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SQ of Paper II
1. Wrist drop
Ans.: Wrist remains in palmer flexion due to weakness of dorsiflexor.
It is seen in radius nerve palsy.
2. Sequestrum
Ans.: It is a piece of dead bone, surrounded by ineffectual
granulation fiber trying to cut away the sequestrum. It is a
complication of osteomyelitis.
3. Splints
Ans.: Splints are a device used for immobilizing fractures, either
temporarily during transportation or for definitive treatment.
- Also used in other orthopedic condition like infection, congenital
dislocation of hip etc.
4. Nonunion
- When the process of fracture healing comes to a stand before its
complications the fracture is said to have gone in non-union. It is not
before 6 months a fracture can labeled non-union.
- Mainly of two types
a) Atrophic
b) Hypertrophic
5. Pathological fractures
- A pathological fracture is a bone fracture caused by disease that lead
to weakness of bone structure. This process is most commonly due
to osteoporosis but may be due to other pathologies such as;
o Cancer
o Infarction
o Inheriterited bone disorder
o Bone cyst
6. Osteoporosis
- It is the commonest metabolic bone disease. Characterized by a
diffuse reduction in bone density due to decrease in the bone mass.
It occurs when route of bone resorption exceed the rate of bone
7. Osteosynthesis
- Osteosynthesis is the reduction and internal fixation of a bone
fracture with implantable devices that are made of metal. It is a
surgical procedure with an open or percutaneous approach in the
fractured bone.
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8. Arthroplasty
- Arthroplasty is an operation for construction of new movable joints.
- Indications
Osteoarthritis of hip and knee
Ankylosis of elbow
Un-united femoral neck fracture.
- Mainly of three types
Excision Arthroplasty
Hemiarthroplasty of half joint replacement
Total replacement Arthroplasty
9. Guyons canal syndrome
- Caused by entrapment of the ulnar nerve in Guyons canal as it
passes through the wrist. Start with a feeling of pins and needles in
the ring finger before progressing to a loss of sensation and/or
impaired motor function of the intrinsic muscle of hand which are
innervated by ulnar nerve
- Mainly seen in regular cyclists.

Mortons metatarsalgia
It is a benign neuroma of a intermetatarsal planter nerve, most
commonly of the second and third metatarsal spaces which result
entrapment of the affected nerve
Main symptoms are pain and/or numbness relieved by removing

11.Bicipital tendinitis
- It is an inflammatory process of the long head of the biceps tendon
and a common cause of shoulder pain.

Dupuytrens contracture
Characterized by a flexion deformity of one or more fingers due to a
thickening and shortening of the palmer aponeurosis.
Ring finger is most commonly affected
Flexion at metcarpo-phalangeal joint and proximal interphalangeal
Trendelenbergs test
To detect the incompetence of the saphano-femoral junction and/or
the other communicating system.
Patient lie down on the couch in supine position limb elevated above
the level of heart to allow the varicose veins empty
Thumb is place on the saphano-femoral opening. Patient is asked to
stand up quickly.

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- Pressure is not released and gradual fillings of veins from
below. It suggest incompetence of ley perforator.
- Pressure is released quickly feeling from above
- Incompetence of valves at saphano-femoral junction.
Both are called Trendelenbergs test positive.

Anterior dislocation of shoulder

- A fall on an out stretched hand with the shoulder abducted and
externally rotated causes anterior dislocation of shoulder.
- In this Head of humerus comes out of glenoid cavity.
- Types Cavity
1. Pre-glenoid front of glenoid cavity
2. Sub-coracoid below the coracoid process
3. Sub-clavicularbelow the clavicle


Torus fracture (Buckle fracture)

- These are incomplete fractures of the shaft of a long bone that
is characterized by bulging of the cortex. It results from
trabecular compression from an axial loading force along the
long axis of the bone.
- Most commonly occurs at distal end of radius and tibia


Accessory navicular
The accessory navicular is an extra bone or cartilage located on the
inner side of the foot just above the arch. It is incorporated in the
posterior tibial tendon.
It is congenital and present from birth may give rise to accessory
navicular syndrome.


Green stick fracture

A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone bends and cracks instead
of breaking completely into separate pieces. Most commonly occurs
in children because their bones are softer and more flexible.


