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## control, randomisation, replication, standardisation of conditions

Randomisation: process assisting in precenting bias during sampling

and treatment
allocation by distributing things in way that all the plots
or animals have
an equal chance of receiving it
Control: part of the experiment that does not receive any treatment,

should be standard
so that variations between treatments can be compared
Replication: process attempts to overcome problems associated

## with atypical responses

exerting an influence, due to very good or very poor
environmental conditions
by repeating it several times thus increasing the accuracy of
the results
Standardisation: plots or animals in the experiments should be

## managed in exactly the

same way so that the only things different is the variable
or treatment
being tested
Calculate and explain the mean, standard deviation and standard error
using plant and animal trial data
Mean: average of all results

## Standard error: standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a

statistic, most
commonly of the mean.
Explain normal distribution
When numbers of measurements are taken ad graphed and such a

graph takes the form of a bell- shaped graph, this is known as normal
distribution. This curve is symmetric and asymptotic to the horizontal axis.
The values of the mean, mode and median coincide and under the curve is
defined as unity, that is, equal to 1.
Requirements for a graph

## - axis with labels

Appropriate title

Correct scale

Line graph=continuous

## Variance ( s 2 is a measure of how closely values cluster around

the mean. The standard deviation (s) is defined as the square root of the
variance. The variance can also be calculated as:

( x )2
n
n1

( )

x 2
s 2=

## Legal requirements, safe handling and management techniques for the

care and welfare of animals
Anyone who has an animal is obligated to look after the animal.

in animals

## socialise with other birds, protection from predators(sufficient shelters for

layers), birds are given bedding so they can scratch around and peck
Safe handling: Be careful where to step

## Select and perform appropriate safe handling and management

techniques for the care and welfare of farm animals Broilers
Basic requirement animal welfare act, anyone who has an animal is

obliged to look after the animal, consequences for serious neglect include
jail and fines.
RSPCA have offices that investigate instances of neglect in animals

## -Care and welfare or broilers: access to quality food, clean water,

socialise with other birds, protection from predators (sufficient shelter for
layers), birds are given bedding so they can scratch around and peck
Safe handling: be careful of where to step

## Outline various measure (at least 2) of performance such as gross

margins, yield, profitability, weight gain e.g.
*Gross margin: provides an indication of the profitability of an

activity or enterprise on the farm. It includes only variable costs and not
fixed or overhead costs. The gross margin is prepared by deducting all
variable costs from gross income obtained from a particular farm enterprise
or activity.
Gross margin= Total income - Variable costs
(find out about variable costs and try understand concept)
Mortality rate

## After bird is processed with carcase and meat. Dressing percentage

of what's left is better percentage. Normally for sheep and cattle is 50%
loss. Chicken is approximately 60%.
FCR(Feed conversion ratio)- ability of an animals to convert food

into live weight. Poultry are much more efficient converters than ruminant
animals such as cattle.
Identify technologies used on the farm
Electronic scale

## out a lot of heat

Feed formulation: most costly areas in poultry areas

## amino acids, certain medication such as antibiotics

They have to be high quality, manufactured cleanly, all nutrients

## and minerals needed

Broiler birds: Meat birds, breeding is important for things such as

## egg colour, egg size and

meat size
Marketing: Phone, freezer, plastic bag. They are frozen and shrink

## wrapped in plastic bags

UNIT 2 OVERVIEW
1 Describe agriculture as a system appropriate models showing:
Processes (doing words e.g. pruning)

Outputs (oranges)

## Interactions (What does one subsystem give to another subsystem and in

return e.g. pasture and cattle: Pasture gives food to cattle, cattle gives
defoliation to pasture or trampling
If asked about subsystem, dont write plant: write like sheep or cattle (not

## poultry for animal)

1 Construct (draw) appropriate models showing:
inputs,
processes,
outputs,
boundaries,
subsystems,
and
interactions between subsystems on a farm

## 1 Construct a table that identifies the distribution of the main

agricultural regions in NSW and their predominant agricultural
enterprises.

