7 x 10-14 N.

F

8.67 x 10-14 N

a=m =

= 5.2 x 1013 m/s2.

1.67 x 10-27 kg

The gravitational force is small enough to be ignored, so the magnetic force must supply the

needed centripetal acceleration, or:

mv2

qBR

qvB = R , or

v= m

where R = Rearth + 1000 km. Therefore, v =

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(4.00 x 10-8 T)(7.38 x 106 m)

= 2.83 x 107 m/s

1.67 x 10-27 kg

1

19.7 First find the speed of the electron: KE = 2 mv2 = eV = PE gives

(a)

(b)

19.8

19.9

2eV

m =

= 2.9 x 107 m/s.

(9.11 x 10-31 kg)

Fmax = qvB = (1.60 x 10-19 C)(2.9 x 107 C)(1.70 T) = 7.90 x 10-12 N.

Fmin = 0 occurs when v is either parallel to or anti-parallel to B.

v=

F

3.34 x 10-14 N

B = qv =

= 2.1 x 10-2 T

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(1.0 x 107 m/s)

The right hand rule shows that B must be in the -y direction to yield a force in +z

the +x direction when v is in the z direction.

+y

+x

v

The force on a single ion is:

F = qvBsin= (1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.851 m/s)(0.254 T)sin51.0 = 2.69 x 10-20 N

Thus, assuming all ions move in the same direction through the field, the total force is:

Ftotal = nF = (3 x 1022 ions)(2.69 x 10-20 N) = 806 N

19.10 The work done by a force is W = Fscos where is the angle between the direction of the force and

the direction of the displacement s. But, if F is a magnetic force acting on a charged particle, then

F is always perpendicular to the direction of the velocity and hence the displacement. Therefore,

= 90, and cos = 0. Thus, W = 0.

F

19.11 L = BI. Thus, (0.12 N/m) = B(15 A), and B = 8.0 x 10-3 T.

The direction of B must be out of the page (in +z direction) to have F directed as specified.

19.12

19.13

(a)

(d)

to the left,

toward top of page

(b)

(e)

into page

into page

(c)

(f)

out of page

out of page

19.14

19.15

(a)

(b)

F is perpendicular to B and, by the right hand rule, is directed at 15 above the horizontal in

the northward direction.

F = BILsin = (0.60 x 10-4 T)(15 A)(10.0 m)sin165 = 2.3 x 10-3 N.

The right hand rule shows F is horizontal and directed due west.

19.16

To find the minimum B field, B must be perpendicular to I, and from the right hand rule, it must

be directed downward to produce a northward horizontal force. The friction force per unit length =

N = (mass per unit length)(g),

f

10-3 kg

or L = 0.200 -2 (9.80 m/s2) = 0.196 N/m.

10 m

Thus, the magnetic force per unit length must be 0.196 N/m to overcome the friction force.

F

0.196 N/m

L = BI = 0.196 N/m, or B = 1.50 A = 0.131 T.

19.17

For the wire to move upward at constant speed, the net force acting on it must be zero. Therefore,

Fmagnetic = mg, or

BILsin = mg.

mg

(0.015 kg)(9.80 m/s2)

At = 90, we have B = IL =

= 0.20 T.

(5.0 A)(0.15 m)

The magnetic force must be directed upward. Therefore, B must be directed out of page.

19.18

In order for the rod to float, the magnetic force must have the same magnitude as the weight of the

mg

rod. Thus:

F = BILsin = mg, or

I=

.

The minimum value of I occurs

BLsin

when sin = 1.

(5.00 x 10-2 kg)(9.80 m/s2)

Thus, Imin =

= 0.245 A.

(2.00 T)(1.00 m)

19.19

(a) For max, = 90, and we have:

(b)

1

1

If = 2 max, then sin = 2 , and = 30. This is the angle between the field and the line

perpendicular to the plane of the loop. The angle between the plane of the loop and the field

will therefore be:

=90 - 30 = 60.