Neletons line
Theoretical line in the moderately flexed hip, drawn from
Anterior superior iliac spine to
Tuberosity of the ischium
Normally the greater trochanter of femur lies below this line, in case
of iliac joint dislocation of the hip or fracture of the neck of femur the
trochanter is felt above the line.


Spina ventousa

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Name given to tuberculosis of the phalanges of hand. Affected

phalanges swells up like a balloon
X-ray characteristic shown lytic lesion distending the phalynx and a
lot of new bone formation.
D.Q. disease (De Quervains tenovaginitis)
Condition characteristic by pain and swelling over the radial styloid
It results from inflammation of the common sheath of abductor
pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendon.
Tinels sign
On gently tapping over the course of the nerve from distal to
proximal a regeneration of current or hyperaesthesia is felt in the
area of the skin supplied by the affected nerve
A distal Progression of the level at which this sign is elicited suggest


Limb length discrepancy for lower limb

Defined as a condition in which the paired lower extremity has a
noticeably unequal length.


Total knee replacement

Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure in which damaged
part of articular surface is sliced off to prepare the bone ends to take
the artificial compounds which cap the end of the bones.
Indication: Painful disabling arthritis




It is condition of nerve injury in which axon use damaged but the
internal architecture of the nerve is preserved
Wallarian degeneration occurs recovery may occurs spontaneously
but may take month.
Volkmans sign
Helps in cure of the flexor deformity of finger
o In this sign, it is possible to extend the fingers fully at the
interphalangeal joint only when the wrist is flexed. On
extending the wrist fingers get flexed at interphalangeal joint.
This because the wrist extended the shortened flexor muscle tendon
unit is stitched over the front of wrist, resulting in the flexion at finger.
Mainly seen in Volkmans Ischemic contracture
Stress fracture

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It is a fatigue induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress

over time.
Stress fractures are common overuse injuries of athletes.


Trigger finger
Condition resulting from the contraction of the fibrous digital sheath,
so that free gliding of the contained flexor tendon does not occur.


Froments sign
Sign used for ulnar nerve injury in which adductor pollicis will be
Pattern will hold the book by using the flexor pollicis longer. If
examiner tries to pull the book this increases the already produced
flexion at interphalangeal joint at thumb
This sign is known as Froments sign or book test.


Onion peel appearance

In typical Ewings sarcoma these are lytic lesion in the medullary
zone of the midshaft of a long bone, with cortical destruction and
new bone formation in layers which seen radiologically. It is called
onion peel appearance.


Tennis elbow
Conditions characterized by pain and tenderness of the lateral
epicondyle of the humerus due to non-specific inflammation at the
origin of the exterior muscles of forearm.


It is a physiological disruption of conduction in the nerve fibre. No
structural changes occur. Recovery occurs spontaneously within a
few weeks and is complete.


Thomas splint
It is also known as Thomas- knee bed splint commonly used for the
immobilization of hip and thigh
- Parts:
1. A ring
2. Two side bars joined distally
- Ring is at 1200 to inside burn,
outside burn has a curve near its
junation with ring to accommodate
greater trochanter.

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33. Stress fracture

34. Mallet finger (Stress fracture)

Result from the sudden passive flexion of the distal interphalangeal
joint so that the extensor tendon of the distal interphalangeal joint is
avulsed from its insertion at the base of the distal phalynx.
35. What is Mallet Finger?
It is a deformity of the finger caused when extensor
digitorum tender of finger is injured at distal interphalangeal
- Results as the tip of the injured finger bends downwards
while the rest of the finger stays straight.