The main farming zones in Australia are the temperate region, subtropical
region, tropical region, and the arid and semi-arid region. NSW exhibits
temperate, arid and subtropical zones.
Farming
Zone

Rainfall

## Temperature Soil Type

Main
enterprise

Temperate 300-700
(western
mm, any
slopes and month
plains of
NSW)
wet/dry
east

High
temperature
s and
evaporation
rates in
summer

Red earths
and grey and
brown soils.
Low in organic
matter

Wool,
prime
lambs,
beef, dairy,
cereal
crops,
fruits,
vegetables

Subtropica
l (narrow
strip of
northern
NSW)
humid
south zone

9002000mm
and occurs
throughout
the year

Warm to hot
summers
and mild
winters. Max
temp. rarely
exceeds 30
degrees.
Frosts can
occur

Alluvial soils,
light
sandstone or
shale and
volcanic
loams

Beef, dairy,
pigs,
sugarcane,
soybeans,
maize,
horticultur
al crops,
bananas,
watermelo
ns

Tropical

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Arid and
semi-arid
south
zone,
semi-arid
meaning
<500 mm

Low and
unreliable.
264 mm 204mm.
More in
winter than
summer

Intense heat
during the
day and
intense cold
at night. 40
degrees in
summer to

Infertile.
Siliceous
sands to hard
setting clays.
Soils in both
areas are
deficient in

Sheep and
cattle

20 in winter.

nitrogen,
phosphorous
and trace
elements.

## 1 Define and explain how all of the following have impacted on

agricultural systems
Physical: Topography and soil
How water flows

## Country layout (topography)

Animals use more energy walking up the steep hill thus affecting the meat

## Not as much top soil as they would get washed down

Soil texture (large rocks makes difficult to plough, harvesting machine may

get damaged)
Sandy loam may be a problem as too dry, ideal conditions for farmer

## would be along riverbed, flat land, pump allocation out of river

Biological: Pests and Diseases
Plague of locusts and defoliate plant

## Rhizobium bacteria and legumes help plants like Lucerne(makes hay) by

Benefit each other (nitrogen cycle in legumes)

## Social: Employment/ Unemployment and mental health

Farmers are significant part of society and are hired

## Lack of productivity thus no money, no income means more loss and

suicide
Government initiatives to assist farmers during cough time (droughtfree)

## Historical: Rabbits and Tree Clearing

Foxes brought in and become pests

Erosion

Fluctuates

## Diesel, fertiliser seeds, chemicals

Output stagnates or possibly goes down
Farmer's profit margins reduced

## 1 Describe how the traditional family farm has changed

Majority of farms in Australia are family owned (>50%)

## type systems for tracking information)

Increase in foreign owner investment due to food security for their country

e.g. China
1 Outline some impacts of Agriculture on their local community
Benefits and stimulates local economy (sponsoring local clubs)

## farm e.g. Elders

Employing farm hands and managers

Unit 2 Overview
1.
Outline the enterprise on the school farm, include the
product produced and how do we market it
Angus Cattle Stud (Cattle)
1.
Sell young bulls (negotiation)
2.
3.
Sell steers(castrated male young cattle), castrated for better meat
quality and less hormones (c/kg)
4.
Sell cull cows
5.
Usually used for grinding meat (Hamburger mince)
Prime Lambs
6.
Prime lambs 40kg (young, tender meat)
7.
Cull ewes and ram (no money so turned into dog food l m a o)
Poultry
8.
Broilers(meat birds) sold as frozen chicken in school canteen (\$/kg)
9.
Layers (egg) sold as dozen egg for a carton in school canteen
(\$/carton)
10.
Apiary (beehive) sold as honey (\$/jar)
Orchard
11.
Fresh peaches sold in boxes in school canteen (\$/box) or as
jam(\$/jar) sorbet (\$/cone)
Vegetables
12.
Fresh oranges sold in quadrangle (\$/bag)
Hydroponics
13.
Lettuce and buk-choy (\$/plant)
1.
Outline the constituents a of soil
Soil is a balanced system resulting from decomposed rock and the

