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Damping exercise

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1) A mass of 10kg is suspended from one end of a helical spring, the other end

being fixed. The stiffness of the spring is10N/mm.The viscous damping causes

the amplitude to decreases to one-tenth of the initial value in four complete

oscillations. If a periodic force of 150cos50t N is applied at the mass in the

vertical direction .Find the amplitude of the forced vibrations? What is its value

of resonance?

2) A single cylinder vertical petrol engine of total mass of 200kg is mounted upon

a steel chassis frame. Thevertical static deflection of the frame is 2.4mm due

to the weight of the engine .The mass of the reciprocating parts is 18kg and

stroke of piston 160mm with S.H.M.If dashpot of damping coefficient of

1N/mm/s used to damped the vibrations, calculate al steady state

(i)Amplitude of vibrations at 500rpm engine speed.(ii)The speed of the driving

shaft at which resonance will occurs.

3) The mass of an electric motor is 120kg and it runs at 1500rpm.The armature

mass is 35kg and its centre of gravity lies 0.5mm from axis of rotation. The

motor is mounted on five springs of negligible damping. So that the force

transmitted is one-eleventh of the impressed force. Assume that the mass of

the motor is equally distributed among the five springs. Determine (i) the

stiffness of the spring (ii) Natural frequency of system.

4) The following data are given for a vibratory system with viscous damping.

Mass=2.5kg s=3N/mm x6=0.25x1. Determine the damping coefficient of

the damper in the system?

5) A machine part of mass 2kg vibrates in a viscous medium. Determine the

damping coefficient when a harmonic exciting force of 25N results in resonant

amplitude of 12.5 mm with a period of 0.2 seconds. If the system is excited

by a harmonic force of frequency 4Hz what will be the percentage increase in

the amplitude of vibration when damper is removed as compared with that

with damping?

MODULE 4

PART A

1. Discuss how a single revolving mass is balanced by two masses

revolving in different planes

3. Explain the method of balancing of different masses revolving in the

same plane.

4. How the different masses rotating in different planes are balanced?

5. What you mean by unbalanced force or shaking force?

6. Write the expression for Primary and Secondary Unbalanced Forces of

Reciprocating Masses?

PART B

1. The three cranks of a three cylinder locomotive are all on the same axleand

are set at 120. The pitch of the cylinders is 1 metre and the stroke of each

piston is 0.6 m. Thereciprocating masses are 300 kg for inside cylinder and

260 kg for each outside cylinder and the planes of rotation of the balance

masses are 0.8 m from the inside crank. If 40% of the reciprocating parts are

to be balanced, find : 1. the magnitude and the position of the balancing

masses required at a radius of 0.6 m ; And 2. the hammer blow per wheel

when the axle makes 6 r.p.s.

2. The following data refer to two cylinder locomotive with cranks at 90

:Reciprocating mass per cylinder = 300 kg ; Crank radius = 0.3 m ; Driving

wheel diameter = 1.8 m ; Distance between cylinder centre lines = 0.65 m ;

Distance between the driving wheel central planes = 1.55 m. Determine : 1.

the fraction of the reciprocating masses to be balanced, if the hammer blowis

not to exceed 46 kN at 96.5 km. p.h. ; 2. the variation in tractive effort ; and 3.

the maximum swaying couple

3. The following particulars relate to a two-cylinder locomotive with two coupled

wheels on each side :

Stroke = 650 mm

Mass of reciprocating parts per cylinder = 240 kg

Mass of revolving parts per cylinder = 200 kg

Mass of each coupling rod = 250 kg

Radius of centre of coupling rod pin = 250 mm

Distances between cylinders = 0.6 m

Distance between wheels = 1.5 m

The main cranks are at right angles and the coupling rod pins are at 180 to

their respective

main cranks. The balance masses are to be placed in the wheels at a mean

radius of 675 mm in order to balance whole of the revolving and 3/4th of the

reciprocating masses. The balance mass for the reciprocating masses are to

be divided equally between the driving wheels and the coupled wheels. Find :

1. The magnitudes and angular positions of the masses required for the

driving and trailing wheels, and 2. The hammer blow at 120 km/h, if the

wheels are 1.8 metre diameter.