36. Tourniquet
- A tourniquet is a constricting or a compressing device specifically a
bandage, used to control venous and arterial circulation to and from
extremity for a period of time.
37. Codmans triangle
- In osteosarcoma - X-Ray a triangular area of subperiosteal new
bone is seen at the tumour-host cortex junction at the ends of the
38. Enumerate types of shoulder dislocation
1. Anterior dislocation preglenoid, subcoracoid, subclaviular
2. Posterior dislocation
3. Luxatio erecta

39. PTB
Patellar tendon bearing prosthesis used in below-knee Amputation.

40. Myositis ossificans (Post-traumatic ossification)

- This is ossification of the hematoma around a joint resulting in the
formation of a mass of bone restricting joint movement often
41. Sudecks dystrophy
- It is an amplified musculo-skeletal pain syndrome which is a chronic
systemic disease characterized by
o Severe pain
Caused by a dysfunction of
o Swelling
the sympathetic nervous
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system system


o Skin changes
42. Green stick fracture
43. Erbs palsy
- It is a paralysis of the arm caused by injury to upper arms main
nerve specifically severing of the upper trunk C5-C6 nerves of the
brachial plexus.
- It is most commonly from shoulder dystocia during a difficult birth.
44. Colles cast
In Colles fracture a plastic cast extending from below elbow to the
metacarpal heads maintaining the wrist in
o Palmar flexion
o Ulnar deviation
- This is called Colles cast

45. Carrying angle at elbow

- When the elbow joint is fully extended and supinated, the forearm
and arm dont lie in a straight line, but from an outward angle, this is
called carrying angle. It disappears on flexing the elbow.
- Normal carrying angle is 11o in females and 4o in males.
46. Montegia fracture dislocation
- Fracture of proximal of ulna with dislocation of head of radius
caused by a fall on an outstretched hand with the forearm forced in
to excessive pronation.
47. Ganglion
- Anatomy - It is a structure continuing a number of nerve cells bodies
typically linked by synapse and often forming a swelling on a nerve
- Orthopedic Commonest cystic swelling at the dorsum of the foot
results from mucoid degeneration of the tendon sheath or joint
48. Plaster sore
- These are caused by inadequate padding, irregularity of the inner
surface of the cyst or foreign bodies characterized by
o Exessive pain ( not referable to fracture)
o Fretfulness
o Disturbed sleep
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o Low grade fever

o Sockage of plaster.

49. Genu valgus

Commonly called knock knees is a condition in which the knees
angle in and touch one another when legs are straightened mainly
knocking each other while walking
50. Tennis elbow.

51. Brodies abscess

- It is a special type of osteomyelitis in which the body defense system
has been able to contain the infection so as to create chronic bone
abscess continuing pus or jelly like granulations tissue surrounded
by zone of sclerosis.
- Common sites are lower end of femur and upper end of tibia
52. Patellar tap
- With knee fully extended the supra patellar pouch is emptied by
pressing it with one hand fluid comes to lie between the patella and
femoral condyle thus lifts the patella.
- Now with gentle tap on patella feel it flexing the femur and spring
- This test is positive when there is fluid within the joint.

53. Foot drop

Foot remains in planter flexion due to weakness of dorsiflexors. It
occurs commonly in peroneal nerve palsy.

54. Jones fracture

- Fracture at the base of the 5th metatarsal caused by the pull exerted
by the tendon of the peroneous brevis muscle inserted on it.
- Treated by below-knee walking plaster cast for 3 weeks.
55. De Quervains disease
56. Exostosis
- Defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the
surface of bone.
57. Jaipur foot
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Jaipur foot is a modification of SACH foot to make suitable for

barefoot walking
o Appearance of the foot is that of a normal foot.
o It allows movement at forefoot and midfoot.

58. Triple deformity of the knee

- Flexion at knee
- Posterior subluxation of the tibia
- Extended rotation of tibia
Seen in TB, Polio, Rheumatoid Arthritis
59. Meningomyelocele
- Protrusion of the meninges along with some neural elements
(normally developed spinal cord or cauda equina) mainly seen spina
bifida aperta
60. Smith fracture
- Distal Radius fracture in which distal fragment displaces ventrally
and tilt ventrally.
- It is treatedd with closed reduction and plaster cast immobilization for
six weeks.
61. Hangmans fracture
- A fracture which involved the pars interarticularis (pedicle) of C 2 on
both sides and is a result of hyper extension and distraction.
62. Ilizarov principle
- Basic principle of Ilizarovs technique is that osteogenesis requires
dynamic stage, means site of osteogenesis requires either a
controlled distraction or controlled compression.
63. Involucrum
- Involucrum is the dense sclerotic bone overlying a sequestrum.
Mainly in chronic osteomyelitis.
64. Traction
Traction refers to set of mechanisms for straightening broken bones
or relieving pressure on the spine and skeletal system.
- Objectives
o Reduction of fracture and dislocation and their maintenance.
o For immobilizing a painful, inflammable joints
o For prevention of deformity by contracting the muscle spasm.