## interaction of many physical factors, and chemical and biological systems,

that requires very careful management. There are 3 components
Solids: mineral and organic aspects of the soil

Mineral

organic

liquid

air

40%

5%

25%

30%

## These components influence soil chemistry and temperature, and consequently

seed germination rates, plant growth rates and the activities of microorganisms.
Define soil texture and the impact on Agricultural

production.
Soil texture refers to the size of soil particles in soil, and allows

## differentiation of solid, silt and clay fraction in soil. It can be determined in

a number of ways
Mechanical analysis

## a mixture of water and a dispersal agent

Field determination

Texture triangle

Define soil structure and describe management practices that affect soil
structure.
Soil Structure refers to the arrangement of soil particles in soil, The

basic unit of soil structure is termed as a soil ped. The % of sand, silt, clay
in soil as determined by particle size
Observe and record a School Soil Profile+ 8) measure and describe the
features of a soil
JRAHS soil profile (3/2016)
Profile location: Behind the silver perch shed (near netball courts)

## Parent material: Shale from Wianamatta group

Topography: Undulated

Erosion: N/A

## Drainage: Surface drainage is suitable, profile drainage iing crops

ressrictions such as white oil on hys poor (profile is like sponge cake layers)
Climate: Find mean annual rainfall, min/max temperature,

evaporation
Soil Type/Soil Texture: Cumberland clay loam

Drawing: Later

Horizon A
Depth: 30cm

Colour: Brown

Structure: Good

Roots: Present

Horizon B
Depth: 30-100

Texture: Clay

Structure: Poor

## Organic matter: Not present

Roots: Not present
pH: Need to test
Identify and describe instruments that are used to measure
components of the climate
Rainfall - Rain gauge: An instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists
to measure precipitation in a
certain amount of time. (in mm)
Temperature - max/min thermometer
Humidity - wet & dry bulb thermometer
Evaporation - evaporimeter
1.

## Discuss the use of the data in management decisions

Rain gauge on farm to collect data of rainfall as it is recorded (e.g.
first crop of corn failed as there was too much rain, with rain gauge they
could make a hypothesis and monitor the rain gauge to determine how
much they need to water the crop)
Monitor rain gauge to determine irrigation amount

## (e.g. Spraying crops restrictions such as white oil on hydroponics)

Definitions needed to know
Effective rainfall: When precipitation is greater then or equal to

evaporation
Growing season: Months that have consecutive, effective rainfall

## on the School farm including:

Pasture: Kikuyu grass(summer) and Rye grass (cool season grass,

## glossy and shiny leaf clumping habit)

Trees: Turpentine (along boundary fence on Baker St, excellent

## properties for weathering, class 1 timber

meaning it does not decay as quickly as ), Brush box, Peach
Weeds: Fireweed(yellow flowers around 20-30cm capable of

## reproducing 10000 plants, toxic to animals),

Scotch thistle (tall, thick, woody stem and only goats can eat
young seeds can last for 7 years)
Vegetables: seasonal, typically allow 3 months for crops e.g.

Brassicas

## Describe the topography of the School farm

Undulating
Identify the water sources (town water supply and the dam)
and uses (irrigation, stock drinking water, crayfish, hydroponics)
on the School farm
Dam only used for irrigating pastures, not used on any crops
Town water supply used for troughs (drinking water for animals),
hydroponics systems, used to grow vegetables, used to irrigate orchards
Rain water tank used to fill up the crayfish tank

