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DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PROTECTIVE

STRUCTURES
Prof. Marco di Prisco
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano

Master Course in
Civil Engineering for Risk Mitigation
Academic year 2014-2015

Constitutive and design laws of steel , concrete, fibre


reinforced concrete employed in steel, reinforced prestressed concrete structures (4h)

Model Code: design for


sustainability
Concretes

13 October 2014

Level I Method
Comparison of green house gas emission:
material substitution: BREAM (UK), HQE
(France), LEED (USA), CASBEE (Japan), Green
Star (Netherlands)
Level II Method
Environmental Impact Calculation (EIC):
- Measure of Embodied Energy
- Measure of CO2
- Calculation of Global Warming Potential
(GWP)
Level III Method
Full life cycle assessment (LCA), including
durability and maintenance considerations, recyle
and reuse
3

EIC: Environmental Impact


Calculation
- CO2 Emission
- EE = Embodied Energy
Energy consumed in the production of Portland Cement is estimated to be 4.88
MJ/kg and the total energy in the production of steel 23.7 MJ/kg
(Struble and Godfrey (2004)

- GWP = Global Warning Potential


Contribution of CO2 on global warming, calculated through the equivalence of the
effect of greenhouse gas (Elrod, 1999):
for simplicity:
100 year GWP = CO2 + 298 Nox + 25CH4
13 October 2014

Courtesy Joost Walraven

by fib Bulletin 67

STEEL

von Mises - Huber yield criterion

STEEL FOR METALLIC STRUCTURES


For design, the following nominal values can be adopted for the material properties:

Elastic modulus
Transverse elasticity modulus
Poisson ratio
Thermal expansion coifficient
(T< 100C)
density
Steels for flat and hot-rolled long products

The possible supply conditions are related to the manufacturing process used:
crude steel rolling "as rolled
steel rolling normalized
steel thermomechanical rolling
steel with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance (ex Corten)
steel with high tensile strength reclaimed "Quench and tempered"

Hot rolled with open cross section profiles


Nominal thickness of the element

Steel standards

Hot rolled with hollow section profiles


Steel standards

Nominal thickness of the element

= u/y

= u/y

Homogeneous
steel bar ()

= u/y

= u/y

defect
Steel bar

Steel for High Bond bars


L
f yk

f
fsd =
= 0.2k
s
s

f sd
yd =
Es

sd = 1% << su
su 14%K(FeB38k f yk 380MPa)

L = 50mmL( < 5mm)

10
L=
( > 5mm)
11.3 A

ftk 540MPa

su 12%K(FeB44k f yk 430MPa)

ft
k

ftk 430MPa

D. M. 96

su,k > 7.5% zone 1,2,3


1.15 < ft/fy< 1.35
fy,eff/fy,nom < 1.25

B450C
Characteristics
Characteristic yielding strength
Characteristic failure strength

Max. elongation
Mandrel diameter for bend tests at 90 and
subsequent straightening without cracks

Requirements

fractile

B450A
Characteristics
Characteristic yielding strength
Characteristic failure strength

Max. elongation

Mandrel diameter for bend tests at 90 and


subsequent straightening without cracks

Requirements

fractile

Limits of acceptability

Nominal diameter
Tolerance % on cross section
admitted for the use

characteristic

Limit value

minimum
maximum
minimum
minimum

for steel

failure/yielding
failure/yielding
bending / straightening

lack of cracks

for all

duttilit
prova
di piegamento
ductilitymediante
measure
by bending
test
(mm)

D
mandrel
mandrino
FeB38k
FeB44k

12

Piegamento
180
Bending ata180

12-18

Piegamento
e raddrizzamento
bending and
straightening

18-25

10

25 - 30

10

12

(*) a 90 aT=205

(*) after the 90 bend keeps the bar for 30 minutes in boiling water and proceeding, after cooling in air,
to the partial straightening for at least 20 . After the test the specimen shall not exhibit cracks.