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o Correction of soft tissue contracture by pulling them out.

65. Short limb gait
Head and shoulder drop as patient steps onto short limb.
Pelvis drops on affected side with heel strike and exaggerated head
motion in saggital plane.
- Vaelting gait, Flexion knee, equinus ankle.

66. Ulnar claw hand

Hyper extension at metacarpo-phalangeal joints and flexion at
proximal and distal inter-phalangeal joints.
- Occur due to paralysis of lumbrical due to lower ulnar nerve palsy.

67. Compound fracture

- A fracture with break in the overlying skin and soft tissue leading to
the fracture communicating with external environment is called a
compound or open fracture.
68. Osgood-shlatters disease
- Osteochondritis of tibial tubercle is called Osgood slatters disease.
69. Hallux valgus
- Lateral deviation of great toe at meta-phalangeal joint mainly due to
rheumatoid arthritis, wearing pointed shoes with high heels.
70. Genu valgus
71. Perthes disease
- Osteochondritis of the Epiphysis of the femoral head. Femoral head
becomes partly or wholly avascular and deformed.
- Occurs in three stages
o Stage of synovitis
o Stage of trabecular necrosis
o Stage of healing
72. Osteogenesis Imperfecta
- Condition characterized by tendency for frequent fractures because
of weak and brittle bones. Due to defective collagen synthesis.
Mainly autosomal dominant disease.

73. Tennis elbow


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74. Madura foot

Caused by Maduromycosis, Starts as nodular swelling over dorsum
or sole of foot. Nodule bursts and discharges thin pus. Gradually
more nodules form and results in a swollen foot with nodular surface
and discharging sinuses.

75. Osteoarthritis
- Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease primary affecting the
articular cartilage characterized by pain and stiffness in joints.
76. Pes cavus
- Longitudinal arches of the foot are exaggerated. This deformity of leg
is called pes cavus.
77. Fracture patella
- A direct or indirect blow to the anterior aspect of the flexed knee
result in fracture of patella. Mainly of two types
o Pro part fracture
o Stellate fracture (communited fracture in all part of patella )
78. Saturday night palsy
- Results from falling asleep with ones arm hanging over the arm rest
of chair compressing the radial nerve at spiral grove.

79. Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Condition that is cured by compression of the posterior tibial nerve or
its branch as the nerve passes under the flexor retinaculum at the
level of the ankle or distally. Characterized by peripheral Neuropathy.
80. Pseudo Gout
Due to sodium pyrophosphic crystal deposition in joint with the
symptoms similar to the gout like Arthiritis and bursitis.

81. Sprengel Shoulder

- Failure of descent of the scapula which is developmentally a cervical
appendage is called sprengels shoulder.

82. Kohler disease

Osteochondritis of navicular bone is called Kohlers disease.

83. Torticollis
- Deformity of neck where head and neck are turned and twisted to
one side due to spasm of sternocleido-mastoid muscle.
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84. Bartons fracture

- Intra-articular fracture through the distal articular surface of the
radius. Taking a margin, anterior or posterior or distal radius with
carpals displaced Anteriorly or posteriorly.

85. Emergency room management for open fracture shaft femur

Fracture reduction and immobilization
o Reduce fracture to new-anatomical alignment
o Pneumatic splint with
Pain management
Infection prophylaxis
Maintenance of intravenous fluid

86. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture

- Mainly due to hyper extension of the knee characterized by diffuse
pain in the knee.