## 15. Identify a variety of School farm infrastructures e.g fences, water

troughs, shearing shed, feed shed, buildings, irrigation equipment

## Fences, shearing shed, water troughs, feed shed (used to store

hay), buildings e.g. F1.1., farmhands room, storage sheds in netball courts
and building for maintenance( machinery workshop) and machinery
(attachments for tractors in sheds in netball courts and barbeque hut),
chemical shed
Describe methods of agricultural record-keeping.
Hardcopy: Manual writing for orders in exercise books. Can keep
records of what farmer ordered for farm,
when cattle were born, if there were any deaths on the farm or
even the farm manager's diary,
how much fertiliser was put on, crop rotation on vegetable plots,
profits and costs
Electronic copy: Electronic writing for orders usually involving
computers. Records mainly same things but
more unpopular route, usually used for sending emails and is
a good way of keeping records
through communication
Lambing percentage: No. of lambs against no. of ewes
Growth rate g/day: : Weighs sheep periodically, can indicate to
farmer if sheep need more feed. Calculates
average growth rate
Weight at sale (target weight 35.0 kg): Electronic scales
depending on various factors
Gross margin: Keep record to calculate profit (total incomevariable income)
Outline various measures of performance including:
Gross margins: measure of performance
Yield: e.g. tonnes/ period, number of lambs sold, at JR yield usually
plateaus (rarely fluctuates)
Profitability: how much profit enterprise is making e.g. net profit,
gross profit
Lambing percentage
Growth rate g/day
Weight at sale
Gross margin
Outline problems (at least 2) associated with production on
the School farm
Cabbage white butterfly: Problems for cauliflower and broccoli by
eating the leaves as a larvae meaning less
photosynthesis. They also poo all over the crop, thus
ruining the leaf (however can
just wash off). Plant can't grow because too much
energy devoted to recovering
rather than growing bigger.
Cockatoos: Can't stop them because no physical barrier to protect
crops. Only future prevention is a big
suspended net over cropping area, physically stopping them.
They can rip the whole plant out of the ground, eat crown(centre)

of the plant, plants nipped off (dwarf beans) and yank seedlings
out of ground. Since plant can't grow yield would be affected.
Discuss factors (at least 2) a farmer considers when making

## farm management decisions

(discuss means points for or against)
Sustainability: Install storage tanks for rain water

Cost of
infrastructure

## Takes time to get

profit

More flexibility
Choice between town water and
rain water
Maintain the system

## Availability of resources: Specialised equipment to do

operation(grow a crop of Lucerne to make own hay)
Factors to consider and questions/examples
Machinery, cost, suitability(paddocks may be too steep for tractors),

expertise
Do I have right material to do it?

## trends on farm production

In Australian society, it is a demand driven economy (if asked for

## lean meat, won't ask for fatty meat)

Law of supply and demand: higher demand for product and farmer

## can't keep up with supply, the price would increase.

oversupply for product if farmer grows too much,
the price would drop to sell more
Factors affecting demand

## Consumer tastes as determined by advertising culture education

and habit
Disposal income of consumers at any particular time

## Factors affecting supply

The market price offered for the product will affect the amount

## released onto the market

The degree of technological innovation involved in the production of

## agriculture material will effect the efficiency of operations as efficiency

increases, more material is supplied thus slowing the market price
The number of people producing and marketing the product at any

## one time will affect the quantity offered for sale

The cost of production

## Prices offered for alternative commodities will affect management

direction of farmers
Environmental factors e.g. weather conditions may increase or
decrease yield

## Evaluate management practices (at least2) being used to address

environmental sustainability
Reduced chemical use

Outline
Using less chemicals

Reduce costs for farmer because consuming less chemicals

Saving in a time

## Beneficial for environment

Product may be compromised by being burdened with pests and

diseases
Evaluation
No, for example drenching sheep in chemicals though it may take less time and
cost less as well as benefitting the environment, if they get intestine worms it
would be worse off so chemical use should remain the same rather than be
reduced.
Reduced stocking rate

Outline
Have less stock on farm e.g. sheep

May break disease cycles e.g. worms

Reducing productivity so reduce profitability

Evaluation
Yes, if there is a serious outbreak reducing stock would be necessary unless the
farmer wishes for every sheep to be infected. It's all about the balance between
knowing when it's appropriate to reduce stocking rate and how many to reduce.

