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CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS
Chapter Nineteen Readings
Akasofu, S., "The Dynamic Aurora," Scientific American, May 1989, p. 90.
Banerjee, S., "Polar Flip-Flops," The Sciences, November/December 1984, p. 24.
Bitter, F., Magnets: The Education of a Physicist, Science Study Series, Garden
City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1959.
Bloxham, J, and Gubbins, D., "The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field,"
Scientific American, December 1989, p. 68.
Carrigan Jr, R.A. and Trower, W.P., "Superheavy Magnetic Monopoles,"
Scientific American, April 1982, p. 106.
Felch, S., "Searches for Magnetic Monopoles and Fractional Electric Charge,"
The Physics Teacher, March 1984, p. 142.
Hoffman, K.A., "Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo,"
Scientific American, May 1988, p. 76.
Kolm, H.H, and Freeman, A.J., "Intense Magnetic Fields," Scientific American,
April 1965, p. 66.
Rillings, J.H., "Automated Highways," Scientific American, October 1997, p. 80.
Yam, P., "Medical Technology: Magnet on the Brain," Scientific American,
October 1997, p. 80.

L
Review The resistance of the wire used to make the solenoid is R = A . Hence, the length of the wire to
be used is:
RA (5.00 )[(2.50 x 10-4 m)2]
L=
=
= 57.8 m.

1.70 x 10-8 m
The number of times this length will wrap around a 1.00 cm radius cylinder (i.e., the total number
L
57.8 m
of turns of wire that will be on the solenoid) is: N =
=
= 920 . Since the
2r 2(10-2 m)
magnetic field inside a solenoid is given by B = nI, the number of turns of wire needed per unit
length of solenoid is given by:
B
4.00 x 10-2 T
n=
=
= 7.96 x 103 m-1.
I (4 x 10-7 N/A2)(4.00 A)
Thus, the needed length of the solenoid is;
N
920
l= n =
= 1.16 x 10-1 m = 11.6 cm.
7.96 x 103 m-1
19.1 (a), (b), and (c) The direction is given by the right hand rule and recognizing that electrons are
negatively charged.
(d) F = qvBsin = qvBsin(180) = 0.
19.2

(a)

These are all applications of the right hand rule:


(a) to left,
(b) into page

(c)

out of page

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


(b)
19.3

(d) toward top of page


(e) into page
(f) out of page
If the charge is negative, the right hand rule is still used, but the direction for the force is
changed by 180. Thus, the answers here are reversed in direction from those given above.

Use the right hand rule. The answers are:


(a) into page,
(b) toward the right

(c)

19.4

F = qvBsin = (4.0 x 10-8 C)(5.0 x 10-5 T)(15 m/s)sin60, or


F = 2.6 x 10-11 N, directed due west.

19.5

(a)

(b)
19.6

toward bottom of page

F = qvBsin = (1.60 x 10-19 C)(3.0 x 106 m/s)(3.0 x 10-1 T)sin 37, or


F = 8.7 x 10-14 N.
F
8.67 x 10-14 N
a=m =
= 5.2 x 1013 m/s2.
1.67 x 10-27 kg

The gravitational force is small enough to be ignored, so the magnetic force must supply the
needed centripetal acceleration, or:
mv2
qBR
qvB = R , or
v= m
where R = Rearth + 1000 km. Therefore, v =
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(4.00 x 10-8 T)(7.38 x 106 m)
= 2.83 x 107 m/s
1.67 x 10-27 kg

1
19.7 First find the speed of the electron: KE = 2 mv2 = eV = PE gives

(a)
(b)
19.8

19.9

2eV
m =

2(1.60 x 10-19 C)(2400 J/C)


= 2.9 x 107 m/s.
(9.11 x 10-31 kg)
Fmax = qvB = (1.60 x 10-19 C)(2.9 x 107 C)(1.70 T) = 7.90 x 10-12 N.
Fmin = 0 occurs when v is either parallel to or anti-parallel to B.
v=

F = ma = (1.67 x 10-27 kg)(2.0 x 1013 m/s2) = 3.34 x 10-14 N.


F
3.34 x 10-14 N
B = qv =
= 2.1 x 10-2 T
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(1.0 x 107 m/s)
The right hand rule shows that B must be in the -y direction to yield a force in +z
the +x direction when v is in the z direction.

+y
+x
v

n = number of Na+ ions present = (3.00 x 1020/cm3)(100 cm3) = 3 x 1022.