19.20 The area of the ellipse is A = (0.200 m(0.150 m) = 9.42 x 10-2 m2. The torque on the coil is given

by:

= NBIA sin = 8(2.00 x 10-4 T)(6.00 A)(9.42 x 10-2 m2) sin90

= 9.04 x 10-4 Nm. (independent of the shape of the area, A)

19.21

19.22

Note that the angle between the line perpendicular to the plane of the coil and the field is: = 90

- 30 = 60. Therefore, the torque is:

= NBIAsin = 100(0.80 T)(1.2 A)(0.12 m2)sin60.0 = 10 N m.

The right hand rule shows the torque will tend to rotate the coil clockwise as viewed from above.

L

2

Each side of the loop will have a length of b = 3 = 3 m. Since the loop is an equilateral triangle,

all angles are 60. The altitude of the triangle is therefore A = bsin60 = 0.577 m and the enclosed

area is:

50

50

4

10 m A

3 aA

10 A

1

1 2

A = 2 bh = 2 (3 m)(0.577 m) = 0.192 m2.

2.99 A

Ip

Rp b

p

The maximum torque occurs when the plane of the loop is parallel to the magnetic field ( = 90)

and is given by:

max = BIA = (0.500 T)(2.00 A)(0.192 m2) = 0.192 N m.

19.23

L (1.70 x 10-8 m)(8.00 m)

R= A =

= 1.36 x 10-3 so

(1.00 x 10-4 m2)

V

0.100 V

I= R =

= 73.5 A.

1.36 x 10-3

Each side of the square loop formed by the wire is 2.00 m long so the enclosed area is A = (2.00

m)2 = 4.00 m2. Then the maximum torque on the loop is: max = IAB = (73.5 A)(4.00 m2)(0.400

T) = 118 N m.

19.24

resistor is:

I = 3.00 A - 10 mA = 2.99 A.

Use the loop rule on the closed loop, and find

-(0.01 A)(50.0 ) + Rp(2.99 A) = 0.

This yields, Rp = 0.167 .

19.25

50.0 x 10-3 V

deflection is:

ic =

= 10-3 A.

50.0

Hence, the current that must exist in the parallel branch is: Ip = 10 A - ic = 10 A - 10-3 A =

9.999 A.

Therefore, the parallel resistor has a value of:

50.0 x 10-3 V

Rp = 9.999 A

= 5.00 x 10-3 .

19.26

VAB = iR + ir = i(R + r) where r = 60.0 , and R is the unknown resistance connected in series

with the meter movement.

1 V = (5 x 10-4 A)(R + 60.0 ) gives R = 1940

19.27

The series resistor that must be used has a value found as:

V = 150 V = (Rs + 40 )(2.0 x 10-3 A),

Which yields,

19.28

Rs = 7.5 x104 .

100

Ip(R1 + R2 + R3) = ic(100 ). In this case, Ip = 0.2999 A

i c= 100

R1

R1 + R2 + R3 = 3.33 x 10-2

Thus,

(1)

If I = 3.00 A, and a and c are the terminals:

Ip(R1 + R2) = ic(100 + R3).

I

a

Thus, we have R1 + R2 - 3.33 x 10-5R3 = 3.33 x 10-3

Finally, if I = 30.0 A and a and b are the terminals:

IpR1 = ic(100 + R2 + R3).

With Ip = 29.9999 A and ic = 100 x 10-6 A, this reduces to:

(2)

b

30 A

R2

R3

c

3A

d

0.3 A

R1 - 3.33 x 10-6R2 - 3.33 x 10-6R3 = 3.33 x 10-4

(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3) simultaneously, we find:

R1 = 3.33 x 10-4 , R2 = 2.998 x 10-3 , and R3 = 2.997 x 10-2 .