## Report on planning for future farm improvement

Increase the water storage capacity on the farm: Rainwater tank
Permanent netting in the peach orchard: For bird and fruit fly control
so very small holes
Soil conservation works: Continue to improve the soil structure
within the plots like rotating crops
Identify marketing strategies
Saleyard auction: Camdan saleyard are where live animals sent to
be sold (mainly prime lambs but some cattle). The reason James Ruse does
it as it is easy to sell. Sell broilers dire
Explain reasons for particular marketing strategies for the
farm
Lamb and cattle are easy to sell, there is a good market at Camden
saleyards and it is the easiest way to get rid of stock. Broilers are sold
direct to the James Ruse community and has high demand. (\$/kg)

## Orchard fruit, especially peaches, are sold to the James Ruse

community and there is a high demand, get retail price instead of
wholesale price.
Identify technologies used on the farm e.g. prime lambs
Rudweigh electronic scales: Used to weigh lambs and monitor
sheep's progress. Weigh sheep before sale to see if reached target weigh.
Also for vaccination doses.
Cross breeding: At the school, one ram(pure Poll Desort ram) and
ewes( cross breed between Border Leicester and Merino ewe) and offspring
is prime lamb. They exhibit hybrid vigor and are used for meat.
Husbandry equipment: elastrator rings and pliers used for castration
and tail docking shortening the tail for hygiene purposes, and vaccinating
gun .
Chryptorchid where testicles are pushed into abdominal cavity of
animal and scrotum is pulled tight and the elastrator ring is placed around
it. It makes the anime infertile as the sperm is heated by body temperature
and is a few degrees too high. However there is still a testosterone.

## Recognise (observe) and use safe work practices (Farm walk

observe signage on the farm regarding safety and farm hands
work practices (eg ear muffs, appropiate work boots)
On the farm, we are governed by legislation WHS act passed on 2011 to entitle a
workplace to be safe. There is an investigation if accident occurs and
compensation. Work cover pays money. All workplaces are covered by this act.
Under the act, all necessary safety equipment is supplied to farmhands e.g. PPE
personal protective equipment, gum boots, ear muffs, eye protection, overalls,
guarded tractors. Needs appropriate signage on farm to warn people of any
potential hazards on farm e.g. Hazchem sign, electrical fence, bull/ram signs
29. Identify potential safety hazards in agricultural workplaces, assess
the risk and suggest strategies to reduce or eliminate the risk e.g. safe
machinery
1.
Chemical exposure: Farmhand sprays chemicals on farm, being
absorbed into skin and body, damaging health such as fungicide in the
peach orchard, herbicide for the weeds. To reduce the risk, appropriate
training is the best way (e.g. How to assess toxicity of chemical). Don't
spray during school hours, don't spray on windy day and don't spray using
roundup.
2.
Safe machinery: Mainly directed students, teachers or farmhands
with injuries. Tractor and implements. To reduce risk, appropriate training is
needed like tractor course which teaches you how to drive a tractor safely
and attach implements safely as well as hazards and how to avoid them.
Working in pairs is ideal when utilising the tractor. PTO is a shaft at rear of
tractor to power implements, clothing caught in machine. TURN OFF the
machine when attaching shaft to PTO to stop shaft from moving. Don't
allow students to go near machines without supervision. Don't leave a key
in machine. Ensure machines are maintained properly to ensure high
standard of safety. Conducting safety order on farm and report back to find
breeches, then told to WHS school committee and the breeches are then
rectified. Make sure guards are replaced if broken. Machine is working
properly e.g. oil changed, making sure breaks work.

30.

## Identify potential safety hazards in agricultural workplaces

Recognise (observe) and use safe work practices (Farm walk
observe signage on the farm regarding safety and farm hands work practice
(e.g. ear muffs, appropriate work boots, guarded tractors). Under WHS is
provided by farmer, PPE (personal protective equipment) e.g. gumboots,
gloves. Work cover pays money and all workplaces covered by this act.
Needs to be appropriate signage to warn students, teachers and
visitors (e.g. electric fence)