The force on a single ion is:
F = qvBsin= (1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.851 m/s)(0.254 T)sin51.0 = 2.69 x 10-20 N
Thus, assuming all ions move in the same direction through the field, the total force is:
Ftotal = nF = (3 x 1022 ions)(2.69 x 10-20 N) = 806 N

19.10 The work done by a force is W = Fscos where is the angle between the direction of the force and
the direction of the displacement s. But, if F is a magnetic force acting on a charged particle, then
F is always perpendicular to the direction of the velocity and hence the displacement. Therefore,
= 90, and cos = 0. Thus, W = 0.
F
19.11 L = BI. Thus, (0.12 N/m) = B(15 A), and B = 8.0 x 10-3 T.
The direction of B must be out of the page (in +z direction) to have F directed as specified.
19.12

(a) into page

19.13

(a)
(d)

(b) toward right (c)

to the left,
toward top of page

toward bottom of page


(b)
(e)

into page
into page

(c)
(f)

out of page
out of page

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


19.14

F = BILsin = (0.300 T)(10.0 A)(5.00 m)sin30.0 = 7.5 N.

19.15

(a)

(b)

F = BILsin = (0.60 x 10-4 T)(15 A)(10.0 m)sin90 = 9.0 x 10-3 N.


F is perpendicular to B and, by the right hand rule, is directed at 15 above the horizontal in
the northward direction.
F = BILsin = (0.60 x 10-4 T)(15 A)(10.0 m)sin165 = 2.3 x 10-3 N.
The right hand rule shows F is horizontal and directed due west.

19.16

To find the minimum B field, B must be perpendicular to I, and from the right hand rule, it must
be directed downward to produce a northward horizontal force. The friction force per unit length =
N = (mass per unit length)(g),
f
10-3 kg
or L = 0.200 -2 (9.80 m/s2) = 0.196 N/m.
10 m
Thus, the magnetic force per unit length must be 0.196 N/m to overcome the friction force.
F
0.196 N/m
L = BI = 0.196 N/m, or B = 1.50 A = 0.131 T.

19.17

For the wire to move upward at constant speed, the net force acting on it must be zero. Therefore,
Fmagnetic = mg, or
BILsin = mg.
mg
(0.015 kg)(9.80 m/s2)
At = 90, we have B = IL =
= 0.20 T.
(5.0 A)(0.15 m)
The magnetic force must be directed upward. Therefore, B must be directed out of page.

19.18

In order for the rod to float, the magnetic force must have the same magnitude as the weight of the
mg
rod. Thus:
F = BILsin = mg, or
I=
.
The minimum value of I occurs
BLsin
when sin = 1.
(5.00 x 10-2 kg)(9.80 m/s2)
Thus, Imin =
= 0.245 A.
(2.00 T)(1.00 m)

19.19

The area of the circular loop is 0.785 m2, and = NBIAsin.


(a) For max, = 90, and we have:

max = BIA = (0.400 T)(2.00 A)(0.785 m2) = 0.628 N m.


(b)

1
1
If = 2 max, then sin = 2 , and = 30. This is the angle between the field and the line
perpendicular to the plane of the loop. The angle between the plane of the loop and the field
will therefore be:
=90 - 30 = 60.

19.20 The area of the ellipse is A = (0.200 m(0.150 m) = 9.42 x 10-2 m2. The torque on the coil is given
by:
= NBIA sin = 8(2.00 x 10-4 T)(6.00 A)(9.42 x 10-2 m2) sin90
= 9.04 x 10-4 Nm. (independent of the shape of the area, A)
19.21

19.22

Note that the angle between the line perpendicular to the plane of the coil and the field is: = 90
- 30 = 60. Therefore, the torque is:
= NBIAsin = 100(0.80 T)(1.2 A)(0.12 m2)sin60.0 = 10 N m.
The right hand rule shows the torque will tend to rotate the coil clockwise as viewed from above.
L
2
Each side of the loop will have a length of b = 3 = 3 m. Since the loop is an equilateral triangle,
all angles are 60. The altitude of the triangle is therefore A = bsin60 = 0.577 m and the enclosed
area is:

50
50

4
10 m A

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS i c

3 aA
10 A

1
1 2
A = 2 bh = 2 (3 m)(0.577 m) = 0.192 m2.

2.99 A
Ip

Rp b
p

The maximum torque occurs when the plane of the loop is parallel to the magnetic field ( = 90)
and is given by:
max = BIA = (0.500 T)(2.00 A)(0.192 m2) = 0.192 N m.
19.23

First find the current that flows in the wire:


L (1.70 x 10-8 m)(8.00 m)
R= A =
= 1.36 x 10-3 so
(1.00 x 10-4 m2)
V
0.100 V
I= R =
= 73.5 A.
1.36 x 10-3
Each side of the square loop formed by the wire is 2.00 m long so the enclosed area is A = (2.00
m)2 = 4.00 m2. Then the maximum torque on the loop is: max = IAB = (73.5 A)(4.00 m2)(0.400
T) = 118 N m.