87. Heel pain

Caused by;
1. Disuse of calcaneum
2. Planter fasciitis
3. Fat pad inflammation
4. Retro-calcaneal bursitis
5. Achilis tendinitis
6. Disuse of subtalar joint

88. Golfers elbow

- Inflammation of the medial epicondyle of the humerus at common
flexor origin.
89. Scurvy
- Caused by deficiency of vitamin C results in decreased production
and poor quality of collagen presented with, swollen gums, gingivitis
and abnormal bleeding tendency.
90. Fracture supracondylar humerus in six years old boy
- Fracture caused by a fall on out-stretched hand on the ground, the
elbow is force into hyperextension resulting in the fracture of
humerus above the condyle.
91. Frozen shoulder
- Disease of unknown etiology where glenohumoral joint becomes
painful & stiff because of loss of resilience of joint capsule, possibly
with adhesions between its folds, produces pain & stiffness of
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92. Ankylosing spondylitis

- It is a chronic disease characterized by progressive inflammatory
stiffness of joint with a predilection for the joints of axial skeleton,
especially the sarco-illiac joints
93. Below knee amputation
- Below knee amputation is an amputation often performed for foot &
ankle problems. It leads to use of an artificial leg that can allow a
patient to walk. It is performed roughly in the area between ankle &
94. Open fracture
- A fracture which break in the overlying skin & soft tissues leading to
the fracture communicating with the external environment may be of
internal compounding type or external compounding type.
95. Scaphoid fracture
- More common in young adults rare in children, commonly occurs
through the waist of scaphoid, rarely through its tuberosity. Avascular
necrosis, delayed & non-union, wrist osteoarthritis are important
96. Priorities in approach to a pollytrauma patient
- P Protection with facial shield, mask, gown and gloves
- D Decision to initiate, continue/discontinue trauma resuscitation.
- A- Airway maintenance
- B- Breathing-ensure adequate breathing
- C- Checking circulation, stop external bleeding, IV lines
- D- Decompression of intra-cranium
- E- Extremities & adequate exposure

97. Complications of fractures

Hypovolumic shock
Fat embolism
Deep vein thrombosis
Crush syndrome
Injury to vessels nerves, joints, muscles, tendon.
Compartment syndrome

98. Dennis braun splint

- This is a splint to hold the foot in the corrected position.
- Used throughout the day before child starts walking.
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Once he starts walking a DB splint is used at night & CTEV shoes

during the day

99. Carpal tunnel syndrome

- It is a syndrome characterized by the compression of the median
nerve as it passes beneath the flexor retinaculum; due to any space
occupying lesions of the carpel tunnel.
o C/F generally in middle aged women, Tingling
numbness in thumb & radial one & half fingers more
prominent during sleep.





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hypertrophic non union

Findings include hypertrophy of bone ends & sclerosis at 6
months post injury these non-unions theoretically have
sufficient vascularity to heal but stability is lacking or normal
axial alignment has not been restored. These two things are
established, it usually heal in short period of time.
Closed nailing
Closed intramedullary nailing is the standard of care for
femoral shaft fractures & broadly applied with proliferation of
cephalo-medullary instrumentation for treatment of
intertrochanteric & Subtrochanteric femur fracture.
Locking plate
Locking screws makes plate fixation more resistant to failure
from screw loosening & pull out. They are used to fix two
bony fragments.
Monteggia fracture dislocation
It is a fracture of the upper 1/3 of ulna dislocation of the
head of radius. It is caused by the fall on an out stretched
hand with forearm forced into extensive pronation. It may
also result from a direct blow on the back of upper forearm.
Two types Extension type
Flexion type
Synovial chondromatosis
It is a rare benign condition that involves the synovium, thin
layer of tissue that lines joints. It can cause severe damage
to joint & lead to osteoarthritis. It is non-malignant.
Trendlenberg sign.







It is found in people with weak or paralyzed abductor

muscle of the hip, namely gluteus medius & gluteus
It is said to be +ve when standing on one leg, pelvis drops
on the side opposite to the stance leg to reduce the load by
decreasing the lever arm.
Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive medical test
that helps physician to diagnosis treat medical conditions.
MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses
& a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft
tissue, bone & virtually all other internal body structures.
What is plaster of paris?
CaSo4 H2O in dry form which becomes CaSo4 2H2O on
wetting with exothermic reaction it is irreversible plaster sets
in the given shape on drying. Setting time varies with quality
& temperature of water used.
Used in orthopedic in form of slab or cast. Slab covers a
part of circumference of limb while cast covers whole
circumference of limb
What is bone cement?
Chemically its plexiglans (i.e. PAANAA or /Polymethyl /
methacrylate) used in Orthopedic to fill up cavity or to create
a mechanical fixation.
What is Hammer Toe?
It is a deformity of proximal interphalangeal joint of 2 nd, 3rd,
4th toe causing it to be permanently bent resembling a
Causes excessive use of high hills, osteoarthritis,
Rheumatoid arthritis.
It is minimally invasive surgical procedure on a joint in which
an examination & sometimes treatment of damage is
performed using an arthroscope which is an endoscopic
inserted into joint through a small incision.