In Model Code 2010 :

steel in bars

steel in roll

load

load

displacement

displacement

CEB MC90

Prestressing steel

Ep = 195 - 205 MPa

D.M. 2008

uk 3.5% (MC90)

Control in plant
sn 0.03 fptk e sn 0.04 fp..k
Control on site
at failure (fpt) gmn 1.03 fptk; sn 0.05 fptk
at serv.ice (fpy fp(0.2) fp1) gmn 1.04 fp..k; sn 0.07 fp..k

REINFORCED
CONCRETE

The uniaxial compression test


UNI EN12390-1
max-. aggregate size (mm)
specimen side (mm)

UNI EN12390-3:
planarity error< 0.0006d mm
size tolerance < 0.5%
tolerance shaven face and opposite < 1%d
perpendicularity corners < 0.5mm
tests at 24,72h;7,14,28,90,180,365d
(tests for at least 48h in room at 20 2 C e
RH 95% until 2h before)
0.2 < d/dt < 1MPa/s

Cubic compression test

YES

NO

Resistance classes for normal concrete

Conversion factors of compressive strengths for cubes


and cylinders

Conversion factors of compressive strengths for cylinders


For different slenderness h/d

Strength indexes

Conversion factors for compressive strengths


measured on cubes of different sizes
side
Proposed
index
Conversion factors for compressive strengths
measured on cylinders of different sizes and equal
slenderness h/d = 2.00
slenderness h/d

Proposed
Index h/d

Saenz curve

Sargin curve

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

CC:

x=0 y=0
x = 0 y' = E
x = c1 y = fc
x = c1 y' = 0

k = 1,1

E c1
fc

( )2

c1
c ( ) = fc c1

1 + (k 2)
c1
k

c () = (

2 fc

3
c1

2
c1

) 3 + (

3 fc 2E 2
) + E
2

c1

c1

Uniaxial constitutive model for Concrete

fc1

arc
tg(1000fcd)

c1

1.5

0.7

cu

cu

cu

c1=.002
cu=.0035
fc1 = 0.85 fcd =
0.85fck/c

Stress-strain relation for short-term loading compression MC2010


c

k 2
=

1
+

fc
k
(
)

with:

Parameters of the strain relation:

c
1

c < c ,lim

Bilinear stress-crack opening relation for short-term loading


MC 2010

MC 90

for w w1

ct = f ctm 1 0.85

for w1 < w wc

ct =

w1 = 2

GF
0.15wc
f ctm

w1

0.15 f ctm
( wc w )
wc w1

wc = F

GF
f ctm

F = f ( d max )

for w w1

for w1 < w wc

w1 =

GF
f ctm

ct = f ctm 1 0.80

w1

w
ct = f ctm 0.25 0.05
w1

wc = 5

GF
f ctm

Dependency on maximum aggregate size is not


significant

Biaxial failure domain for concrete

Kupfer et al.
1969

Strength under multiaxial states of stress

Inconsistencies in MC 90:
no continuous transition
between triaxial and
biaxial states of stress
triaxial criteria does not
exactly describe the
uniaxial compressive
strength

1f /f0,2
cm

3f /f cm

0,0
2f /f-1,6
0,0
cm -1,4 -1,2 -1,0 -0,8 -0,6 -0,4 -0,2
-0,2

2f /f cm

0,2

-0,6
-0,8
-1,0

New in MC 2010:
One failure
criteria for all
states of stress

-1,2
triaxial criteria for
biaxial states of stress

-1,4

3f -1,6
/f cm

1f /f cm
MC 90
C12
C20
C30
C40
C50
C60
C70
C80
C90
C100
C110
C120

-0,4
with f cm > 0 and
f cm = f ck + 8 N/mm

1f /f cm

3f /f cm

Nelissen, 1972

cos3 =

P(1,2, 3)

3oct

asse idrostatico

3oct
oct =

cos =

2J 3
3 3 J3
=
2 J 32 / 2
3oct

21 2 3
2 3 J2

2
1
(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2
J2 =
3
9

1
+ 2 + 3
oct = I1 = 1

3
3

= 60

=0
modello a 5 parametri (Willam-Warnke,
1975)

FIP/CEB
Bull.207

Local strength

steel
splitting

A0/A1 320

cd 0.7 A0 40
=
fck
3 A1 fck

Concr.
A0/A1 320
spalling

cd 12.5 40
=
fck
3 fck

u/f

splitting

spalling

In columns with steel liners [O.3274; 11.3.4.2] or in the main


columns [EC8; 5.4.3.2.2. (7)] the action of confinement on
concrete can be considered:

oppure

Which strength?