19.24

(See sketch) The current through the parallel


resistor is:
I = 3.00 A - 10 mA = 2.99 A.
Use the loop rule on the closed loop, and find
-(0.01 A)(50.0 ) + Rp(2.99 A) = 0.
This yields, Rp = 0.167 .

19.25

The current through the coil at full scale


50.0 x 10-3 V
deflection is:
ic =
= 10-3 A.
50.0
Hence, the current that must exist in the parallel branch is: Ip = 10 A - ic = 10 A - 10-3 A =
9.999 A.
Therefore, the parallel resistor has a value of:
50.0 x 10-3 V
Rp = 9.999 A
= 5.00 x 10-3 .

19.26

The voltage drop across the terminals is given by


VAB = iR + ir = i(R + r) where r = 60.0 , and R is the unknown resistance connected in series
with the meter movement.
1 V = (5 x 10-4 A)(R + 60.0 ) gives R = 1940

19.27

The series resistor that must be used has a value found as:
V = 150 V = (Rs + 40 )(2.0 x 10-3 A),
Which yields,

19.28

Rs = 7.5 x104 .
100

See sketch. If I = 0.300 A, and a and d are the terminals,


Ip(R1 + R2 + R3) = ic(100 ). In this case, Ip = 0.2999 A

i c= 100
R1

and ic = 100 x 10-6 A.


R1 + R2 + R3 = 3.33 x 10-2

Thus,
(1)
If I = 3.00 A, and a and c are the terminals:
Ip(R1 + R2) = ic(100 + R3).

I
a

Here, Ip = 2.9999 A and ic = 100 x 10-6 A.


Thus, we have R1 + R2 - 3.33 x 10-5R3 = 3.33 x 10-3
Finally, if I = 30.0 A and a and b are the terminals:
IpR1 = ic(100 + R2 + R3).
With Ip = 29.9999 A and ic = 100 x 10-6 A, this reduces to:

(2)

b
30 A

R2

R3

c
3A

d
0.3 A

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


R1 - 3.33 x 10-6R2 - 3.33 x 10-6R3 = 3.33 x 10-4
(3)
Solving (1), (2), and (3) simultaneously, we find:
R1 = 3.33 x 10-4 , R2 = 2.998 x 10-3 , and R3 = 2.997 x 10-2 .
19.29

(See sketch.) We have


Vab = ic(R1 + 100 ), or
3.00 V=(100 x 10-6 A)(R1 + 100 ).

R1

100

R2

R3

= 100 A

c
From which, R1 = 2.99 x 104 .
a
Likewise,:
Vac = ic(R1 + R2 + 100 ),
and,
30.0 V = (100 x 10-6 A)(R2 + 2.99 x 104 + 100 ),

3V

30 V

300 V

Which yields, R2 = 2.70 x 105 .


Finally, we see that:
Vad = ic(R1 + R2 + R3 + 100 ). or
300 V = (100 x 10-6 A)(R3 + 2.99 x 104 + 2.7 x 105 +100 ), and

R3 =

2.70 x 106
19.30

To pass through undeflected, the magnitude of the magnetic force must equal the magnitude of the
electric force, and the two forces must be opposite in direction so they will cancel. Thus, qvB =
E
qE, and v = B

19.31

The magnetic force is the force that causes the centripetal acceleration. Thus,
mv2
qvB = R , which reduces to qBR = mv. Therefore,
1
(qBR)2 = m2v2 = 2m(2 mv2) = 2mKE, which gives
Hence, m =

19.32

(qBR)2
m = 2(KE)

((2.0 x 10-6 C)(0.1 T)(3.0 m))2


= 2.0 x 10-12 kg
2(0.09 J)

E 950 V/m
First, find the speed of the particle: v = B = 0.930 T = 1.02 x 103 m/s
Now, note that the magnetic force causes the centripetal acceleration:
mv2
qvB = R .
mv
(2.18 x 10-26 kg)(1.02 x 103 m/s)
Thus, R = qB =
= 1.49 x 10-4 m
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.930 T)

19.33

1
We use conservation of energy to find the velocity of the ion upon entering the field: 2 mv2 = qV,
2(1.60 x 10-19 C)(250 V)
= 5.66 x 104 m/s
2.50 x 10-26 kg
The magnetic force causes the centripetal acceleration.
mv2
Then: qvB = R ,
mv (2.50 x 10-26 kg)(5.66 x 104 m/s)
and R =
=
qB
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.500 T)
= 1.77 x 10-2 m = 1.77 cm.
or v =