Classification of compound fracture
Two types

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a) Internal compounding fracture - in which sharp fracture end pierces

the skin from within resulting in an open fracture.
b) External compounding fracture In which object causing the
fracture lacerates the skin & soft tissues over the bone as it breaks
the bone resulting in an open fractures.






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What is Osteomyelitis?
Infection of the bone by micro-organisms is called
Osteomyelitis it may be acute or chronic.
Tatlors brace
Tatlor brace is an orthosis which is reasonably efficient in
preventing flexion, extension & lateral motion of tharocic &
tharoco-lumber spines.
H.O. Thomas
Considered as father of orthopaedic surgery.
In Rx of fractures & TB.
Thomas allar to Rx TB of cervical spine.
Thomas maneuver to investigate fracture of hip
Thomas test to detect deformity of hip
Thomas wrench for reducing fractures.
March fracture
Also known as fatigue fracture of metatarsal bone is a
fracture of distal 1/3 of one of metatarsal occurring because
of recurrent stress while marching.
Froments sign
Is a special test for wrist to test palsy of ulnar nerve,
specifically action of adductor pollicis.
Patient is asked to hold paper or flat object between thumb
& index finger & then examiner then attempts to pull the
object out of the subjects hands.
Spinal shock
It is a loss of sensation accompanied by motor paralysis
with initial loss but gradual recovery of reflexes following a
spinal cord injury most often complete transaction.
A condition in which a nerve remains in place after a severe
injury although it no longer transmits impulses due to nerve


fibre compression. Spontaneous recovery occurs in a few

days to weeks.





Thomas test
It is a test described by Hugh Owen Thomas used to rule
out hip flexion contracture & psoas syndrome
Patient lies supine position on examination table brings one
knee towards chest while other leg extended test called +ve
if patients
Opposite/contralateral hip flexes without knee extensionthigh + Iliopsoas
Hip abducts tight tensor Fascia Lata
Knee extension occurs -Tight Rectus femoris
Lateral rotation of Tibia-Tight Biceps Femoris.
Madelungs deformity
It is an epiphyseal growth plate disturbance characterized
by dorsal & radial bowing of the radius with resultant
cosmetic effects & decreased grip strength.
Osteoid osteoma
It is the commonest true benign tumour of the bone.
Pathologically it consists of a nidus of tangled or rays of
partially mineralized osteiod trabeculae surrounded by
dense sclerotic bone.
Mc murray
It is used to evaluate individuals for tears in the meniscus of
the knee. It is a rotation test for demonstrating the torn
cartilage of knee. A tear in meniscus may cause a
pedunculated tag of meniscus which may become jammed
between joint surfaces.
Thoms splint
These are mostly commonly used to treat complete long
bone fractures of leg, femur not for tibia & fibula area.
It refers to a splinting device that uses straps attaching over
the pelvis or the hip as an anchor, metal rod to mimic
normal bone stability & limb length, a mechanical device to
apply traction to the limb.

Dislocation of HIP
3 main types
1. Posterior

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2. Anterior
3. Central fracture dislocation
All these may be associated with fracture of lip of acetabulum.



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Delayed union
When a fracture takes more than usual time to unite it is
said to have gone in delayed union.
Complications of a dislocation
Myositis ossificans
Persistent instability
Joint stiffness
Avascular necrosis
Traction in management of a fracture
It is used for reduction of fractures and dislocation & their
For immobility a painful inflamed joint.
Prevention of deformity by counteracting the muscle spasm
associated with painful joint conditions.
Correction of soft tissue contractures by pulling them out.
Spin Bifida
Birth defect where there is incomplete closing of spinal
canal & meninges of spinal cord.
Bakers cyst
It is also known as a popliteal cyst a benign swelling of
semimembranous or more rarely some synovial bursa found
behind the knee joint seen behind the knee joint.
Coxa vara deformity
Deformity of hip where the angle between the head & shaft
of the femur is reduced to less than 120o degrees.
Congenital talipus equino varus in which a child presents
with either one or both feet pointing downwards (planter
flexion) & turns inwards (invasion & adduction). Two types
1) Postural
2) Structural
Pulse polio programme