19.29

Vab = ic(R1 + 100 ), or

3.00 V=(100 x 10-6 A)(R1 + 100 ).

R1

100

R2

R3

= 100 A

c

From which, R1 = 2.99 x 104 .

a

Likewise,:

Vac = ic(R1 + R2 + 100 ),

and,

30.0 V = (100 x 10-6 A)(R2 + 2.99 x 104 + 100 ),

3V

30 V

300 V

Finally, we see that:

Vad = ic(R1 + R2 + R3 + 100 ). or

300 V = (100 x 10-6 A)(R3 + 2.99 x 104 + 2.7 x 105 +100 ), and

R3 =

2.70 x 106

19.30

To pass through undeflected, the magnitude of the magnetic force must equal the magnitude of the

electric force, and the two forces must be opposite in direction so they will cancel. Thus, qvB =

E

qE, and v = B

19.31

The magnetic force is the force that causes the centripetal acceleration. Thus,

mv2

qvB = R , which reduces to qBR = mv. Therefore,

1

(qBR)2 = m2v2 = 2m(2 mv2) = 2mKE, which gives

Hence, m =

19.32

(qBR)2

m = 2(KE)

= 2.0 x 10-12 kg

2(0.09 J)

E 950 V/m

First, find the speed of the particle: v = B = 0.930 T = 1.02 x 103 m/s

Now, note that the magnetic force causes the centripetal acceleration:

mv2

qvB = R .

mv

(2.18 x 10-26 kg)(1.02 x 103 m/s)

Thus, R = qB =

= 1.49 x 10-4 m

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.930 T)

19.33

1

We use conservation of energy to find the velocity of the ion upon entering the field: 2 mv2 = qV,

2(1.60 x 10-19 C)(250 V)

= 5.66 x 104 m/s

2.50 x 10-26 kg

The magnetic force causes the centripetal acceleration.

mv2

Then: qvB = R ,

mv (2.50 x 10-26 kg)(5.66 x 104 m/s)

and R =

=

qB

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.500 T)

= 1.77 x 10-2 m = 1.77 cm.

or v =

19.34

mv

v

3.00 x 105 m/s

= m 3.125 x 1024 m .

r = qB = m qB = m

-19

kg

(1.60 x 10 C)(0.600 T)

For U235: m = 235(1.67 x 10-27 kg) = 3.925 x 10-25 kg.

Thus, r = (3.125 x 1024 m/kg)(3.925 x 10-25 kg) = 1.227 m.

For U238: m = 238(1.67 x 10-27 kg) = 3.975 x 10-25 kg,

and r = (3.125 x 1024 m/kg)(3.975 x 10-25 kg) = 1.242 m.

Therefore: d = 2(r) = 2(1.242 - 1.227) = 3.0 x 10-2 m = 3.0 cm.

19.35

mv2

mv

qvB = R , or R = qB . The time to complete one orbit is then:

mv

2qB

circumference 2R

2m

T=

= v = v

= qB

speed

2(1.67 x 10-27 kg)

=

= 8.65 x 10-8 m

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.758 T)

19.36

(a)

19.37

We use B =

right to left,

oI

2r

(b)

to find:

out of page,

r=

(c)

oI

(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.0 A)

=

, or

2B

2( 5.0 x 10-5 T)

19.38

oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A) 1.00 x 10-6 T m

B=

=

=

.

r

2r

2r

Call the wire on the left wire 1 and the wire on the right wire 2.

(a) At a point midway between the wires, r1 = r2 = 5.00 cm. Thus,:

1.00 x 10-6 T m

= 2.00 x 10-5 T. Using the right hand rule, we see that both

0.0500 m

fields are in the same direction (into the page), which gives us a resultant field of:

Bnet = B1 + B2 = 4.00 x 10-5 T

(directed into page).

B1 = B2 =

(b)

1.00 x 10-6 T m

= 5.00 x 10-6 T (into the page), and B2 =

0.200 m

1.00 x 10-6 T m

= 10.0 x 10-6 T (out of the page).