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


19.34

mv
v
3.00 x 105 m/s

= m 3.125 x 1024 m .
r = qB = m qB = m

-19
kg


(1.60 x 10 C)(0.600 T)
For U235: m = 235(1.67 x 10-27 kg) = 3.925 x 10-25 kg.
Thus, r = (3.125 x 1024 m/kg)(3.925 x 10-25 kg) = 1.227 m.
For U238: m = 238(1.67 x 10-27 kg) = 3.975 x 10-25 kg,
and r = (3.125 x 1024 m/kg)(3.975 x 10-25 kg) = 1.242 m.
Therefore: d = 2(r) = 2(1.242 - 1.227) = 3.0 x 10-2 m = 3.0 cm.

19.35

The magnetic force produces the centripetal acceleration:


mv2
mv
qvB = R , or R = qB . The time to complete one orbit is then:
mv
2qB
circumference 2R
2m
T=
= v = v
= qB
speed
2(1.67 x 10-27 kg)
=
= 8.65 x 10-8 m
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.758 T)

19.36

(a)

19.37

We use B =

right to left,

oI
2r

(b)
to find:

out of page,
r=

(c)

lower left to upper right.

oI
(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.0 A)
=
, or
2B
2( 5.0 x 10-5 T)

r = 2 x 10-2 m = 2.0 cm.


19.38

The magnitude of the field due to a single wire is given by:


oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A) 1.00 x 10-6 T m
B=
=
=
.
r
2r
2r
Call the wire on the left wire 1 and the wire on the right wire 2.
(a) At a point midway between the wires, r1 = r2 = 5.00 cm. Thus,:
1.00 x 10-6 T m
= 2.00 x 10-5 T. Using the right hand rule, we see that both
0.0500 m
fields are in the same direction (into the page), which gives us a resultant field of:
Bnet = B1 + B2 = 4.00 x 10-5 T
(directed into page).
B1 = B2 =

(b)

At the point P1: B1 =

1.00 x 10-6 T m
= 5.00 x 10-6 T (into the page), and B2 =
0.200 m

1.00 x 10-6 T m
= 10.0 x 10-6 T (out of the page).
0.100 m
Thus, Bnet = 5.00 x 10-6 T (out of page).
(c)

19.39

1.00 x 10-6 T m
= 5.00 x 10-6 T (out of the page), and
0.200 m
1.00 x 10-6 T m
B2 =
= 3.33 x 10-6 T (into the page),
0.300 m
for Bnet = 1.67 x 10-6 T (out of page).
At P2,: B1 =

Call the wire on the left 1 and the wire on the right 2.
oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3.00 A)
(a) B1 =
=
= 6.00 x 10-6 T (upward).
2r
2(1.00 x 10-1 m)
oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A)
B2 =
=
= 10.0 x 10-6 T (downward), so Bnet = 4.00 x 102r
2(1.00 x 10-1 m)
6T
(downward).

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


(b)

(See the sketch) The distance R is

B1
= 45

R = (0.2 m)2 + (0.2 m)2 = 0.283 m.


The field produced by wire 2 at P2 is:
oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5 A)
B2 =
=
2r
2(0.2 m)

B2

= 5.00 x 10-6 T
and the field from wire 1 at point P2 is
oI (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3 A)
B1 =
=
, or
2R
2(0.283 m)
B1 = 2.12 x 10-6 T. The angle shown in the sketch is 45 .

R
3A

0.2 m

Wire 1

P2
0.2 m
5A
Wire 2

Thus, the fields can be

broken into their x and y components. These resultant components are: Bx = -6.5 x 10-6 T,
By = 1.5 x 10-6 T. The Pythagorean theorem gives a resultant field of:B = 6.67 x 10-6 T at
77 to the left of the vertical.

oI

19.40

The magnitude of the field produced by either wire is given by B =

. At point P, the field due


2r
to the wire along the x-axis (I = 7.00 A) is directed out of the page while the field due to the wire
along the y-axis (I = 6.00 A) is directed into the page. Taking out of the page as positive, we then
o(7.00 A) o(6.00 A)
have Bnet = B7 - B6 =
= 1.67 x 10-7 T. Thus, the resultant field at
2(3.00 m) 2(4.00 m)
point P is 1.67 x 10-7 T directed out of the page.