Material strength
potential strength = compressive strength of concrete
from cubes or cylinders made and matured in the
laboratory according to standard conditions (UNI 6130/1,
6130/2 e 6132)
structural or actual strength = compressive strength
detectable in the completed and matured structure
direct structural strength = testing of samples (cores or
prisms) extracted from the element precast already
produced and matured
indirect structural strength = test sample normalized

matured plant in conditions closer as possible to the


maturation cycle of the prefabricated element

Quality variation due to:


component materials
related mix design
environment conditions (thermo-higrometrical)
occasional adjustements (plant manteinance)
cast execution (compaction, curing)

normal (or Gaussian)


f (x) =

1
2 s

log-normal

(x - x)2
2s

1
e
2x

f (x) =

2
(
)

= ln x

2s 2

f ( )( )

x k' = x ks

per F( x k' ) = 0,05

x k' = x k's

per F( x k' ) = 0,05

x k" = x ks

per F( x k" ) = 0.95

x k" = x + k''s

per F( x k" ) = 0,95

con k = 1,645 .
ks

= 0,05
= 0,10
= 0,15

ks

k' = 1,578
k' = 1,513
k' = 1,450

f(x)

k's

k'' = 1,713
k'' = 1,783
k'' = 1,854

k''s

f(x)
5%

1
0.95

x'k

5%

x = x0

5%

x''k

1
0.95

F(x)

0.50

0.50

0.05

0.05

x'k

5%

x0 x

x''k

F(x)

Reliability index
s

k's
MODELLO
ANALITICO

f(x)
PROBABILITA'
FORMALE

x'0

SENZA
SIGNIFICATO
FISICO

x'k

CODA DA
MODELLO
VALORI
IMPOSSIBILI TRONCARE AFFIDABILE

RANGO DEI VALORI POSSIBILI

x - k' s 1 - k' c
c1 = ' =
=
x 0 x - s 1- c
x 'k

CO NTRO LLO DELLA PROD UZION E CO NTINU ATIVA DEL CA LCESTRUZZO (MOD . U NI 10025/98)
CLASSE

C55

MISCELA R2

CEMEN TO: TIPO I 52.5 R

LIN EA:Planar

DOSE: 400 kg

STABILIMEN TO: Larco Astori - Carvico (BG)


A/C = 0.45

MATURAZIONE: Forz ata a vapore

PROV A

INERTI 1 5 mm

SUPERFL. 3%

0,08

anno : 97

UNIFORMAZ. V ALORI

mese : novembre

Data

Data

RESISTENZE

V ALORI LOTTO MOBILE (21gg)

Prelievo

Prova

R1

R2

fj= 0.83Rm

ETA' g

fj/f

fm

fk

01.12

75,9

76,5

63,2

28

63,2

17

64,1

1,74

61,5

02.12

78,9

79,2

65,6

28

65,6

17

64,2

1,78

61,6

03.12

79,2

78,4

65,4

28

65,4

17

64,3

1,79

61,7

04.12

77,6

79,1

65,0

28

65,0

17

64,4

1,79

61,7

05.12

81,3

79,3

66,6

28

66,6

17

64,6

1,86

61,8

06.12

80,2

81,3

67,0

28

67,0

17

64,9

1,89

62,1

10

09.12

77,1

78,8

64,7

29

1,001

64,6

17

65,0

1,87

62,2

11

09.12

80,2

78,2

65,7

28

65,7

17

65,2

1,83

62,5

12

10.12

79,2

77,6

65,1

28

65,1

17

65,1

1,75

62,6

13

11.12

80,2

80,4

66,6

28

66,6

17

65,2

1,77

62,6

14

12.12

81,2

80,4

67,1

28

67,1

17

65,4

1,80

62,7

1
2

PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE

Prestressed concrete

compatibility
P0

T = const , RH = const

c = p p0
c ,el c ,sh c ,cr = p ,el p0 + p ,rel
c ,el = p ,el ( p0 p ,rel c ,sh c ,cr )

dA +
c

Ac

dAp = N

Ap

Ec Ac c ,el + E p Ap p ,el = N
Ec Ac c ,el + E p Ap ( c ,el + p 0 i ,loss ) = N
i

E
c Ac + c E p Ap c ,el = E p Ap ( p 0 i ,loss ) + N
Ec
i

c ( Ac + p Ap ) = Ap pred0 + N = N pred0 + N
c =

N pred0 + N
Ai

equilibrium

Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Table 2-1 Resistance classes for steel fibres.