4. A four cylinder vertical engine has cranks 150 mm long. The planes of rotation

of the first, second and fourth cranks are 400 mm, 200 mm and 200 mm

respectively from the third crank and their reciprocating masses are 50 kg, 60

kg and 50 kg respectively. Find the mass of the reciprocating parts for the

third cylinder and the relative angular positions of the cranks in order that the

engine may be in complete primary balance.

MODULE 5

PART A

1) Derive the expression for balancing of V engine.

2) Write a short note on primary and secondary balancing.

3) Explain why only a part of the unbalanced force due to reciprocating

masses is balanced by revolving mass.

4) Derive the following expressions, for an uncoupled two cylinder

locomotive engine a. Variation is tractive force ; (b) Swaying couple ;

and (c) Hammer blow.

5) What are in-line engines ? How are they balanced ? It is possible to

balance them completely ?

6) Explain the direct and reverse crank method for determining

unbalanced forces in radial engines.

7) Discuss the balancing of V-engines.

PART B

1) The reciprocating masses of the first three cylinders of a four cylinder engine

are 4.1, 6.2 and 7.4 tonnes respectively. The centre lines of the three cylinders

are 5.2 m, 3.2 m and 1.2 m from the fourth cylinder. If the cranks for all the

cylinders are equal, determine the reciprocating mass of the fourth cylinder

and the angular position of the cranks such that the system is completely

balanced for the primary force and couple. If the cranks are 0.8 m long, the

connecting rods 3.8 m, and the speed of the engine 75 r.p.m. ; find the

maximum unbalanced secondary force and the crank angle at which it occurs.

2) A four cylinder inline marine oil engine has cranks at angular displacement of

90. The outer cranks are 3 m apart and inner cranks are 1.2 m apart. The

inner cranks are placed symmetrically between the outer cranks. The length

of each crank is 450 mm. If the engine runs at 90 r.p.m. and the mass of

reciprocating parts for each cylinder is 900 kg, find the firing order of the

cylinders for the best primary balancing force of reciprocating masses.

Determine the maximum unbalanced primary couple for the best

arrangement.

3) In a four crank symmetrical engine, the reciprocating masses of the two

outside cylinders A and D are each 600 kg and those of the two inside

cylinders B and C are each 900 kg. The distance between the cylinder axes of

A and D is 5.4 metres. Taking the reference line to bisect the angle between

the cranks A and D, and the reference plane to bisect the distance between

the cylinder axes of A and D, find the angles between the cranks and the

distance between the cylinder axes of B and C for complete balance except

for secondary couples. Determine the maximum value of the unbalanced

secondary couple if the length of the crank is 425 mm, length of connecting

rod 1.8 m and speed is 150 r.p.m.

4) A three cylinder radial engine driven by a common crank has the cylinders

spaced at 120. The stroke is 125 mm, length of the connecting rod 225 mm

and the mass of the reciprocating parts per cylinder 2 kg. Calculate the

primary and secondary forces at crank shaft speed of 1200 r.p.m.

5) The pistons of a 60 twin V-engine has strokes of 120 mm. The connecting

rods driving a common crank has a length of 200 mm. The mass of the

reciprocating parts per cylinder is 1 kg and the speed of the crank shaft is

2500 r.p.m. Determine the magnitude of the primary and secondary forces.

6) A twin cylinder V-engine has the cylinders set at an angle of 45, with both

pistons connected to the single crank. The crank radius is 62.5 mm and the

connecting rods are 275 mm long. The reciprocating mass per line is 1.5 kg

and the total rotating mass is equivalent to 2 kg at the crank radius. A balance

mass fitted opposite to the crank, is equivalent to 2.25 kg at a radius of 87.5

mm. Determine for an engine speed of 1800 r.p.m. ; the maximum and

minimum values of the primary and secondary forces due to the inertia of

reciprocating and rotating masses.

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