19.41

From Ampere's law, the magnetic field at point A is given by:


oIA
BA =
, where IA is the net current flowing through the area of the circle of radius rA .
2rA
In this case, IA = 1.00 A out of the page (the current in the inner conductor), so
(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(1.00 A)
= 2.00 x 10-4 T counterclockwise.
2(1.00 x 10-3 m)
oIB
Similarly at point B: BB =
, where IB is the net current flowing through the area of the
2rB
circle having radius rB. Taking out of the page as positive, IB = 1.00A - 3.00 A = -2.00 A, or IB =
2.00 A into the page. Therefore,
(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(2.00 A)
BB =
= 1.33 x 10-4 T clockwise.
2(3.00 x 10-3 m)
BA =

19.42

(a)
(b)

19.43

2
oI1I2
F
-7 N (10.0 A) = 2.00 x 10-4 N/m (attracted).
=
=
2
x
10
L
2d
A2 0.100 m

The magnitude remains the same as calculated in (a), but the wires are repelled.

In order for the system to be in equilibrium, the magnetic force per unit length on the top wire must
be equal to its weight per unit length.
oI1I2
F
F
Thus, L = weight per unit length, where: L =
.
2d
(30.0 A)(60.0 A)
We have, (2 x 10-7 T m/A)
= 0.080 N/m, and find
d

d = 4.50 x 10-3 m = 4.50 mm.

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


19.44

The magnetic force exerted on B by A is directed upward and has a magnitude given by: Fm =
oIAIBL
, where r is the distance between the
2r
oIAIBL
two wires. At equilibrium:
Fm = mg =
,
2r
2r m
or IB =
g.
oIA L
This gives:
2(0.025 m)
IB =
(0.010 kg/m)(9.80 m/s2) = 82 A.
(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(150 A)

19.45

The magnetic field at the center of the solenoid is:


B = onI = (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3000 turns/m)(15.0 A) = 5.65 x 10-2 T.
The force on one of the sides of the loop is:
F = BIL = (5.65 x 10-2 T)(0.200 A)(0.0200 m) = 2.26 x 10-4 N.
With the loop aligned as in the problem, all the forces are directed such that they tend to stretch the
loop. There is no tendency for the forces to cause rotation. Thus, = 0.

19.46

The resistance of the wire is R =

r2
L
,
so
it
carries
current
I
=
R = L
r2

If there is a single layer of windings, the number of turns per unit length is the reciprocal of the
1
wire diameter: n = 2 r.
or2
or
=
L2r
L2
-7
(4 x 10 T m/A)(20 V)(2 x 10-3 m)
=
= 0.464 T
2(1.7 x 10-8 m)10 m

So B = noI =

19.47

(a)

The magnetic force provides the centripetal acceleration


mv2
mv
(9.11 x 10-31 kg)(104 m/s)
qvB = R , or B = qr =
= 2.8 x10-6 T
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(2.0 x 10-2 m)
B
2.8 x 10-6 T
(b) From B = onI:
I=
=
= 8.9 x 10-4 A =
-7
on (4 x 10 Tm/S)(2500 turns/m)
0.89 mA.

19.48

Note that the angle between the field and the line perpendicular to the plane of the coil is 90 -35
= 55. Therefore, the torque is:
= NBIAsin = (1)(0.30 T)(25 A)[(0.30 m)2]sin55 = 1.7 Nm

19.49

Call the wire along the y-axis #1 and the wire along the x-axis #2.
(a)
The field at P produced by wire 1 is
oI1 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3.00 A)
B1 =
=
= 2.00 x 10-6 T (into page),
2r1
2(0.300 m)
and the field due to wire 2 is
oI2 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A)
B2 =
=
= 2.50 x 10-6 T (out of page), Thus, the net field
2r2
2(0.400 m)
is Bnet = 5.0 x 10-7 T

(out of page).

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


(b)

The sketch indicates the direction of the field.


The field due to wire 2 is:
oI2 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(5.00 A)
B2 =
=
= 3.33 x 10-6 T
2r2
2(0.300 m)
(For direction, see sketch.
The net field is found from the Pythagorean theorem to be
Bnet = 3.89 x 10-6 T.
The angle, as seen from above the wires (second

+z
B1
0.3 m

We use the same designation for discussing the wires as above. The
field due to wire 1 is:
oI1 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(3.00 A)
B
2
B1 =
=
= 2.00 x 10-6 T
2r1
2(0.300 m)

I 2= 5 A

B1

sketch)

is:
B1
tan = B = 0.6 and = 31 (CCW from -y direction).
2

19.50

+y
I1 = 3 A
+x

B
net

A kinetic energy of 400 eV is equivalent to 6.4 x 10-17 J. We find the velocity v as: v =