0.100 m

Thus, Bnet = 5.00 x 10-6 T (out of page).

(c)

19.39

1.00 x 10-6 T m

= 5.00 x 10-6 T (out of the page), and

0.200 m

1.00 x 10-6 T m

B2 =

= 3.33 x 10-6 T (into the page),

0.300 m

for Bnet = 1.67 x 10-6 T (out of page).

At P2,: B1 =

Call the wire on the left 1 and the wire on the right 2.

oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3.00 A)

(a) B1 =

=

= 6.00 x 10-6 T (upward).

2r

2(1.00 x 10-1 m)

oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A)

B2 =

=

= 10.0 x 10-6 T (downward), so Bnet = 4.00 x 102r

2(1.00 x 10-1 m)

6T

(downward).

(b)

B1

= 45

The field produced by wire 2 at P2 is:

oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5 A)

B2 =

=

2r

2(0.2 m)

B2

= 5.00 x 10-6 T

and the field from wire 1 at point P2 is

oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3 A)

B1 =

=

, or

2R

2(0.283 m)

B1 = 2.12 x 10-6 T. The angle shown in the sketch is 45 .

R

3A

0.2 m

Wire 1

P2

0.2 m

5A

Wire 2

broken into their x and y components. These resultant components are: Bx = -6.5 x 10-6 T,

By = 1.5 x 10-6 T. The Pythagorean theorem gives a resultant field of:B = 6.67 x 10-6 T at

77 to the left of the vertical.

oI

19.40

2r

to the wire along the x-axis (I = 7.00 A) is directed out of the page while the field due to the wire

along the y-axis (I = 6.00 A) is directed into the page. Taking out of the page as positive, we then

o(7.00 A) o(6.00 A)

have Bnet = B7 - B6 =

= 1.67 x 10-7 T. Thus, the resultant field at

2(3.00 m) 2(4.00 m)

point P is 1.67 x 10-7 T directed out of the page.

19.41

oIA

BA =

, where IA is the net current flowing through the area of the circle of radius rA .

2rA

In this case, IA = 1.00 A out of the page (the current in the inner conductor), so

(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(1.00 A)

= 2.00 x 10-4 T counterclockwise.

2(1.00 x 10-3 m)

oIB

Similarly at point B: BB =

, where IB is the net current flowing through the area of the

2rB

circle having radius rB. Taking out of the page as positive, IB = 1.00A - 3.00 A = -2.00 A, or IB =

2.00 A into the page. Therefore,

(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(2.00 A)

BB =

= 1.33 x 10-4 T clockwise.

2(3.00 x 10-3 m)

BA =

19.42

(a)

(b)

19.43

2

oI1I2

F

-7 N (10.0 A) = 2.00 x 10-4 N/m (attracted).

=

=

2

x

10

L

2d

A2 0.100 m

The magnitude remains the same as calculated in (a), but the wires are repelled.

In order for the system to be in equilibrium, the magnetic force per unit length on the top wire must

be equal to its weight per unit length.

oI1I2

F

F

Thus, L = weight per unit length, where: L =

.

2d

(30.0 A)(60.0 A)

We have, (2 x 10-7 T m/A)

= 0.080 N/m, and find

d

19.44

The magnetic force exerted on B by A is directed upward and has a magnitude given by: Fm =

oIAIBL

, where r is the distance between the

2r

oIAIBL

two wires. At equilibrium:

Fm = mg =

,

2r

2r m

or IB =

g.

oIA L

This gives:

2(0.025 m)

IB =

(0.010 kg/m)(9.80 m/s2) = 82 A.

(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(150 A)

19.45

B = onI = (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3000 turns/m)(15.0 A) = 5.65 x 10-2 T.

The force on one of the sides of the loop is:

F = BIL = (5.65 x 10-2 T)(0.200 A)(0.0200 m) = 2.26 x 10-4 N.

