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NANOARCHAEOTA

Four phyla in Archaea


 Euryarchaeota:
 Methano-producing and extreme halophiles
 Thermoplasma: acidophilic, thermophilic, cell wall-

less
 Crenarchaeota:
 Hyperthermophilic Archaea: Thermoproteus,

Pyrolobus, and Pyrodictium


 Cold-adapted Archaea
 Korarchaeota: hyperthermophiles
 Nanoarchaeota: single species (Nanoarchaeum),

a parasite of another archaeon, Ignicoccus

Basic Archae Morphology

A: A coccus with many flagella at one end (Methanococcus janaschii)


B: A lobed coccus no flagella (Methanosarcina barkeri)
C: A bacillus no flagella (Methanothermus fervidus)
D: An elongate bacillus form (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum)

Characteristics of Archaea
 Cell walls
 Lack peptidoglycan (like Eukarya)
 Peptidoglycan analog (pseudopeptidoglycan)
 Polysaccharide
 Protein
 Glycoprotein
 S-layer

Consisting of alternating residues of -(1,3) linked


N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid (NAT) and N-Acetylglucosamine
(NAG)

Peptidoglycan vs pseudopeptidoglycan

Peptidoglycan vs pseudopeptidoglycan
L-glutamate
D-alanine
L- lysine
L- lysine or DAP
L-alanin

D-glutamic acid

L-glutamate
G

Archaea
Archaea

L-alanine
G

Bacterium

A. Schematic representation of a cross-section of the cell envelope of Sulfolobus solfataricus


showing the cytoplasmic membrane, with membrane-spanning tetraether lipids and an S-layer
composed of two proteins a surface-covering protein (red oval) and a membrane-anchoring
protein (yellow oblong).
B. Schematic representation of a cell envelope of an archaeon that stains positive with the Gram stain
and that contains a pseudomurein layer in addition to the S-layer. The cytoplasmic membrane is
composed of diether lipids.

Characteristics of Archaea
 Membrane

Hyperthermophilic
Archaea

Exception ......
Bacteria: membrane contains ether-linked lipids:
 Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium

Thermodesulfobacterium
 A few of sulfate-reducing bacteria
 Propionibacterium species

Characteristics of Archaea
 Membrane
 Lipid monolayer (stable at harsk condition)
 Stable at high temperature (less denaturation)
 Ether-linked

Characteristics of Archaea
 RNA polymerase

Characteristics of Archaea
 Feature of protein synthesis
 Ribosome: 70S ( ~ bacteria)

 Initiator tRNA carries unmodified methionine

Characteristics of Archaea
 Feature of protein synthesis
 Diphteria toxin inhibits protein synthesis of Archaea

(~ Eukarya) but not Bacteria


 Antibiotics that inhibits protein synthesis in Bacteria

do not affect in Archaea

Summary of major differential features


Characteristics

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

Prokaryotic structure

Circular DNA

Histone protein

Nucleus

Cell wall (muramic acid)

Esther

Ether

Esther

Ribosomes

70S

70S

80S

Initiator tRNA

fMet

Met

Met

Introns

Operons

Capping and polyA mRNA

Plasmids

Rare

Membrane lipids

Summary of major differential features


Characteristics

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

One

Several

Three

Subunits of RNA polymerase

8-12

12-14

Transcription factors

-10 and -35

TATA box

TATA box

Ribosome sensitivity to DT
RNA polymerase

Promotor structure
Sensitivity to chloramphenicol,
streptomycin, kanamycin

Phylum Euryarchaeota
 Extremely Halophilic Archaea
 Halobacterium, Haloferax, Natronobacterium
Hypersaline environment

 Requires high concentration of salt: 2-4 M of NaCl


 Some can grow at 5 M (32%, limit f NaCl saturation)
 Water balance; compatible solute (an organic or

inorganic substance accumulated in the cytoplasm of a


halophilic organism in order to maintain osmotic
pressure), in this case, pumping ion K+