2 KE
m

2(6.4 x 10-17 J)
= 1.19 x 107 m/s
9.11 x 10-31 kg
mv (9.11 x 10-31 kg)(1.19 x 107 m/s)
Thus, B = qr =
= 8.5 x 10-5 T
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.80 m)
=

19.51

The centripetal acceleration is produced by the magnetic force as


v2
M( r ) = qvB,
Mv
M(1.00 x 105 m/s)
or r =
=
= M(3.13 x 1024 m/kg)
qB (1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.200 T)
For the first particle, M = 20.0 x 10-27 kg, thus
r1 = (20.0 x 10-27 kg)(3.13 x 1024 m/kg) = 6.26 x 10-2 m
For the second particle, M = 23.4 x 10-27 kg, and
r2 = (23.4 x 10-27 kg)(3.13 x 1024 m/kg) = 7.32 x 10-2 m
Thus, after half a revolution, = 2(r2 - r1) = 2.12 cm

19.52

(a)

(b)

At point C, the two currents give rise to oppositely directed magnetic fields. Therefore, to
have B = 0 at C, we require B1 = B2, where B1 is due to 1 and B2 is due to the 10 A current.
oI
I1
I2
15.0 cm
r1
From B =
, we have: r = r , or I = I2r = (10.0 A)5.00 cm = 30.0 A.

2r
1
2
2
At point A, between the wires:
oI1 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(30.0 A)
B1 =
=
= 1.20 x 10-4 T (out of page),
2r1
2(5.00 x 10-2 m)
oI2 (4 x 10-7 T m/A)(10.0 A)
B2 =
=
= 4.00 x 10-5 T (out of page).
2r2
2(5.00 x 10-2 m)
Thus,

Btotal = B1 + B2 = 1.60 x 10-4 T (out of page).

19.53 The distance to the center of the square is found from the Pythagorean theorem to be:
0.141 m.
The magnitude of the magnetic field of each wire is equal to:

r=

10

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


oI

(4 x 10-7 T m/A)(4.00 A)
= 5.66 x 10-6 T.
2r
2(0.141 m)
The directions of these fields are indicated in the sketch. The net
Wire 1

field pointing toward wire 4, BIV is: BIV = B1 + B3 = 1.13 x 10-5


T.
B4
The net field toward wire 1, BI is:
B1 = B2 = B3 = B4 =

BI = B2 + B4 = 1.13 x 10-5 T. These two fields are perpendicular.


Thus, from the Pythagorean theorem, we find:
The direction is toward top of page.
19.54

Wire 4
X
B1

B2

Bnet = 1.6 x 10-5 T.

The magnetic force produces the centripetal acceleration, or: qvB =


Wire 2
mv2
qRB
,
giving
v
=
.
R
m
2R
But the time for one complete revolution is: T = v ,
1
v
qB
qB
The frequency of revolution is f = T =
=
. Therefore, m =
2R 2m
2f
5 rev
We are told that f =
= 3.33 x 103 Hz. Thus,
1.50 x 10-3 s
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(0.050 T)
m=
, or m = 3.82 x 10-25 kg
2(3.33 x 103 Hz)

0.2 m

B3
0.2 m

X
Wire 3

19.55

The magnetic force produces the centripetal acceleration,


mv2
mv
2R
or: qvB = R , giving B = qR . But the time for one complete revolution is T = v , so
2R
v = T and the field becomes:
m 2R
2m
2(1.67 x 10-27 kg)
B=
(
) =
=
= 6.56 x 10-2 T
qR T
qT
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(1.00 x 10-6 s)

19.56

The magnetic forces on the top and bottom segments of the rectangle are equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction. Hence, they cancel. The force on the left vertical segment is:
oI1I2
(5.0 A)(10.0 A)(0.45 m)
FL =
L= (2 x 10-7 N/A2)
0.10 m
2c
= 4.5 x 10-5 N (to left)
The force on the right vertical segment is:
FR = Error!) L = Error!)Error!
= 1.8 x 10-5 N (to right)
Finding the resultant of the two (FR - FL) gives:
Fnet = 2.7 x 10-5 N (to left )

19.57

First find the force constant of the spring system from the elongation produced by the weight of the
wire, mg = 9.80 x 10-2 N, alone:
F
mg 9.80 x 10-2 N
k=
=
=
= 19.6 N/m.
x x
5.0 x 10-3 m
When the magnetic field is on, the total force pulling down on the wire is given by: Fdown = Fm +
mg = k(x)total.
Thus, the magnetic force, Fm is:
Fm = k(x)total - mg = (19.6 N/m)(8.0 x 10-3 m) - 9.80 x 10-2 N
= 5.88 x 10-2 N