With the loop aligned as in the problem, all the forces are directed such that they tend to stretch the

loop. There is no tendency for the forces to cause rotation. Thus, = 0.

19.46

r2

L

,

so

it

carries

current

I

=

R = L

r2

If there is a single layer of windings, the number of turns per unit length is the reciprocal of the

1

wire diameter: n = 2 r.

or2

or

=

L2r

L2

-7

(4 x 10 T m/A)(20 V)(2 x 10-3 m)

=

= 0.464 T

2(1.7 x 10-8 m)10 m

So B = noI =

19.47

(a)

mv2

mv

(9.11 x 10-31 kg)(104 m/s)

qvB = R , or B = qr =

= 2.8 x10-6 T

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(2.0 x 10-2 m)

B

2.8 x 10-6 T

(b) From B = onI:

I=

=

= 8.9 x 10-4 A =

-7

on (4 x 10 Tm/S)(2500 turns/m)

0.89 mA.

19.48

Note that the angle between the field and the line perpendicular to the plane of the coil is 90 -35

= 55. Therefore, the torque is:

= NBIAsin = (1)(0.30 T)(25 A)[(0.30 m)2]sin55 = 1.7 Nm

19.49

Call the wire along the y-axis #1 and the wire along the x-axis #2.

(a)

The field at P produced by wire 1 is

oI1 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3.00 A)

B1 =

=

= 2.00 x 10-6 T (into page),

2r1

2(0.300 m)

and the field due to wire 2 is

oI2 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A)

B2 =

=

= 2.50 x 10-6 T (out of page), Thus, the net field

2r2

2(0.400 m)

is Bnet = 5.0 x 10-7 T

(out of page).

(b)

The field due to wire 2 is:

oI2 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A)

B2 =

=

= 3.33 x 10-6 T

2r2

2(0.300 m)

(For direction, see sketch.

The net field is found from the Pythagorean theorem to be

Bnet = 3.89 x 10-6 T.

The angle, as seen from above the wires (second

+z

B1

0.3 m

We use the same designation for discussing the wires as above. The

field due to wire 1 is:

oI1 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3.00 A)

B

2

B1 =

=

= 2.00 x 10-6 T

2r1

2(0.300 m)

I 2= 5 A

B1

sketch)

is:

B1

tan = B = 0.6 and = 31 (CCW from -y direction).

2

19.50

+y

I1 = 3 A

+x

B

net

A kinetic energy of 400 eV is equivalent to 6.4 x 10-17 J. We find the velocity v as: v =

2 KE

m

2(6.4 x 10-17 J)

= 1.19 x 107 m/s

9.11 x 10-31 kg

mv (9.11 x 10-31 kg)(1.19 x 107 m/s)

Thus, B = qr =

= 8.5 x 10-5 T

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.80 m)

=

19.51

v2

M( r ) = qvB,

Mv

M(1.00 x 105 m/s)

or r =

=

= M(3.13 x 1024 m/kg)

qB (1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.200 T)

For the first particle, M = 20.0 x 10-27 kg, thus

r1 = (20.0 x 10-27 kg)(3.13 x 1024 m/kg) = 6.26 x 10-2 m

For the second particle, M = 23.4 x 10-27 kg, and

r2 = (23.4 x 10-27 kg)(3.13 x 1024 m/kg) = 7.32 x 10-2 m

Thus, after half a revolution, = 2(r2 - r1) = 2.12 cm

19.52

(a)

(b)

At point C, the two currents give rise to oppositely directed magnetic fields. Therefore, to

have B = 0 at C, we require B1 = B2, where B1 is due to 1 and B2 is due to the 10 A current.

oI

I1

I2

15.0 cm

r1

From B =

, we have: r = r , or I = I2r = (10.0 A)5.00 cm = 30.0 A.