Phylum Euryarchaeota
 Extremely Halophilic Archaea
 Cell wall:
 Glycoprotein:
 acidic in nature, contains high aspartate and glutamate
 stabilized by ion Na+, required for cell integrity
 Cytoplasm:
 Acidic
 High ion K+ is required for enzyme activity
 Low level of hydrophobic amino acids and lysine
 Polar protein tends to be more soluble
 Ribosome requires ion K +
 Cellular components exposed to external environment require
ion Na +, whereas internal components require K +

Methane-producing Archaea:
Metahogens
 Genera: Methanobacterium,

Methanocaldococcus, Methanosarcina
 Cell wall diversity:
 Pseudopeptidoglycan: Methanobacterium
 Methanochondroitin: Methanoarcina
 Protein or glyprotein: Methanocaldococcus

 Obligate anaerobes
 Hyperthermophilic and thermophilic metahogens:

Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (85oC),


Methanotorris igneus (88oC), Methanosaeta
thermophila (60oC)

Thermoplasmatales: Thermoplasma,
Ferroplasma, Picrophilus
 Archaea lacking cell walls: Thermoplasma and

Ferroplasma

 Optimal temperature: 55oC and pH 2


 Survive osmotic pressure without cell wall (hot acid

condition):
 Thermoplasma: unique cell membrane ~ lipoglycan
(LPS-like material) with mannose ang glucose and
glycoprotein

 Thermoplasma DNA is complexed with highly basic

DNA-binding protein ~ histone

Thermoplasmatales: Thermoplasma,
Ferroplasma, Picrophilus
 Ferroplasma:
 Strong acidophile, not thermophile
 Oxidizes Fe2+ Fe3+ to obtain energy (generates

acid)
 Acidic water at pH 0
 Picrophilus:
 Grows at pH -0.06 to 0.7
 Extreme acid tolerance
 Cell wall: S-layer

Hyperthermophilic Euryarchaeota:
Thermococcales and Methanopyrus
 Thermococcus: obligately anaerobic 70-95 oC
 Pyrococcus: 70 106 oC
 Methanopyrus: maximal growth temperature 110
oC

 Ether-linked lipid (unsaturated) most Archaea:

saturated

Phylum Crenarchaeota
 All cultured Crenarchaeota:
 hyperthermophiles (> 80 oC)

 Cold-dwelling Crenarchaeota:
 < 0 oC (sea ice) and 2 4 oC (seawater)

 Hyperthermophiles from terrestrial volcanic

habitats: Solfobales and Thermoproteales


 Sulfolobus: sulfur-rich acidic hot springs (90 oC and

pH 1-5)
 Thermoproteus and Thermofilum: strict anaerobe
 Pyrobaculum: aerobe, optimal growth temperature
(100 oC)

Phylum Nanoarchaeota
 Tiny parasitic cells
 Smallest genome of all known prokaryotes
 Nanoarchaeum:
 Replicates only when attached to the surface of

Ignicoccus cells
 Optimal growth:90 oC

Evolution and life at high temperatures


 Heat stability of biomolecules:
 Protein folding and thermostability:
 Same structure as non-thermophiles
 Thermostability (hold protein each other and prevent
unfloding):
 Highly hydrophobic cores
 More ionic interations on the protein surface
 Chaperonins:
 Assist protein to remain in their native state
 Refold partially denatured proteins
 Function only at high temperatures
 Thermosome: Pyrodictium (optimal growth: 110 oC)

Evolution and life at high temperatures


 Heat stability of biomolecules:
 DNA stability at high temperatures: solutes and

reverse gyrase
 Methanopyrus:



potassium cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (salt)


Prevents chemical damage to DNA (depurination or
depyrimidization at high temperature)

Evolution and life at high temperatures


 Heat stability of biomolecules:
 DNA stability at high temperatures: solutes and

reverse DNA gyrase (absent < 80 oC)


reverse DNA gyrase

Stabilize DNA at high temperature


Prevent DNA helix to denaturation

Evolution and life at high temperatures


 Heat stability of biomolecules:
 DNA stability: DNA-binding protein
 Small heat-stable DNA-binding protein (Sac7d) binds minor
groove of DNA (Sulfolobus) and increases its melting
temperature by 40 oC.
 Highly acidic protein (~ histone) binds DNA
(Euryarchaeota): complex maintain double-stranded
structure at high temperature
 Lipid stability
 Stability of monomers
 ATP and NAD