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Immunization campaign established by government of India

by vaccinating all children under age of 5 years against
polio virus.
Giant cells
It is a mass formed by the union of several distinct cells
usually macrophages after forming Granuloma. It can arise
in response to an infection such as TB, herpes, HZV or
foreign body.
Lepra reaction
Type I lepra reaction also called reversal reaction occurs as
a result of increased activity of immune system, particularly
a cell-mediated immune response fighting leprosy bacillus
or remnants of dead bacilli.
Type I Lepra reaction occurs more often in the pat around
the LL pole of leprosy spectrum, characterized by painful
and tender red papules on skin.
An artificial replacement of a part of the body such as a
tooth, bone, palate or a joint. Prosthesis may be removable
or permanently implanted.
It is removal of a limb by trauma medical illness or surgery.
As a surgical measure it is used to control pain or a disease
process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or
Gunstock deformity
Cubitus varus is often referred as Gunstock deformity due to
crooked nature of healing, in which a limb in which part of it
is deviated towards the midline of body.
Marfans syndrome
It is a genetic disorder of connective tissue characterized by
long arms, legs, fingers,; tall curved spine; flexible joints; flat
feet; crowded teeth & also with heart valves & aortic
problems; lung collapse eye problems.
It is most common congenital malformation of the limbs
where two or more digits are fused together.






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It is a polypeptide hormone produced by parafollicular cells
of thyroid gland, acts to reduce blood calcium.
Jaw reflex
It is a stretch reflex used to test the status of patients
trigeminal nerve, the lower jaw is trapped at angle just
below the lips at the chin while the mouth is held slightly
open. In response masseter muscle will jerk the mandible
Normally this reflex is absent or very slight however in
individuals with upper motor neuron lesions the jaw jerk
reflex can be quite pronounced.
Jumpers knee
Patellar tendinitis also known as jumpers knee is relatively
common cause of pain in inferior patellar region in athletes.
Common with frequent jumping. Rest, ice, compression,
elevation is a conservative treatment.
Hangmans fracture
It is a fracture through the pedicle & lamina of C 2 vertebra,
subluxation of C2 over C3 sustained in hanging.
INH toxicity (TB drug)
Acute INH toxicity frequently manifests as altered mental
status or seizures seen in children, suicidal intent or patient
taking extra dose for missed dose.
Chronic INH toxicity manifests as peripheral neuropathy
Second most common infection of tip of finger, commonly
resulting from a pin prick; index finger& thumb are affected
most Often. In it terminal pulp-space (volar space of distal
digit) which is filled with compact fat is infected. The pulp is
swollen tense & tender characterized by severe throbbing
pain & exquisite tenderness suggest suppuration
Lepra bacilli
Mycobacterium leprae is known as lepra bacili
Gram +ve
Acid fast bacterium




Intracellular aerobic bacillus

Rod shaped
Causes leprosy
Bartons fracture
It is also known as marginal fracture which is intraarticular
fractures through the distal articular surface of radius, taking
a margin anterior or posterior of the distal radius with the
carpals displaced anteriorly or posteriorly.

1 Long case, 2 Short case (1 Surgery & 1 Ortho), 1 Table

For case history


Important points to be kept in mind while taking history

Key points of examination
List of possible questions with answers

Long Case
Obstructive Jaundice
Ca Breast/ Lump in Breast
Head & Neck Swelling
Lump in Abdomen
Varicose Vein
Short case - 1 Surgery
Devarshi Edutech



Lymph node swelling
Swelling - Sabaceous cyst
Oral cavity ulcer
Short case -2 Orthopaedics
Hip/Knee Examination
Peripheral Nerve Examination
Median Nerve
Radial Nerve
Ulnar nerve
Common Peroneal Nerve
Sciatic Nerve
Tibial Nerve
Radius fracture
Collis fracture

Make list of items kept on viva table

Related questions of each item with answers

Devarshi Edutech