2r

1

2

2

At point A, between the wires:

oI1 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(30.0 A)

B1 =

=

= 1.20 x 10-4 T (out of page),

2r1

2(5.00 x 10-2 m)

oI2 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(10.0 A)

B2 =

=

= 4.00 x 10-5 T (out of page).

2r2

2(5.00 x 10-2 m)

Thus,

19.53 The distance to the center of the square is found from the Pythagorean theorem to be:

0.141 m.

The magnitude of the magnetic field of each wire is equal to:

r=

10

oI

(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(4.00 A)

= 5.66 x 10-6 T.

2r

2(0.141 m)

The directions of these fields are indicated in the sketch. The net

Wire 1

T.

B4

The net field toward wire 1, BI is:

B1 = B2 = B3 = B4 =

Thus, from the Pythagorean theorem, we find:

The direction is toward top of page.

19.54

Wire 4

X

B1

B2

Wire 2

mv2

qRB

,

giving

v

=

.

R

m

2R

But the time for one complete revolution is: T = v ,

1

v

qB

qB

The frequency of revolution is f = T =

=

. Therefore, m =

2R 2m

2f

5 rev

We are told that f =

= 3.33 x 103 Hz. Thus,

1.50 x 10-3 s

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.050 T)

m=

, or m = 3.82 x 10-25 kg

2(3.33 x 103 Hz)

0.2 m

B3

0.2 m

X

Wire 3

19.55

mv2

mv

2R

or: qvB = R , giving B = qR . But the time for one complete revolution is T = v , so

2R

v = T and the field becomes:

m 2R

2m

2(1.67 x 10-27 kg)

B=

(

) =

=

= 6.56 x 10-2 T

qR T

qT

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(1.00 x 10-6 s)

19.56

The magnetic forces on the top and bottom segments of the rectangle are equal in magnitude and

opposite in direction. Hence, they cancel. The force on the left vertical segment is:

oI1I2

(5.0 A)(10.0 A)(0.45 m)

FL =

L= (2 x 10-7 N/A2)

0.10 m

2c

= 4.5 x 10-5 N (to left)

The force on the right vertical segment is:

FR = Error!) L = Error!)Error!

= 1.8 x 10-5 N (to right)

Finding the resultant of the two (FR - FL) gives:

Fnet = 2.7 x 10-5 N (to left )

19.57

First find the force constant of the spring system from the elongation produced by the weight of the

wire, mg = 9.80 x 10-2 N, alone:

F

mg 9.80 x 10-2 N

k=

=

=

= 19.6 N/m.

x x

5.0 x 10-3 m

When the magnetic field is on, the total force pulling down on the wire is given by: Fdown = Fm +

mg = k(x)total.

Thus, the magnetic force, Fm is:

Fm = k(x)total - mg = (19.6 N/m)(8.0 x 10-3 m) - 9.80 x 10-2 N

= 5.88 x 10-2 N

11

Fm FmR

(5.88 x 10-2 N)(12 )

But, Fm = BIL. Thus, B = IL = VL =

= 0.59 T.

(24 V)(5.0 x 10-2 m)

19.58

Let us assume the magnetic force is small compared to gravity. Then, its horizontal velocity

component stays nearly constant. We call its value v in the x direction.

From vy2 = voy2 + 2ayy, the vertical component at impact is 2gh in the downward direction.

Thus, from F = qvBsin, we find there is a magnetic force on the ball in the horizontal direction

given by

Fh = Q 2gh B

and a force in the vertical direction given by

Fv = QvB

Fh = 5.0 x 10-6 C 2(9.80)(20.0) (0.0100 T ) = 0.990 x 10-6 N

Fv = 5.0 x 10-6 C(20.0 m/s)(0.0100 T) = 1.00 x 10-6 N

19.59

mv2

F = qvB = r

mv

4.80 x 10-16 kg m/s

B = qr =

= 3.00 T

(1.60 x 10-19 C)(1000 m)

19.60

oI2L (410-7)(140)22(0.1)