11

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


Fm FmR
(5.88 x 10-2 N)(12 )
But, Fm = BIL. Thus, B = IL = VL =
= 0.59 T.
(24 V)(5.0 x 10-2 m)
19.58

Let us assume the magnetic force is small compared to gravity. Then, its horizontal velocity
component stays nearly constant. We call its value v in the x direction.
From vy2 = voy2 + 2ayy, the vertical component at impact is 2gh in the downward direction.
Thus, from F = qvBsin, we find there is a magnetic force on the ball in the horizontal direction
given by
Fh = Q 2gh B
and a force in the vertical direction given by
Fv = QvB
Fh = 5.0 x 10-6 C 2(9.80)(20.0) (0.0100 T ) = 0.990 x 10-6 N
Fv = 5.0 x 10-6 C(20.0 m/s)(0.0100 T) = 1.00 x 10-6 N

19.59

mv2
F = qvB = r
mv
4.80 x 10-16 kg m/s
B = qr =
= 3.00 T
(1.60 x 10-19 C)(1000 m)

19.60

Model the two wires as straight parallel wires.


oI2L (410-7)(140)22(0.1)
(a) F =
=
= 2.46 N
2a
210-3
2.46 N - mloopg
(b) aloop =
= 107.3 m/s2.
mloop

19.61

(a)

(b)

19.62

(a)

(b)

At any point on the ring, the magnetic field has a horizontal component, BH = Bsin, and
a vertical component BV = Bcos. Treat these as two separate fields and consider the forces
they exert on the ring. At any point on the ring, the vertical field exerts a horizontal force
directed inward toward the center of the ring. The horizontal forces exerted on diametrically
opposite points in the ring cancel each other, so the resultant horizontal force on the ring is
zero. At any point on the ring, the outward horizontal field, BH, exerts an upward force on
the ring. The total upward force on the ring is: F = BHIL = (Bsin)I(2r), or
F = (0.01 T)sin30(2.0 A)(2)(2 x 10-2 m) = 1.3 x 10-3 N.
To levitate the ring, the upward magnetic force must equal the weight of the ring: BHIL =
mg, or
m g
(0.01 kg)(9.80 m/s2)
I = L B = (0.01 T)sin30
= 19.6 A.
H
The net upward force on the wire is: Fy = may = ILB - mg, so the upward acceleration is:
IBL
BI
ay = m - g =
- g, where is the mass per unit length of the wire. Thus,

(2 A)(40 x 10-4 T)
ay =
- 9.80 m/s2 = 6.2 m/s2.
5 x 10-4 kg/m
at2
Using y = 2 , we get:
t=

19.63

(a)

2y
a =

0.5 m
2
= 0.40 s when y = 0.5 m.
6.2 m/s2

The radius of the path as a function of charge is given by


mv (6.64 x 10-27 kg)(106 m/s)
3.32 x 10-20 C m
r = qB =
=
.
q(0.20 T)
q

(1)

12

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


If the ion is singly ionized (q = 1.60 x 10-19 C) then (1) gives the radius of the orbit as r1 =
2.1 x 10-1 m = 21 cm, and for the doubly charged ion (q = 3.2 x 10-19 C), we have r2 = 1.0
(b)
19.64

x 10-1 m = 10 cm.
Their distance of separation after one-half their circular path is:
= 2(21 cm - 10 cm) = 22 cm.

Label the wires 1, 2, and 3 as shown and let the


magnetic field created by the currents in the wires be
B1, B2, and B3, respectively. (Note that = 45.)
0I
(a) At point A: B1 = B2 =
2a 2
-7
(2 x 10 T m/A)(2.0 A)
B1 = B2 =
(0.01 m) 2
B1 = B2 = 2.83 x 10-5 T, and

1
a 2 a a 2
A

a
a 2

a
a

I = 2 A in
each w ire
(1, 2, & 3)
C
a
3

a 2

2
Figure 1
(2 x 10-7 T m/A)(2.0 A)
B3 =
=
=
3(0.01 m)
23a
1.33 x 10-5 T.
The direction of these three fields are as shown in Figure 2. Observe
that the horizontal components of B1 and B2 cancel while the vertical
B2
components add to B3. Thus, the net field at A is:

0I

BA = B1cos45 + B2cos45 + B3

(b)

(c)

19.65

(a)

(b)

45
45
B3

B1

Figure 2
= 2(2.83 x 10-5 T)cos45 + 1.33 x 10-5 T = 5.3 x 10-5 T.
oI
oI
At point B, B1 = B2 =
= 4 x 10-5 T and B3 =
= 2 x 10-5 T.
2a
22a
The directions of these fields at B are as shown in Figure 3. Thus, B1
B1
B2
and B2 cancel leaving
B
3
BB = B3 = 2.0 x 10-5 T downward.
Fig u re 3
oI
At point C, B1 = B2 =
= 2.83 x 10-5 T, and
B1
B2
2a 2
45
45
oI
B3 =
= 4 x 10-5 T. The directions of these 3 fields at C are as
2a
B3
shown in Figure 4: Again, the horizontal components of B1 and B2
cancel. The vertical components of B1 and B2 both oppose B3 giving:
Fig u re 4
BC = B1cos45 + B2cos45 - B3 = 2(2.83 x 10-5 T)cos45 - 4 x 10-5 T
= 0.