Equivalent
diameter
[mm]

Minimum tensile strength


[N/mm2]
R2

R1
1)

2)

1)

2)

Alternated
bending test
All the
class

R3
1)

2)

Rm

Rp0,2

Rm

Rp0,2

Rm

Rp0,2

Rm

Rp0,2

Rm

Rp0,2

Rm

Rp0,2

0.15 df < 400


0.50
0.50 df < 350
0.80
0.80 df 300
1.20

320

480

400

800

720

1080

900

1700

1360

2040

1700

280

450

350

800

640

1040

800

1550

1240

2015

1550

240

390

300

700

560

910

700

1400

1120

1820

1400

1) For straight fibres


2) For shaped fibres

Not failure

CNR DT 204

2.0 mm

0,62

30 mm.

2.0 mm.

140

l / df = 48
fiber content 50kg/m3

lb= l l/4

F
4Vf
lf
F = Nd f l b = 2 d f l b = Vf

d f
df

F = Fy

lf=lcr

5.0
zoom w = 0.20 mm
TRA0 med
TRA4 med
TRA8 med

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
0.00

0.10
displacement w (mm)

0.20

12.0
zoom w = 5.00 mm
FLE0 med
FLE4 med
FLE8 med

8.0
load P (KN)

average tension t (MPa)

4.0

4.0

0.0
0.00

2.50
deflection f (mm)

5.00

Redundant structure behaviour

60

w
440

[kN]

30

60

Vf = 0.8 [%]

Vf = 0 [%]

0
0

by di Prisco & Felicetti, 1997

w [mm]

1 0

Redundant structure behaviour

load
(kN)

Vf = 0.8%

40

0.4%
30

P plain
us
23.4 kN

20
0.4%

rubber

10

sand

plain concrete

0
0

by di Prisco & Felicetti, 2004

0.8%

10

15

displacement wt (mm)

20

P
P
Pcr

crack formation

P
Pcr

crack formation
crack
localization

u
Softening material

Hardening material

Behavior in compression

Reference test
EN 14651
hsp = 125 mm
b = 150 mm

f R, j =
S.L.E.
S.L.U.

fR,1

fR,3

3 Fj l
2 b hsp2

Which difference with plain concrete ?

cement 425:
fly ash:
water
superplast.

472 kg
45 kg
200 l (w/b =0.39)
1.3%

fine sand
coarse sand

0/4 850kg
4/8 886 kg

hooked-end fibres 65/35 50 kg

slump flow diameter: 690 mm


T50
2 sec
V-funnel time (0 min)
3.5 sec
V-funnel time (5 min)
4 sec
L-box (standard)
h2/h1 = 1

Classification

4,33
4,47
3,77

Performance based design

fLK

fR1k

0.5

fR3k

2.5

CMOD (mm)

(5) Fibre reinforcement can substitute (also partially)


conventional reinforcement at ultimate limit state if the
following relationships are fulfilled:
fR1k/fLk > 0.4

Eq. 5.X2

fR3k/fR1k > 0.5

Eq. 5.X3

Which models?

f Fts = 0.45 f R1

fFtu = fR3/3

f Ftu = f Fts

wu

( f Fts 0.5 f R 3 + 0.2 f R1 ) 0


CMOD3

From -w to -

17/32

hardening

fFtu

fFtu

fFtu

fFtu

fFts
softening

wu

rigid-plastic

wu

= w / lcs

Elastic-linear
incrudente

fFtu

Rigid-plastic
rigido-plastico

fFtu

fFts
degradante

fFtu

fFtu

Fu

Fu

18/32

The characteristic structural length


lcs = min{srm, y},
srm

is the average crack spacing

In sections without traditional reinforcement under


bending or under combined tensile flexural and
compressive flexural forces with resulting force external to
the section, y = h is assumed. The same assumption can be
taken for slabs.

Influenza orientamento fibre (by Ferrara et al. 2008)

22/32

Orientation factor
10000

8000

beam T3

beam T2

beam T1

beam L3
beam L2
beam L1

supposed flow lines

beam L2

load (N)

casting
direction

500 mm
150 mm 150 mm 150 mm 50
mm

50 150 mm 150 mm 150 mm


mm

6000
beam L3
beam L1

4000
beam T1
beam T3

2000

beam T 2

COD (mm)

by Ferrara et al., 2009

10

23/32

5.6.7 Orientation factor


fFtsd,mod=fFtsd/K

fFtud,mod=fFtud/K

Isotropic fibre distribution is assumed


For favourable effects
For unfavourable effects

K = 1.0
K < 1.0
K > 1.0

Special tests can be used to determine the effect of fibre


orientation due to casting and compaction in real structural
elements, by using structural specimens which better
reproduce the material in the structural elements.