(a) F =

=

= 2.46 N

2a

210-3

2.46 N - mloopg

(b) aloop =

= 107.3 m/s2.

mloop

19.61

(a)

(b)

19.62

(a)

(b)

At any point on the ring, the magnetic field has a horizontal component, BH = Bsin, and

a vertical component BV = Bcos. Treat these as two separate fields and consider the forces

they exert on the ring. At any point on the ring, the vertical field exerts a horizontal force

directed inward toward the center of the ring. The horizontal forces exerted on diametrically

opposite points in the ring cancel each other, so the resultant horizontal force on the ring is

zero. At any point on the ring, the outward horizontal field, BH, exerts an upward force on

the ring. The total upward force on the ring is: F = BHIL = (Bsin)I(2r), or

F = (0.01 T)sin30(2.0 A)(2)(2 x 10-2 m) = 1.3 x 10-3 N.

To levitate the ring, the upward magnetic force must equal the weight of the ring: BHIL =

mg, or

m g

(0.01 kg)(9.80 m/s2)

I = L B = (0.01 T)sin30

= 19.6 A.

H

The net upward force on the wire is: Fy = may = ILB - mg, so the upward acceleration is:

IBL

BI

ay = m - g =

- g, where is the mass per unit length of the wire. Thus,

(2 A)(40 x 10-4 T)

ay =

- 9.80 m/s2 = 6.2 m/s2.

5 x 10-4 kg/m

at2

Using y = 2 , we get:

t=

19.63

(a)

2y

a =

0.5 m

2

= 0.40 s when y = 0.5 m.

6.2 m/s2

mv (6.64 x 10-27 kg)(106 m/s)

3.32 x 10-20 C m

r = qB =

=

.

q(0.20 T)

q

(1)

12

If the ion is singly ionized (q = 1.60 x 10-19 C) then (1) gives the radius of the orbit as r1 =

2.1 x 10-1 m = 21 cm, and for the doubly charged ion (q = 3.2 x 10-19 C), we have r2 = 1.0

(b)

19.64

x 10-1 m = 10 cm.

Their distance of separation after one-half their circular path is:

= 2(21 cm - 10 cm) = 22 cm.

magnetic field created by the currents in the wires be

B1, B2, and B3, respectively. (Note that = 45.)

0I

(a) At point A: B1 = B2 =

2a 2

-7

(2 x 10 T m/A)(2.0 A)

B1 = B2 =

(0.01 m) 2

B1 = B2 = 2.83 x 10-5 T, and

1

a 2 a a 2

A

a

a 2

a

a

I = 2 A in

each w ire

(1, 2, & 3)

C

a

3

a 2

2

Figure 1

(2 x 10-7 T m/A)(2.0 A)

B3 =

=

=

3(0.01 m)

23a

1.33 x 10-5 T.

The direction of these three fields are as shown in Figure 2. Observe

that the horizontal components of B1 and B2 cancel while the vertical

B2

components add to B3. Thus, the net field at A is:

0I

BA = B1cos45 + B2cos45 + B3

(b)

(c)

19.65

(a)

(b)

45

45

B3

B1

Figure 2

= 2(2.83 x 10-5 T)cos45 + 1.33 x 10-5 T = 5.3 x 10-5 T.

oI

oI

At point B, B1 = B2 =

= 4 x 10-5 T and B3 =

= 2 x 10-5 T.

2a

22a

The directions of these fields at B are as shown in Figure 3. Thus, B1

B1

B2

and B2 cancel leaving

B

3

BB = B3 = 2.0 x 10-5 T downward.

Fig u re 3

oI

At point C, B1 = B2 =

= 2.83 x 10-5 T, and

B1

B2

2a 2

45

45

oI

B3 =

= 4 x 10-5 T. The directions of these 3 fields at C are as

2a

B3

shown in Figure 4: Again, the horizontal components of B1 and B2

cancel. The vertical components of B1 and B2 both oppose B3 giving:

Fig u re 4

BC = B1cos45 + B2cos45 - B3 = 2(2.83 x 10-5 T)cos45 - 4 x 10-5 T

= 0.