Since the magnetic field is pointing from N to S, a magnetic force will exist pushing positive
charges toward point A and negative charges toward point B. This separation of charges
will then set up an electric field directed from A toward B. At equilibrium, the electric force
V
caused by this field must balance the magnetic force, so qvB = qE = q d ,

V
160 x 10-6 V
or v = Bd =
= 1.33 m/s.
(0.040 T)(3.0 x 10-3 m)
The magnetic field is directed from N to S. If the charge carriers are negative moving in the
direction of v, the magnetic force is directed toward point B. Negative charges build up at
point B, placing A at a higher potential than B. If the charge carriers are positive moving in
the direction of v, the magnetic force is directed toward A, so positive charges build up at A.
This also places A at a higher potential than B. Therefore the sign of the potential difference
does not depend on whether the ions in the blood are positively or negatively charged.

13

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


(a)

Since one wire repels the other, the


currents in the two wires are in
8 8
opposite directions.
Consider a free body diagram of one of
T = 8
the wires as shown at the right.
Fm
Fx = 0 Fm = Tsin8, and
Fy = 0 mg = Tcos8, so dividing
d/2
d/2
the first equation by the second gives:
w = mg
Fm
= tan8, or Fm = mgtan8.
mg
d
Also observe that 2 = (6 cm)sin8, or d = (0.12 m)sin8 is the distance between the two
oI1I2L
wires. Thus: Fm =
= mgtan8, and since I1 = I2 = I, this becomes: I2 =
2d
2g m dtan8, or
o L

(b)

cm

19.66

2(9.80 m/s2) 0.04 kg(0.12 m sin8)(tan8) = 4600 A2,


I2 =

m
4 x 10-7 T m/A
and
I = 67.8 A.
19.67

The velocity is given by


2(5.00 x 106 eV)(1.60 x 10-19 J/eV)
= 3.10 x 107 m/s
1.67 x 10-27 kg
mv
1.67 x 10-27 kg(3.10 x 107 m)
and r = qB =
= 6.46 m
(1.60 x 10-19 m)(0.05 T)
(b) The angle is the angle with which the particle leaves the field measured with respect to the
horizontal. It is found as
1m
sin = 6.46 m = 8.90
(a) The magnitude of the proton momentum remains constant, and its final y component is
-(1.67 x 10-27 kg)(3.10 x 107 m/s)sin 8.90 = -8.00 x 10-21 kg m/s
v=

2K
m =

ANSWERS TO CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS

2. If the current is in a direction parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field, then there is
no force.
4. Straight down toward the surface of the Earth.
6. The magnet causes domain alignment in the iron such that the iron becomes magnetic
and is attracted to the original magnet. Now that the iron is magnetic, it can produce an
identical effect in another piece of iron.
8. The magnet produces domain alignment in the nail such that the nail is attracted to the
magnet. Regardless of which pole is used, the alignment in the nail is such that it is
attracted to the magnet.
10. The shock shakes the domains out of alignment.

14

CHAPTER NINETEEN SOLUTIONS


12. At the poles the magnetic field of the Earth points almost straight downward (or
straight upward), in the direction (or opposite to the direction) the charges are moving. As
a result, there is little or no magnetic force exerted on the charged particles at the pole to
deflect them away from the Earth.
14. The loop can be mounted on an axle that can rotate. The current loop will rotate when
placed in an external magnetic field for some arbitrary orientation of the field relative to the
loop. As the current in the loop is increased, the torque on it will increase.
16. Yes, if the magnetic field is directed perpendicular to the plane of the loop, the forces
on opposite sides of the loop will be equal and opposite, but will produce no net torque on
the loop.
18. A charge at rest is completely unaffected by a magnetic field.
20. Such levitation would never occur. At the north pole of the Earth where the field of the
Earth is downward, toward the equivalent of a buried south pole, a coffin would be repelled
if its south pole were directed downward. However, equilibrium would be only transitory
as any slight disturbance would overcome the balance.