Since the magnetic field is pointing from N to S, a magnetic force will exist pushing positive

charges toward point A and negative charges toward point B. This separation of charges

will then set up an electric field directed from A toward B. At equilibrium, the electric force

V

caused by this field must balance the magnetic force, so qvB = qE = q d ,

V

160 x 10-6 V

or v = Bd =

= 1.33 m/s.

(0.040 T)(3.0 x 10-3 m)

The magnetic field is directed from N to S. If the charge carriers are negative moving in the

direction of v, the magnetic force is directed toward point B. Negative charges build up at

point B, placing A at a higher potential than B. If the charge carriers are positive moving in

the direction of v, the magnetic force is directed toward A, so positive charges build up at A.

This also places A at a higher potential than B. Therefore the sign of the potential difference

does not depend on whether the ions in the blood are positively or negatively charged.

13

(a)

currents in the two wires are in

8 8

opposite directions.

Consider a free body diagram of one of

T = 8

the wires as shown at the right.

Fm

Fx = 0 Fm = Tsin8, and

Fy = 0 mg = Tcos8, so dividing

d/2

d/2

the first equation by the second gives:

w = mg

Fm

= tan8, or Fm = mgtan8.

mg

d

Also observe that 2 = (6 cm)sin8, or d = (0.12 m)sin8 is the distance between the two

oI1I2L

wires. Thus: Fm =

= mgtan8, and since I1 = I2 = I, this becomes: I2 =

2d

2g m dtan8, or

o L

(b)

cm

19.66

I2 =

m

4 x 10-7 T m/A

and

I = 67.8 A.

19.67

2(5.00 x 106 eV)(1.60 x 10-19 J/eV)

= 3.10 x 107 m/s

1.67 x 10-27 kg

mv

1.67 x 10-27 kg(3.10 x 107 m)

and r = qB =

= 6.46 m

(1.60 x 10-19 m)(0.05 T)

(b) The angle is the angle with which the particle leaves the field measured with respect to the

horizontal. It is found as

1m

sin = 6.46 m = 8.90

(a) The magnitude of the proton momentum remains constant, and its final y component is

-(1.67 x 10-27 kg)(3.10 x 107 m/s)sin 8.90 = -8.00 x 10-21 kg m/s

v=

2K

m =

2. If the current is in a direction parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field, then there is

no force.

4. Straight down toward the surface of the Earth.

6. The magnet causes domain alignment in the iron such that the iron becomes magnetic

and is attracted to the original magnet. Now that the iron is magnetic, it can produce an

identical effect in another piece of iron.

8. The magnet produces domain alignment in the nail such that the nail is attracted to the

magnet. Regardless of which pole is used, the alignment in the nail is such that it is

attracted to the magnet.

10. The shock shakes the domains out of alignment.

14

12. At the poles the magnetic field of the Earth points almost straight downward (or

straight upward), in the direction (or opposite to the direction) the charges are moving. As

a result, there is little or no magnetic force exerted on the charged particles at the pole to

deflect them away from the Earth.

14. The loop can be mounted on an axle that can rotate. The current loop will rotate when

placed in an external magnetic field for some arbitrary orientation of the field relative to the

loop. As the current in the loop is increased, the torque on it will increase.

16. Yes, if the magnetic field is directed perpendicular to the plane of the loop, the forces

on opposite sides of the loop will be equal and opposite, but will produce no net torque on

the loop.

18. A charge at rest is completely unaffected by a magnetic field.

20. Such levitation would never occur. At the north pole of the Earth where the field of the

Earth is downward, toward the equivalent of a buried south pole, a coffin would be repelled

if its south pole were directed downward. However, equilibrium would be only transitory

as any slight disturbance would overcome the balance.

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